soil that different soil types will be identified and possibly mapped out and its properties studied with a view to maintaining or sustaining the fertility of a fertile soil and improving the productive capacity of a less fertile soil. The importance of this study is that information obtained will enrich our understanding of the soil characteristics and types in relation to topographic or geomorphic features in the arboretum of ForestryResearch Institute of Nigeria (FRIN). Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the influence of topography on soil profile characteristics and the relationship between different topographic positions and soil fertility variation in the study area.
There is limited published literature that documents the gen- eric factors that affect the success of ODA-funded forestryresearch projects. As Blamey and Mackenzie (2007) have noted, context can be the key to uncovering the circumstances in which, and the reasons why, a particular intervention works. Because each project inevitably faces its own unique set of opportunities and constraints, it is often dif ﬁ cult to de ﬁ ne which factors are unique and context dependent, and which are more widely applicable. There are many external factors that can play a role in determining the ultimate impact (or lack of impact) for any given project. Some examples from the literature include the availability of the technologies, such as improved germ- plasm (Franzel et al., 2004); dissemination of knowledge in a form appropriate to the users (Thangata and Alavalapati, 2003); their capacity to take risks (Mercer, 2004); market incentives (Pattanayak et al., 2003); security of land tenure (Suyanto et al., 2005) and their access to ancillary resources such as skills and ﬁ nance (Farrington et al., 1997). Forestryresearch typically involves complex systems involving biophysical and social ele- ments and which, compared with agricultural systems, require much longer time frames to produce the desired products (Henderson, 2000). For forestryresearch projects undertaken in developing countries, achieving positive impacts is likely to depend on multiple factors, which can be interdependent (Byron, 2001).
The current version of the classification manual, Version VII, maintains the three-dimensional classification scheme, but one of the categories has undergone a major change. Research Problem Area has been renamed Knowledge Area. The new Knowledge Areas have modified or expanded definitions, additional codes, and other enhancements to accommodate the broad focus of research, higher education, and extension work sponsored by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, the agency that maintains the Current Research Information System. This change to Knowledge Area is consistent with the CSREES mission to advance knowledge for agriculture, the environment, human health and well-being, and
20. Ariwaodo JO, Adeniji KA, Akinyemi OD. The vascular flora on asamagbe stream bank, forestryresearch institute of Nigeria (FRIN) premises, Ibadan, Nigeria. Ann Biol Res 2012;3:1757-63. 21. Soladoye MO, Ikotun T, Chukwuma EC, Ariwaodo JO,
outcome of other elements and indicators. Community forests located in the Middle Hills and High Mountains regions of Nepal generally perform well across the various governance indicators used, while a lower level of performance was observed in Terai region. However the research finds that ecological zone is not a determining factor of good governance; instead, socio-economic factors are found to shape the success of community forestry governance and outcomes. In addition, the research reveals that external agencies actually enhance community forest governance and outcomes as a result of synergy, interaction and cross-fertilization of knowledge between community forestry participants, government officials and other stakeholders. It is also the case that the better a community forest is governed, the more it flourishes and the wealthier it becomes. However, the distribution of the wealth and capital generated by a community forest remains a concern as the benefits are not being shared with the wider community.
This article provides the reader with a more comprehensive view of the Forest Concession as an element of innovation. If thought from the elements appropriate to the public forests will undoubtedly promote local sustainable development. By instituting the law and its effectiveness as a public policy, the forest concession proposes innovative elements that require control and management tools with the same profile. As well, dialogue with the various actors involved in such a project requires innovative elements and situations. The monitoring, planning and execution of this type of project requires the participation and leadership of several actors, and they are also innovative governance instruments. In addition, supranational elements, such as environmental issues, require the construction of indicators, regulatory, organizational and normative, structured on an innovative and dynamic matrix. Thus, the research results point to the need for innovation and research projects to be congruent with the programs and projects related to Sustainable Development. More than this congruence, it is necessary that the governmental actions present themselves in a holistic way, accentuating the transversalities and connections between governmental policies and business actions. Regarding the Forest concessions, the Law that regulates the Management and Management of forests already indicate, in their various articles, the axiological principles that regulate the search of human rights with economic development. All this built on a sustainable growth base that guarantees the maintenance of biodiversity. Thus, the forest concession is an instrument of innovation in the use of the public forest, which adopts, or can adopt, one or more methods of environmental innovation, with the concession policy being the objective of sustainable development. If thought from the elements appropriate to the public forests will undoubtedly promote local sustainable development.
The election of women in the key positions of CFUGs is itself a challenge for women and marginalized communities. CFUGs have been recognized as one of the most resourceful and reputed institutions at the local level in Nepal. Continuation of their tenure after election is a big challenge for women leaders. The Lakhana CFUG of Bardia and Sundari CFUG of Nawalparasi are examples where women elected to treasurer and vice chairperson positions of CFUG respectively, unfortunately quit their tenure within a year. The reasons behind their terminations provide lessons for practitioners. Personal reasons include: limited experience and knowledge on legal, administrative and procedural matters of community forestry and inadequate experience and confidence in their leadership roles. External factors include lack of adequate time to make a balance between household and community roles, inadequate support from family and colleagues, as well as the risks and threats associated with their job. These social and political barriers, as well as the pre-existing advantages that men as a gender enjoy in terms of greater access to economic resources and public decision-making (Agarwal 1997) need to be addressed through policy in order for women to become effective agents of change.
The academic-practitioner divide arises for two reasons: the kinds of research in which each group is interested do not always match and the ways in which each group communicates and transfers that knowledge is often very different. For academics, research is usually discipline- oriented and propelled by current debates in a particular academic field, whereas practitioners’ research priorities change often to reflect pressing needs. Academic research tends to look more at broader issues in a flexible manner over the long-term in order to find generalisable rules to bolster theory, while practitioners are more concerned with studying specific issues within a narrow time frame, striving for research that produces utilisable results (Nyden & Wiewel, 1992; Roper, 2002; Cottrell & Parpart, 2006). In general academics have difficulty thinking about the practical applications of their research (Cortes, 1998). As Cottrell & Parpart (2006, p. 18) put it, “Academics often assume knowledge for its own sake has value, while [practitioners] are less convinced of this point.”
Nowadays, management and regulation of natural resources like agriculture, fisheries, forestry and wildlife is one of the popular topics in research. The evolution of humankind is largely dependent on the quality of the environ- ment and the resources it provides; but numerous human-induced factors, and climate change may drastically alter the conditions of human sustainabil- ity. This paper deals with effect of numerous human-induced activities on the depletion of forestry resources and wildlife population with habitat complex- ity. A nonlinear mathematical model is proposed and analyzed. In modeling process, we assume that the growth rate of wildlife population wholly de- pends on forestry biomass. It is depleted by human-induced activities. Local stability analysis of the mathematical model along with the persistence of the system is checked by using theory of nonlinear ordinary differential equations and Butler-McGhee lemma. Analytical results obtained are justified numeri- cally through numerical simulation. Important parameters are investigated and variation of variables with change in these parameters is determined.
which organizations learn and adapt to changes in the environment in order to survive and be competitive on the market. Therefore, organizations need to be flexible and adapt to the changing environment. From the results obtained by this research it is evident that all forest enterprises in Macedonia have more or less been developing and adapting to changes of the environment. Starting with the first federal forest organization ‘’FESUMA’’, established in 1945, which was replaced by the newly-formed administration on forest industrial companies after a few years. Later, with the decentralisation of federal administration and the introduction of the new economic system, the main forestry administration was transformed into the Federal Administration of Forestry and remained so until 1965 when the Secretariat of Forestry at the Executive Council of NRM was formed. In the middle of 1968, the Secretariat of Forestry transformed into the Secretariat of Agriculture and Forestry of NRM.
Research on sensitivity and pervasive as in newspeak to the spread of demand to production value, in many cases, increase the demand stimulates supply side but also stimulate imports without spreading to added value,further research shows how spillover of some industries (4 sectors) spreads to production but also to value-added (GDP = ∑ value added at base price + product tax), how to import?An industry that is considered to be of importance to the economy is one that has a spillover index, high sensitivity but must spread to low imports and spread to high added value.Table 3 shows that of the 4 sectors with high indices and high sensitivity, only agriculture, forestry and seafood groups meet this requirement.Most of the manufacturing and processing industries, although having high indices and high sensitivities, have strongly stimulated imports and spreaded to added values much lower than the average.This shows that the manufacturing and processing industry in Vietnam is mainly processing and increasingly higher levels of processing.Another interesting thing is that most of the service sector index, low import diffuse and spread to the added value is higher than the average, but these industries have spread index and relatively low sensitivity.To improve this issue can offer important solutions if VietnamIncreasing the auxiliary products for manufacturing and processing industry groups to meet the input for service groups and the dancing industry must also develop to meet the needs of other sectors in the economy.Since that would make the sector linkages raised through the spread and increased sensitivity, thereby creating a strong momentum of economic development of the country.
Publishing activity represents an important contribution to disseminating scientific knowledge. For example Forest Research Institute Zvolen publishes periodicals and non- periodicals as Lesnicke studie, Polovnicke studie, Lesnicke informacie), reviewed scientific journals and publications (Forestry Journal, Vedecke prace of FRI Zvolen, Acta Instituti Forestalis Zvolen, Folia Venatoria), scientific and technical works from various events (proceedings), professional forestry news, results of research and their implementation in forest practice as well as advertising brochures. Researchers publish their papers in scientific and technical national and foreign journals. Results of research are presented also on the web site of Forest Research Institute, on CDs and other.
From the result obtained, the FUAM Forestry Nursery is rich in insect species composition when compared with the URF. However, seedlings were attacked by major insect pest unless drastic measures are applied to mitigate its infestation in the nursery. This is the first effort in exploring the insect’s wealth of University of Agriculture, Makurdi. The present list of insects species is not exhaustive and so further exploration of insects species be continued to update this checklist. It is recommend that management strategies towards conservation of both flora and insects species should be intensified in the campus at large and at the same time device possible ways of curbing the menace posed by these pests in other to achieve the set goal(s) of the establishment, thereby promoting healthy seedling production.
Kenji IIYAMA was awarded a Doctorate degree in Agriculture from the University of Tokyo (Japan) and is a Professor Emeritus of the University of Tokyo, Japan. He is also an Adjunct Professor of the Institute of Advanced Studies of the United Nations University. His basic expertise was on forest products, and present interest is in global carbon circulation. He worked at the University of Tokyo, Japan, and at CSIRO and La Trobe University in Australia. Curently, he is the President of the Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences.
The data about the num ber o f deaths in accidents w ith agriculture and forestry tractors divided by reasons for accidents w ere obtained on the M inistry o f the interior. In these data there are som e difficulties. First, by years the structure o f the database for accidents w ere changing and w ith this developm ent also the distribution by causes w as changing by the num ber and by the content. B y years the num ber o f causes w as increasing. The second problem that occurs here is the cause nam ed “other” . In this rubric w as installed a big num ber o f accidents (in the period 2002 - 2005 alm ost 47% ), that a little bit spoil the picture o f distribution o f accidents by causes. The m ost likely is this the inconsequentiality o f the police at the evaluation o f the causes for accidents and for not enough o f the attention for the accidents respectively. This confirm s also the com parison o f the reports o f the accidents that are w ritten by the Slovene police officers and those w ritten by the D utch officers. In the N etherlands is every such report like an expertise w ith very accurate description o f the situation and the
Selection criteria listed in this paper should be a basis for the selection criteria used in urban green space programs. Properties related to the urban sit- uation are related to stresses caused by social val- ues, recreation and consoling. The economy values are related to production of food and energy and production of wood. In addition, aesthetic values are important selection criteria. The priority rank- ing of the selection criteria depends on the envi- ronment (ecology criterion) wherein the plants are to be used. The contribution that urban forestry makes to the social environment and the role trees play in land values. Safety includes the selection of trees that have the life forms that will not cause hazards to traffic, pedestrians and infrastructure. Economic values of green space are not so impor- tant at this study. The aesthetic value of urban for- estry is less important at this research.