religiosity, including: abortion attitudes (Fawcett, Andrews, & Lester, 2000); alcohol attitudes (Francis, Fearn, & Lewis, 2005), altruism (Eckert & Lester, 1997); conservatism (Lewis & Maltby, 2000); dissociation (Dorahy & Lewis, 2001); dogmatism (Francis, 2001; Francis & Robbins, 2003); gender orientation (Francis & Wilcox, 1996, 1998; Francis, 2005); general health (Francis, Robbins, Lewis, Quigley, & Wheeler, 2004); intelligence (Francis, 1998); obsessionality (Lewis, 1996; Maltby, 1997); paranormal belief (Williams, Francis, & Robbins, 2006); prosocial values (Schludermann, Schludermann, & Huynh, 2000); psychological adjustment (Schludermann, Schludermann, Needham, & Mulenga, 2001); psychological health (Francis & Burton, 2007; Francis, Robbins, ap Sion, Lewis, & Barnes, 2007); psychological wellbeing (Francis, Hills, Schludermann, & Schludemann, 2008); purpose in life (French & Joseph, 1999); and science attitudes (Francis & Greer, 2001). In order to test whether the growing body of evidence regarding the correlates, antecedents and consequences of attitudes toward religion (established in a Christian context by means of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity) also held true in a Jewish context, Francis and Katz (2007) developed a comparable instrument, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism. In order to achieve a proper comparability between the two instruments the attempt was made to translate each of the original 24 items in a way appropriate for a Hebrew speaking Jew living in Israel. The psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed on a sample of 618 Hebrew-speaking undergraduate students attending Bar-Ilan University.
The 24-item Likert scale, originally published by Francis (1978a), contains both negative and positive items concerned with an affective response to five components of the Christian faith accessible to and recognised by both children and adults, namely God, Jesus, bible, prayer, and church. Each item is assessed on a five- point scale (agree strongly, agree, not certain, disagree, disagree strongly), producing a range of scores from 24 to 120. The reliability and validity of the scale have been supported by studies among school pupils in England (Francis, 1987, 1989; Lewis, Cruise, McGuckin, & Francis, 2006; Lewis, Cruise, & Lattimer, 2007), Kenya (Fulljames & Francis, 1987), Nigeria (Francis & McCarron, 1989), Northern Ireland (Francis & Greer, 1990; Greer & Francis, 1991) and Scotland (Gibson, 1989; Gibson & Francis, 1989). Another series of studies have supported the reliability and validity of the scale among adults in Australia and Canada (Francis, Lewis, Philipchalk, Brown, & Lester, 1995), England (Francis & Stubbs, 1987; Francis, 1992a), the Republic of Ireland (Malbty, 1994), Northern Ireland (Lewis & Malbty, 1997), South Africa (Francis, Kerr, & Lewis, 2005), and the USA (Lewis & Maltby, 1995). In addition to the full 24-item form of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity, a seven-item short form has been developed and tested among primary school pupils (Francis, 1992b), secondary school pupils (Francis, Greer, & Gibson, 1991) and adults (Francis, 1993; Francis, Lewis, Philipchalk, Lester, & Brown, 1995; Maltby & Lewis, 1997; Lewis, Shevlin, Lloyd, & Adamson, 1998; Adamson, Shevlin, Lloyd, & Lewis, 2000; Lewis, Cruise, & McGuckin, 2005).
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subjective correlates of prayer among those who do the praying. For example, one strand of this tradition has focused on the relationship between prayer and purpose in life among children and young people. Research has demonstrated that those who pray more frequently report higher levels of purpose of life than those who never pray (Francis, 2005; Francis & Burton, 1994; Francis & Evans, 1996). A second strand of this tradition has focused on prayer and school- related attitudes. Research has demonstrated that those who pray hold more positive attitudes toward school (Francis, 1992; Montgomery & Francis, 1996; Robbins, Babington, & Francis, 2003). A third strand of this tradition has focused on prayer and social values. Research has demonstrated that those who pray more frequently hold higher levels of prosocial attitudes (Francis & Robbins, 2006). Previous studies have not, however, concentrated specifically on exploring the relationship between prayer and happiness.
carefully scrutinised and debated by several Muslim scholars of Islam until agreement was reached on 23 Islam-related items which mapped closely onto the area assessed by the parent instrument. The psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed on 381 Muslim adolescents in England. Subsequently the instrument was tested among a sample of 1,199 Muslim adolescents in Kuwait (Francis, Sahin, & Al-Ansari, 2006; Francis, Sahin, & Al- Failakawi, 2008). In an independent initiative Ok (2011) developed the Religious Attitude Scale (Islam) that has a lot in common with the principles underpinning the Francis family of attitudinal measures. This is an eight-item instrument designed to combine two items for each of four sub-measures characterised as cognition, emotion, behaviour, and relationship with God. Indeed some of the items closely reflect the intention of items included in the original Francis measure.
The experimental approach of evaluating the performance of Francis turbine is costly as well as time consuming. Conversely CFD approach is faster and large amount of results can be produced at virtually no added cost. The CFD approach for the prediction of efficiency of Francis turbine was developed with accomplishment of analysis of Francis Turbine performance. CFD analysis shows the distribution of various parameters like Pressure, velocity at various points along the blade profile by using boundary conditions of pressure and mass flow rate at inlet and outlet. It can be concluded that CFD approach assists in reduction in cost of model testing and saving in time which leads to cost-effective analysis and may enhance the viability of hydropower development.
Also in the conclusion to their paper, Williams and Francis (in press) recognised that a major limitation with their presentation concerned the reliance on examining the transparent bivariate association between religion and marital status. They argued that future research concerned with extracting from the database further insights into the nature of the links between religion (self-assigned religious affiliation and self- reported church attendance) and family status (being married, cohabiting or divorced) would benefit from employing multi-variate models of analysis. Responding to this invitation, in the next two papers in the series, by Village, Williams, and Francis (under review a, under review b) employed multi-level analyses and confirmed the robust nature of the association.