Numerous product bundle apparatuses and bundles are utilized in colleges and scholarly establishments for instructing and learning reason. Numerous elective determinations are out there in the present market anyway the majority of them are extravagant. The way toward picking the right apparatus for instructive utilize might be a test errand in light of its high esteem. Inside the ongoing years, the selection of Free and Open source programming bundle hyperbolic rapidly, nations like Russia manufacture the work of free and open source programming bundle required in its whole parts though others are inside the strategy for receiving FOSS. The appropriation of FOSS contrasts from one nation to an alternate and from one foundation to an alternate however the most motivation to the present move is value decrease. For instance, instructive movement foundations in created countires consider the selection of Open source Programs like Moodle extra adaptable and sparing. Notwithstanding cost decrease colleges and scholastic establishments will increase pleasant edges from embracing FOSS in its courses because of its alternatives that encapsulate expanding processing power for understudies, opportunity to make and convey duplicates to others with none issues in regards to programming bundle legitimateness, access to source code and security issues.
A couple of terms, such as proprietary, free and General Public License (GPL), are often used with respect to open source software. It is to see that the terms free software and open sources software seems to cover different domains despite their large overlap. The opposite domain of free and open source is the domain of proprietary software. The domain of the latter encloses terms such as closed software and shareware. The existence of the three different domains of free, open source and proprietary software requires that at least two of these domains are clearly defined, while the third domain covers those software that is excluded from the others. Such a definition has been setup for free software by the Free Software Foundation (FSF, www.fsf.org) and for open source software by the Open Source Initiative. According to the FSF, software can be labelled as free software if the associated license conditions fulfill the Free Software Definition (Smith, 2008), which grants four freedoms:
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Abstract. The work presented in this paper is motivated by the need to estimate the security eﬀort of consuming Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) components within a proprietary software supply chain of a large European software vendor. To this extent we have identiﬁed three diﬀer- ent cost models: centralized (the company checks each component and propagates changes to the diﬀerent product groups), distributed (each product group is in charge of evaluating and ﬁxing its consumed FOSS components), and hybrid (only the least used components are checked in- dividually by each development team). We investigated publicly available factors (e. g., development activity such as commits, code size, or fraction of code size in diﬀerent programming languages) to identify which one has the major impact on the security eﬀort of using a FOSS component in a larger software product.
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affective trust were measured by adapting scales from a previous empirical study which measured interpersonal trust in open source projects (Stewart & Gosain 2002). The effectiveness of free/open source projects was viewed through the theoretical lens of Hackman’s (1990) group effectiveness theory which consists of three dimensions: group output, group cohesion and psychological benefits to group members. The measures of the three dimensions of group effectiveness were adapted to the context of virtual communities in open source projects by adapting a number of existing scales from previous empirical studies which examined various dimensions of group effectiveness (Denison 1996; Janz 1999; Carless & De Paola 2000; Lurey & Raisinghani 2001; Stewart & Gosain 2001, 2002; Pescosolido 2003) The survey instrument was pilot tested on a group of thirty academics and IT practitioners who had knowledge of or had participated in open source software development. Based their comments and suggestions, a number of adjustments and changes were made to final questionnaire. The targeted respondents were asked to focus on a particular current and recent free/open source project when answering the online questionnaire. The effective response rate was approximately 18 percent after the sample size had been adjusted for unreachable email addresses. In all, 785 surveys were returned, of which 635 were usable. One hundred and fifty three surveys were discarded for a variety of reasons. These were incomplete surveys where there were too many missing responses to individual questions.
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Internet has been observed as a necessary condition for F/OSS to evolve along with cooperative customs which could allow co-developers to be attracted . Crowston et al. have based their study of understanding Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) success on information system (IS) research in order to identify processes that enhance the performance of FLOSS development teams. They observed that success indicators in traditional closed software development were influenced by ‘use environment’ like system quality, use, user satisfaction and organizational impacts. They further highlighted the fact that FLOSS success tends to look more at the ‘development environment’ which is publicly available . The studies on F/OSS development process have mainly focused on the participants and the processes involved in this form of development to understand the success of this model. The research areas have been categorized into three main perspectives: Developers, Metrics and Tools .
Geert Hofstede presented statistical evidence purporting to identify intercultural co- operation and its importance for survival in his scholarship work “cultures and organizations”. This article presents a study, which describes how differences in national culture can affect or influence the participation of programmers who produce open source software (OSS). The four important dimensions of national cultures considered by Hofstede model namely Power Distance Index (PDI), Individualism Index (IAV), Masculinity-Feminity Index (MAS) and Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) are selected and correlated with the Geographical Distribution of Developers Index (GDD) for testing the above hypothesis. It is suggested that there exists some correlation between the cultural factors and the demographics of programmers who participate in the open source movement. Finally, the manner in which these cultural factors impinge on the incentives of the programmers who are engaged in open source movement by writing codes for free are also discussed.
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The commercial software are predominantly “closed source” which means the code cannot be accessed or modified and they may, in some cases, come at a rela- tively high price with ongoing licensing fees to maintain their use. These systems are thus often priced out of the reach of the resource-constrained areas, particularly within developing countries, which lead them into seek- ing open-source alternatives . The wide spread free of cost availability, freedom to read, redistribution and modification facilities have made the open-source pack- ages as feature rich alternatives to proprietary software packages . These packages can help the implementa- tion of mapping and spatial analysis tools in a large number of private and public firms, especially in those small organizations that cannot afford proprietary soft- ware’s cost, complexity, training cost and special re- quirements. The market of open-source geospatial pack- ages is growing  and the quality of these packages is improving with the strong and free collaboration between a large numbers of developers from all around the world.
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The license adopted by an open source software is associated with its success in terms of attractiveness and maintenance of an active ecosystem of users, bug reporters, developers, and sponsors because what can and cannot be done with the software and its derivatives in terms of improvement and market distribution depends on legal terms there specified. By knowing this licensing effect through scientific publications and their experience, project managers became able to act strategically, loosening up the restrictions associated with their source code due to sponsor interests, for example; or the contrary, tightening restrictions up to guarantee source code openness, adhering to the “ forever free ” strategy. But, have project managers behaved strategically like that, changing their projects license? Up to this paper, we did not know if and what types of changes in these legal allowances project managers have made and, more importantly, whether such managerial interventions are associated with variations in intervened project attractiveness (i.e., related to their numbers of web hits, downloads and members). This paper accomplishes these two goals and demonstrates that: 1) managers of free and open source software projects do change the distribution rights of their source code through a change in the (group of) license(s) adopted; and 2) variations in attractiveness are associated with the strategic choice of a licensing schema. To reach these conclusions, a unique dataset of open source projects that have changed license was assembled in a comparative form, analyzing intervened projects over its monthly periods of different licenses. Based on a sample of more than 3500 active projects over 44 months obtained from the FLOSSmole repository of Sourceforge.net data, 756 projects that had changed their source code distribution allowances and restrictions were identified and analyzed. A dataset on these projects ’ type of changes was assembled to enable a descriptive
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This paper describes the software package libDAI, a free & open source C++ library that provides implementations of various exact and approximate inference methods for graphical models with discrete-valued variables. libDAI supports directed graphical models (Bayesian networks) as well as undirected ones (Markov random fields and factor graphs). It offers various approximations of the partition sum, marginal probability distributions and maximum probability states. Parameter learning is also supported. A feature comparison with other open source software packages for approximate inference is given. libDAI is licensed under the GPL v2+ license and is available at http://www.libdai.org.
Benkler (2006) argues that, as engagement with FOSS initiatives and process expanded, encompassing more participants and producing more of the basic tools of Internet connectivity, there was an attempt to render the process apolitical. This was driven in part by Eric Raymond, in his book The Cathedral and the Bazaar (Raymond, 2001), who was concerned that use of the word “free” might be too ambiguous and consequently “spook corporate types”. Stallman has attempted to clarify this with his oft-quoted epithet “Free as in ‘free speech’, not free beer” (Stallman and Gay, 2002; Williams, 2002). The depoliticisation of FOSS created a schism between the free software movement (of which Richard Stallman can be characterised as unofficial prophet) and “open source”, which has become a generalised term for peer development/production/access to code/data, best described by Raymond (2001). Benkler argues that depoliticisation enabled FOSS to emerge from the fringes of the software world as a practical alternative to proprietary, enclosed models.
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Abstract - A software can be described in terms of its characteristics. These characteristics can be further subdivided into sub-characteristics and their corresponding attributes. The basic idea generally remains the same i.e. to analyse the software in terms of its working, performance, cost and complexity. All these aspects lead to the software evaluation. Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) is no exception in this regard.The basic idea behind carrying out this research endeavour was to analyse FOSS in terms of its important characteristics likeDeploybility and Maintainability. The purpose of such study was to establish the association between these two vital characteristics empirically. Apart from this, two very important issues related to FOSS, were also taken into account. It was tried to find out how and what help FOSS professionals seek when they encounter some problem in their routine or specialized tasks. Another matter of concern was to know if people involved in FOSS do require some training sort of activity for the betterment of their FOSS related activities. The survey results signify that seeking additional knowledge through one way or the other does improve proficiency. The probable dependency of the two characteristics on each other was also established.
Free and Open Source software has had major impact on the computer industry. Free and Open Source software or FOSS allows the different groups to share their source code. Open source projects are developed by students as well as developers. Some of the best examples are MySQL, relational database, the Apache Web Server and the Sendmail mail transport agent. It has made life easy enabling us to develop applications pertaining to our requirements. We can use other applications by modifying their basic codes, thus enabling power into our hands. There is a scope in developing applications based on cyber security. It is easier and faster to process information. The sudden success and major adoption of this new and innovative software development strategy has raised many questions, attracted the interest of academics in a variety of disciplines and promoted interdisciplinary research. Licensed software guarantees unrestricted use, access to the source code, and the right to modify and to distribute source code. Free Software is associated with a strong philosophical focus on freedom, adherents of the open source movement stress features of the software, such as high quality. FOSS is now used in many areas, such as the Internet.
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IT system development, integration, deployment, and administration benefit significantly from free and open source software (FOSS) tools and services. Affordability has been a compelling reason for adopting FOSS in computing curricula and equipping computing labs with support infrastructure. Using FOSS systems and services, however, is just the first step in taking advantage of how FOSS development principles and practices can impact student learning in IT degree programs. Above all, FOSS development of IT systems requires changes to how students, instructors, and other contributors work collaboratively and openly and get involved and invested in project activities.
The second, more advanced course is aimed at PhD students and highly skilled MS students. The focus is on working with 3D rasters, time series, dynamic models and simulations and multiple return LiDAR data. This course has a stronger focus on the advanced applications of free and open source GIS and GRASS GIS in particular. Programming (scripting) skills are useful, but not required. The first half of the course is led by the instructor, and the second half is led by students who have to prepare both a lecture and a working assignment on a topic of their choice while making sure that the other students in the class can successfully complete the assignment. Based on the students’ interests, the topics change each year. In Figures 5 and 6a, students present their data and analysis in the Hunt Library Teaching and Visualization Lab and develop applications for the Tangible Landscape system. The course is available at http://courses.ncsu.edu/mea592/common/GIST_MEA592004.html.
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Kleene is a high-level programming language, based on the OpenFst library, for constructing and manipulating finite-state acceptors and transducers. Users can program using reg- ular expressions, alternation-rule syntax and right-linear phrase-structure grammars; and Kleene provides variables, lists, functions and familiar program-control syntax. Kleene has been approved by SAP AG for release as free, open-source code under the Apache License, Version 2.0, and will be available by Au- gust 2012 for downloading from http:// www.kleene-lang.org. The design, im- plementation, development status and future plans for the language are discussed.
Table 5: Evaluation results for both directions. Free rides are those unknown words which are identical in both the source and target language. Although they do not cause a degradation in translation quality, it is relevant to take them into account when evaluating the system. Unknown words are included as an indication of na¨ıve coverage over the test sets. For brevity, we refer to the languages by their ISO 639-1 codes: es for Spanish, and an for Aragonese.
As a second alternative one can also prototype directly in a language that gives full control over memory manage- ment like C or C++, where the programmer can explicitly decide when to allocate and free memory chunks. Here, OpenCV  that focuses on computer vision tasks in 2D images, and the insight toolkit (ITK)  could be used as a basis. Especially the latter is very well suited for bio-medical image processing. It is provided under a per- missive license, comes with an in-depth documentation, is backed by a commercial company, Kitware, and enjoys a large user base. However, various reasons exist why an alternative to prototyping in C++ by using, e.g., ITK might be sought for: Prototyping on a change code - compile - run basis is very time consuming because compiling C++ code is notoriously slow , especially when dealing with heavily templated code (like in ITK) that requires that the implementation of most algorithms is provided by includ- ing C++ header files that need to be processed in each compilation run, even though they do not change when the prototype algorithm implemented in the main com- pilation unit changes. In addition, developing in C++ is quite challenging for researchers inexperienced in soft- ware development.
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to the software developed, core members are vital to project development. On the other hand, even though they contribute only sporadically, peripheral members provide bug reports, suggestions and critical expertise that are fundamental for innovation . In addition, the per- iphery is the source of new core members [12, 13], so maintaining a strong periphery is important to the long- term success of a project. Amrit and van Hillegersberg  examined core-periphery movement in open source pro- jects and concluded that a steady movement toward the core is beneficial to a project, while a shift away from the core is not. But how communication among core and per- iphery predicts project success has yet to be investigated systematically, a gap that this paper addresses.
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In addition to the financial savings, FOSS contributes to scientific knowledge freedom in computational science (CS)  and is increasingly rewarded in the science-policy interface within the emerging paradigm of open science [5–8]. Since complex computational science applications may be affected by software uncertainty [4,9–11], FOSS may help to mitigate part of the impact of software errors by CS community- driven open review, correction and evolution of scientific code [10,12–15]. The continental scale of EC science-based policy support implies wide networks of scientific collaboration. Thematic information systems also may benefit from this approach within reproducible  integrated modelling . This is supported by the EC strategy on FOSS: ”for the development of new information systems, where deployment is foreseen by parties outside of the EC infrastructure, [F]OSS will be the preferred choice and in any case used whenever possible” .
Open-source software (OSS) resources tend to be- come de-facto standards by virtue of their avail- ability and popular use. Resources include tok- enization rules and stop word lists, whose precise definitions are essential for reproducible and in- terpretable models. These resources can be se- lected somewhat arbitrarily by OSS contributors, such that their popularity within the community may not be a reflection of their quality, universal- ity or suitability for a particular task. Users may then be surprised by behaviors such as the word computer being eliminated from their text analy- sis due to its inclusion in a popular stop list.