Free radical scavenging capacity

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ANTIOXIDANT AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING CAPACITY OF PHENOLIC EXTRACT FROM RUSSULA LAUROCERASI

ANTIOXIDANT AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING CAPACITY OF PHENOLIC EXTRACT FROM RUSSULA LAUROCERASI

Some members of Russulaceae family have already been assessed for potent antioxidant activity such as Russula virescens, Russula delica and antimicrobial activity like R. delica [15, 16]. But there are no conclusive reports on chemical composition and antioxidant activities about Russula laurocerasi, a well-known mycorrhizal fungus, which is used as food in West Bengal, India. So this study was focused on the antioxidant activity of phenol rich fraction obtained from R. laurocerasi by their ability to scavenge free radicals. The contents of antioxidant components were also determined.
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ANTIOXIDANT AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING CAPACITY OF EXTENSIVELY USED MEDICINAL PLANT OF PUNICA GRANATUM

ANTIOXIDANT AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING CAPACITY OF EXTENSIVELY USED MEDICINAL PLANT OF PUNICA GRANATUM

Overproduction of reactive species or free-radicals may cause damage to the biomolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipid peroxidation in living cells leading to mutagenic changes cell death and tissue damage are occurred [5]. Consequently, antioxidants are important to many health benefits. Compounds of antioxidants thus slow down or delay in the process of oxidation. In the early stage, antioxidant compounds may slow down the formation of free-radicals [6]. Several synthetic drugs were widely used, such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole are extremely effective in their role-like antioxidants [7]. Although, use in the food products contain failing off due to their instability and promoters of carcinogenesis and they have been reported to cause atherosclerosis, cell damage, inflammation, tissue toxicity in both animals and humans [8,9]. Topical finding clearly illustrates that the plant foods are rich in the natural antioxidants which play an essential role in the prevention of degenerative diseases [10]. Medicinal plants have a capable of synthesizing and storing the biochemical compounds also known as secondary metabolites which can be extracted and used as medium for various diseases [11]. Thus, more than 80,000 species of plants have therapeutic uses [12]. The most of the medicinal plants are studied for their antioxidant activity. Food, which is rich in natural antioxidants when consumed, are associated
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Effect of solvent extraction system on the antioxidant activity of some selected wild leafy vegetables of Meghalaya state in India

Effect of solvent extraction system on the antioxidant activity of some selected wild leafy vegetables of Meghalaya state in India

antioxidant activities by using free radical 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging method, ABTS radical scavenging ability, reducing power capacity, estimation of total phenolic content, flavonoid content and flavonol content. The result showed that the total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols of the different extracts of the investigated samples ranged from 9.52 ± 3.66 - 82.43 ± 1.25 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry extract, 19.64 ± 0.19 -67.99±0.50 mg rutin equivalent /g dry extract and 9.73 ± 1.12 to 128.15 ± 1.38 mg quercetin equivalent /g dry extract respectively. Furthermore the plant extracts exhibited good free radical scavenging capacity. The solvent systems used were benzene, chloroform, acetone and methanol. The different levels of antioxidant activities were found in the solvent systems used. The results indicate that these wild edible vegetables could be utilized as natural antioxidant.
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IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF MANGO GINGER RHIZOME

IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF MANGO GINGER RHIZOME

1742 molecule of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine is characterised as a stable free radical by virtue of the delocalisation of the spare electron over the molecule as a whole. The proton transfer reaction of the DPPH • free radical by a scavenger causes a decrease in absorbance at 517 nm, which can be followed by a common spectrophotometer set in the visible region. The effect of antioxidants on DPPH • is thought to be due to their hydrogen donating ability (Sindhu and Abraham, 2006). DPPH radical scavenging activity of plant extract of Mango ginger and standard as ascorbic acid are presented in Table 1. The DPPH radical was widely used to evaluate the free-radical scavenging capacity of antioxidants (Nuutila et al., 2003). The plant extract exhibited a significant dose dependent inhibition of DPPH activity. The potential of L-ascorbic acid to scavenge DPPH radical is directly proportional to the concentration. The DPPH assay activity is near to standard as ascorbic acid (Table 1).
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Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science

Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science

, reducing capacity and radical scavenging ability (Liu et al., 2013). The proton radical scavenging action is one of the important mechanisms of antioxidants. The scavenging of stable DPPH radical is a widely used method to evaluate antioxidant activity and the effect of antioxidants on DPPH radical scavenging is a result of their hydrogen donating ability (Mohamed et al., 2009). Reducing power also serves as a significant reflection of the antioxidant activity. The compounds with reducing power indicate that they are electron donors and can reduce the oxidized intermediates of lipid peroxidation processes, so that they can act as primary and secondary antioxidants (Ikeura et al., 2010). In the reducing power assay, the presence of antioxidants in the samples would result in the reducing of Fe 3+ to Fe 2+ by donating an electron. The ability of β-carotene and its degradation products to undergo single electron transfer-based reaction was utilized in the analysis of ferric reducing activity (Mueller et al., 2011). In our investigation of the antioxidant assay in stem bark of C. nurvala, the free radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing capacity reflects higher antioxidant potential in methanolic extract followed by petroleum ether. In the case of β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, the antioxidant efficacy of methanol and petroleum ether was found to be slightly lower than that of the positive control ascorbic acid. This work thereby suggests that methanol and petroleum ether extracts of C. nurvala stem bark showed good antioxidant property, and it possesses a higher amount of terpenoids. This implies that the antioxidant property may be due to terpenoids.
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Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd

Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd

Present research was designed to evaluate the free radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities of rhizome extracts of Alpinia galanga prepared in different solvent systems (60% aqueous methanol, 60% aqueous ethanol and distilled water) using different in vitro chemical assays. Antioxidant components such as total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and ascorbic acid contents of the ginger species were screened. Antioxidant assays employed included sulphur free radical reactivity assay, ferric ion reducing power assay, DPPH free radical scavenging capacity assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide scavenging activity assay and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. The obtained data reveal that the plant extracts contained significant amount of the observed antioxidant components and also exhibited significant free radical scavenging capacities. Methanol (60%) extract exhibited highest antioxidant activity than other solvents. The polyphenolic constituents of the plant extracts appear to be largely responsible for the radical scavenging capacity. The plant extracts act as promising source of antioxidants, and may be useful for development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceutical drugs.
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PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF XANTHOSOMA SAGITTIFOLIUM (L.) LEAF EXTRACT

PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF XANTHOSOMA SAGITTIFOLIUM (L.) LEAF EXTRACT

Xanthosoma Sagittifolium is a common herb consumed in Bangladesh for its nutritional and traditional medicinal values. The current study was carried out to evaluate the presence of phytochemicals and to screen out antioxidant and antibacterial potentialities of Xanthosoma Sagittifolium (L.) ethanolic leaf extract. Phytochemical screening of extract ensured the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging assay where ascorbic acid used as standard. The leaf extract showed free radical scavenging capacity which is an indication that this extract may have antioxidant ingredient. Antimicrobial sensitivity of ethanolic extract was measured by disk diffusion method with Mueller- Hinton agar media using kanamycin as standard. The extract showed mild activity against four of the tested bacterial species such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholera and Shigella dysenteriae.
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Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Antioxidant Capacity of Eryngium Caucasicum Trautv and Froripia Subpinnata

Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Antioxidant Capacity of Eryngium Caucasicum Trautv and Froripia Subpinnata

Scavenging of Hydrogen Peroxide: The ability of the extracts to scavenge hydrogen peroxide was determined according to the method of Ruch (14). A solution of hydrogen peroxide (40 mM) was prepared in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The concentration of hydrogen peroxide was determined by absorption at 230 nm using a spectrophotometer. Extracts (0.1-1 mg ml -1 ) in distilled water were added to a hydrogen peroxide solution (0.6 ml, 40 mM). The absorbance of hydrogen peroxide at 230 nm was determined after ten minutes against a blank solution containing phosphate buffer without hydrogen peroxide. The percentage of hydrogen peroxide scavenging by the extracts and standard compounds was calculated as follows: % Scavenged (H 2 O 2 ) = [(A o −
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Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Acrostichumaureum L., Leaves

Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Acrostichumaureum L., Leaves

2, 2-Azinobis 3-Ethylbenzothiazoline 6-Sulfonate (ABTS) radical scavenging activity of A. aureum leafextracts was measured by Huang et al 27 method with some modifications. Unlike DPPH assay, the assay that involves scavenging of ABTS radicals required generation of the radicals. The ABTS radical cation (ABTS •+ ) was generated by mixing ABTS stock solution (7mM) with potassium persulfate (2.45mM). The reaction mixture left in the dark for 12h at room temperature and the resulting dark coloured solution was diluted using ethanol to an absorbance of 0.70 ± 0.02 at 734nm. 0.lml of different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400 and 800µg/ml were prepared with methanol) of the test solutions and trolox (standard) were mixed with 3.9ml of radical solution in clean and labeled test tubes. The tubes were incubated in dark for 6min at room temperature followed by measuring the absorbance of the reaction mixture in spectrophotometer at 734nm. Methanol replacing the test sample / trolox served as control (i.e., 0.1ml methanol + 3.9ml ABTS radical solution). The ABTS radical scavenging activity of the sampleswere calculated by using the following formula and the results were expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values.
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IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM LINN

IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM LINN

The assay was based on the capacity of the plant extracts to inhibit nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) up to 50% in the presence of riboflavin-light-NBT system. The reaction medium contains 50 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.6, 20 μg riboflavin, 12 mM EDTA, different concentrations of extract (5- 200 μg/ml), and NBT 0.1 mg/3 ml, and BHT was taken in different test tube and the same reagents were added. The reaction was started by illuminating the sample cuvette at regular intervals of 30 s, and increases in absorbance were measured at 590 nm up to 2.5 min. The superoxide radical scavenging activity was calculated using the following formula: % inhibition of superoxide radical= OD (extract absent) - OD (extract present)/OD (extract absent).
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Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Acrostichumaureum L., Leaves

Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Acrostichumaureum L., Leaves

2, 2-Azinobis 3-Ethylbenzothiazoline 6-Sulfonate (ABTS) radical scavenging activity of A. aureum leafextracts was measured by Huang et al 27 method with some modifications. Unlike DPPH assay, the assay that involves scavenging of ABTS radicals required generation of the radicals. The ABTS radical cation (ABTS •+ ) was generated by mixing ABTS stock solution (7mM) with potassium persulfate (2.45mM). The reaction mixture left in the dark for 12h at room temperature and the resulting dark coloured solution was diluted using ethanol to an absorbance of 0.70 ± 0.02 at 734nm. 0.lml of different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400 and 800µg/ml were prepared with methanol) of the test solutions and trolox (standard) were mixed with 3.9ml of radical solution in clean and labeled test tubes. The tubes were incubated in dark for 6min at room temperature followed by measuring the absorbance of the reaction mixture in spectrophotometer at 734nm. Methanol replacing the test sample / trolox served as control (i.e., 0.1ml methanol + 3.9ml ABTS radical solution). The ABTS radical scavenging activity of the sampleswere calculated by using the following formula and the results were expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values.
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Chemical composition and antioxidant capacities of phytococktail extracts from trans Himalayan cold desert

Chemical composition and antioxidant capacities of phytococktail extracts from trans Himalayan cold desert

Progression of a large number of common chronic dis- eases is induced by free radical-mediated oxidative dam- age and a lot of health benefits are attributed to the utilization of fruits and vegetables in our diet due to their strong antioxidant capacities. A wide variety of bio- logically active phytochemicals such as polyphenols, flavo- noids, alkaloids, terpenoids, carotenoids etc. are derived from plant foods and natural products which have promis- ing health benefits. These diverse phytocompounds have protective effects against chronic diseases while acting in combination rather than individually [47]. In recent times, the antioxidant content has become an essential biochem- ical marker of plant product quality. The antioxidant cap- acity resulting from hydrophilic or lipophilic compounds individually has been estimated in plant foods. In the present work, we have performed the widely used and well recognized antioxidant capacity assays that have positive influence and applications in biological antioxidant re- search. The DPPH radical scavenging assay is a simple and precise method to measure the antioxidant capacity of plant extracts where the DPPH radical is used as a stable free radical to determine the antioxidant capacity of natural compounds. In our study, the DPPH radical scav- enging capacity of the phytococktail extracts was found to increase in a dose dependent manner. The phytococktail extracts at the used concentrations displayed potential free radicals scavenging effect (Table 1). A higher DPPH rad- ical scavenging capacity is associated with a lower RSa 50
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 IN VITRO FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF AMORPHOPHALLUS COMMUTATUS AN ENDEMIC AROID OF WESTERN GHATS, SOUTH INDIA

 IN VITRO FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF AMORPHOPHALLUS COMMUTATUS AN ENDEMIC AROID OF WESTERN GHATS, SOUTH INDIA

The assay depends on the capacity of different solvent fractions of A.commutatus tuber extracts to inhibit formazan formation by scavenging the superoxide radicals generated in a riboflavin-light- NBT system (Beauchamp & Fridovich, 1971). The reaction mixture contained 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.6, 20µg riboflavin, 12 mM EDTA, and NBT 0.1 mg/3 ml, added in sequence. Different concentrations of A.commutatus tuber extracts were added to the reaction mixture and the reaction was initiated by illuminating the tubes under fluorescent lamp (20w) for 15minutes. Immediately after illumination, the absorbance was measured at 560 nm. Decreased absorbance of the reaction mixture indicates increased superoxide anion scavenging activity. Identical tubes, with reaction mixture, were kept in the dark and served as blanks. The percentage inhibition of superoxide anion generation was calculated using the following equation. Super oxide radical scavenging capacity (%) =
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Nano - Structured Hesperidin: Evaluation the Antioxidant Activities In Vitro

Nano - Structured Hesperidin: Evaluation the Antioxidant Activities In Vitro

Hesperidin from citrus peels is known to have anti-inflammatory, vaso-protective, hypo-lipidemic, anti- allergic, anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant actions. Current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of hesperidin and hesperidin nanoparticles by using simple in vitro free radical scavenging system including, DPPH free radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and Resazurin dye scavenging activities. Hesperidin nanoparticles showed strong scavenging effects against DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and Resazurin dye, and this effect was more potent than pure hesperidin. The scavenging activity of hesperidin nanoparticles was concentrations dependent, in the range of 100-400 µg mL -1 showing a maximum activity of 80% at 400 µg mL -1 in similar way to Vit.C which was used as
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ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDIARRHEAL ACTIVITY OF THE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MICROCOS PANICULATA ROOTS

ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDIARRHEAL ACTIVITY OF THE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MICROCOS PANICULATA ROOTS

Being secondary metabolites, flavonoids are commonly spread in the plant kingdom. The numbers of flavonoids which have been found in plants are more than 6000 [28] . Flavonoids of plants show their antioxidant properties by various ways, which are chelation of metal ions, such as iron as well as copper, hindrance of enzymes liable for free radical production and scavenging of free radicals [29] . There is a difference between the antioxidant activity and the total antioxidant capacity. First one point out the antioxidant characteristic of only one antioxidant, while the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) signifies the total antioxidant characteristic of all antioxidants. So, there is a possibility of getting more information by TAC than specific antioxidant ingredients [30] . The total antioxidant capacity of RME was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum method according to the procedure described by Prieto et al., which was based on the reduction of Mo (VI) to Mo (V) by the RME and the subsequent formation of green phosphate / Mo (V) at acidic P H . Moreover, it is
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I VITRO ATIOXIDAT POTETIAL OF ETHAOLIC
EXTRACT OF MOMORDICA DIOICA ROXB (CUCURBITACEAE)

I VITRO ATIOXIDAT POTETIAL OF ETHAOLIC EXTRACT OF MOMORDICA DIOICA ROXB (CUCURBITACEAE)

are 72.56 µg/ml (DPPH radical scavenging), 97.13 µg/ml (ABTS radical scavenging), and 56.59 µg/ml (iron chelating activity) for ethanolic extract. Also total antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extract was found to be 26.0 µg/ml equivalents to ascorbic acid. Ethanolic extract showed percentage inhibition of haemoglobin glycosylation at 66.63 and 74.14 at concentrations of 500 and 1000 µg/ml respectively, while that of standard DL α-tocopherol was 61.53 and 86.68 inhibition at same concentration by haemoglobin glycosylation assay method. In all the methods, the extract showed its ability to scavenge free radicals in a concentration dependent manner. The result indicates that Momordica dioica has moderate antioxidant activity.
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Chemopreventive and Antioxidant Activity of Cichorium Intybus Leaves against Ndea Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar Rats

Chemopreventive and Antioxidant Activity of Cichorium Intybus Leaves against Ndea Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar Rats

DPPH radical scavenging activity is the oldest method for determining the antioxidant activity. DPPH is astable nitrogen centered free radical which can accept an electron or hydrogen radical to become a stable diamagnetic molecule. Any molecule that can donate an electron or hydrogen to DPPH can react with it and thereby bleach the DPPH absorption. DPPH is a purple colour dye having absorption maximal of 517 nm and upon reaction with hydrogen donar the purple colour fades or disappears due to conversion of it to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine resulting in decrease in absorbance (Kumarasamy et al., 2007). Substances which are able to perform this reaction can be considered as antioxidants and therefore radical scavengers. In the present study, it was found that the radical scavenging activity of chloroform extract of Cichorium intybus leaves is relatively high compared to other solvent extracts. This might be due to the H + donating capacity due to the significant presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds.
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Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of Santolina chamaecyparissus L. methanol extract

Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of Santolina chamaecyparissus L. methanol extract

radical scavenging activity is one of the several mechanisms contributing to overall activity, thereby creating synergistic effects. Indeed, phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, are recognized as potentially antioxidant substances with the ability to scavenge free radical species and reactive forms of oxygen. The scavenging effect of flavonoids is attributed to their low potential redox, making them thermodynamically able of reducing free radicals by a transfer of hydrogen from hydroxyl groups. [35] In addition, it has been suggested
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FRUITS OF SCINDAPSUS OFFICINALIS ATTENUATES PYLORUS LIGATION INDUCED ULCER IN RATS

FRUITS OF SCINDAPSUS OFFICINALIS ATTENUATES PYLORUS LIGATION INDUCED ULCER IN RATS

The antioxidant activity of HAESO fruits was investigated using total antioxidant activity capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging assay, and NO scavenging assay. The free radical DPPH possesses a characteristic absorption at 517 nm. The radical scavengers cause reduction of DPPH by providing proton, which is indicated by color change (from purple to yellow) and a decrease in its absorption. The HAESO proved to be almost equivalent in offering protection against DPPH free radicals as compared to the standard ascorbic acid. NO, and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have been reported to be involved in the oxidative cellular damage 29 . The major reactive species of NO are nitrous anhydride (N 2 O 3 ) and peroxynitrite
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Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenolic content of
Ziziphus Mauritiana Lam.

Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenolic content of Ziziphus Mauritiana Lam.

The free radical scavenging potential of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam, was studied for its in vitro scavenging activity by different methods viz. DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation assay, superoxide scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity and Non- enzymatic Glycosylation of Hemoglobin assay. The results were analyzed statistically by regression method. The percentage scavenging and IC 50 values were calculated for all models.
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