In this study, the mechanical properties of seawater treated empty fruitbunch filled poly(vinyl alcohol) were investigated as well as to discover an appropriate alternative for chemical modification of natural fibres. The different volumes of filler (1%, 3% and 5%) of untreated and treated composites were prepared by casting method, respectively. The single fibre of oil palm empty fruitbunch has been treated using sea water from day-one until day- thirty. The mechanical effect of the properties of single fibre and oil palm empty fruitbunch filled poly(vinyl alcohol)examined using Universal Testing Machine. The mechanical properties of the single fibre of oil palm empty fruitbunch enhanced when the longer fibre soaked in sea water with 269.3% increase in tensile strength. The tensile strength of composites increased sharply upon the treatment from 67.37% to 224.10%, while the decrease of the tensile modulus showed when the filler decrease from 89.72% to 66.67%. The elongation at break of the composite shows slightly increased when the filler reduced from 21.43% to 41.34%. In conclusion, sea water treatment significantly improved an extra enhancement in mechanical strength. Thus, the result provides alternatives efficiency method of surface modification by nature as low-priced better and safer than chemicals treatment.
From Figure-3 it can be seen that the lignin content in oil palm empty fruitbunch decreases with the increase of fermentation time. According to Lakshmanan and Sadasivan (2016), Trichoderma viride produces the lacase enzyme, and this lacase enzyme is involved in the delignification process. This enzyme is synthesized and secreted when the nutrient content, carbon or nitrogen elements, are in the limited environment (Wesenberg et al ., 2003). The decrease of lignin content in the first and second week of fermentation is not significant. This indicates that the production of an enzyme by the fungi is not in substantial amount, resulting a small amount of lignin could be degraded. Until the sixth week, the decrease of lignin levels at 1:30 ratio from 32.83% to 28.15%, and at 1:50 ratio from 32.83% to 29.03%. The highest percentage of delignification achieved at 1:30 ratio is 13.76%, while the ratio of 1:50 is 11.47%.
Electricity is a social, economic necessity of a country. It is a major factor for the rapid development of any society and the transformation of any economy. The feasibility of using empty fruitbunch (EFB), an abundant renewable energy resource for the generation of electricity was investigated. The power plant used for this research is owned by PRESCO Nigeria Limited. The power generated using EFB and methane fuels were compared using different masses of fuel (in kg). From the study, 896kg of EFB produced 1.7 MW of electricity when the steam boiler was used. Methane gas which produced electricity of 4.5 MW. This shows that EFB is a very good alternative for power generation. Based on the findings from the study, other agro-based biomass can also be studied for the generation of electricity using cogeneration plant.
Abstract – Empty FruitBunch Spreader machine (EFBM), is an attempt to transform manuring EFB concept in plantation. EFBM main objective is to ‘manure’ the whole EFB at frond path with distribute evenly as per layer and width same in direction of path. All EFB shall be spreader continuously in row of frond path during spreader process. A major factor considered during EFB machine development is the adaption of proven technologies in market into a potential and workable solution in plantation area. In this concept, a EFB machine in market were modified and testing at plantation. This machine can not only produce EFB on the top of the frond path, it can also set the exact amount of EFB throughout this process. With this method, the amount of nutrient is equal to the regular distribution. The EFB machine ensures that productivity will increase by 10% to 25% FFB production. The EFB machinery also promises that spreader is very effective with the target of reducing the workforce, reducing the abundance of EFB piles, as widely as possible and effectively impart this useful bio material to the plantation.
The objectives of this work were to identify the most appropriate (i) sodium hydroxide concentration and (ii) reaction time for the modification of empty fruitbunch fiber into low- cost adsorbent for the adsorption of copper(II) and lead(II) ions from aqueous solution.
Abstract: In this study a support mechanism (SP) for a palm fruitbunch harvester was designed, fabricated and tested on a plantation. This was with a view to adapting the cutter for harvesting tall oil palm trees in Nigeria. The design concept for the support mechanism was conceived as a mast pyramid which simulates an adjustable ladder pivoted on wheels comprising three segments, namely: the wheels which facilitate easy movement within the plantation; the lower segment, which comprises the stands and the upper segment which comprises the chamber (equipped with a platform) in which the operator (the climber) stands. The support mechanism was tested in comparison with the existing rope-and-knife (RK) method. The harvesting parameters used are time to climb up the palm (TU); time to cut (TC); time to come down from the palm (TD); number of bunches harvested (NB) and total time of harvest (T). A regression analysis was carried out on the data collected using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) package. The result shows that using the support mechanism for the motorized bunch cutter was easier than rope and knife (RK). The average time of harvest T, TU, TD, and TC per tree, for the SP and RK are 190 s and 391 s; 21 s and 152 s; 21 s and 103 s; and 147 s and 134 s, respectively. The total time of harvest for RK is over 100% more than the time of harvest for SP. The time of harvest per hectare for SP and RK are approximately 9 h/ha and 20 h/ha, respectively. The comparison of SP and RK shows that there is a significant difference in TU, TD, NB, T, but there was no difference in TC, (p < 0.05). The study concluded that the support mechanism shows promise in enhancing the use of the motorized bunch cutter for tall palms and hence should be adopted.
―A course which does not use a professional software is preparing our students for a type of work which does not exist anymore‖ (Paris, 1991) .Finally, in a truly integrated approach, DFE must be balanced against other cost and quality factors that influence design trade-off decisions. The mark of a successful team is the ability to innovate under pressure, rather than compromising product quality. A ―win-win‖ outcome is the introduction of environmentally beneficial innovations that also improve the cost and performance of the product when viewed as part of an overall system. Ideally, single design innovation may contribute to achieving several, different types of goals. For example, reducing the mass of a product can result in (1) energy and material use reduction, which contributes to resource conservation, and (2) pollutant emission reduction, which contributes to health and safety. Making trade-off decisions is the most challenging part of the process because of the need to simultaneously consider so many different criteria. Based on this discussion the following policy are necessary, efforts should be made to adopt and popularize the design-DFX, DFA, DFE ETC especially for the benefits of mankind who make up a great percentage of the Nation‘s population. If, the use of machine design innovations is adopted, the problem in oil and other agricultural processing equipment will be minimized and hunger and poverty will be eradicated. Detailed experiment of palm fruitbunch stripper will be presented in the future work
Kajian ini dijalankan adalah bertujuan untuk mengkaji dan menganalisa kesan tenaga pembakaran yang berlaku terhadap campuran dua bahan mentah iaitu Empty FruitBunch (EFB) dan bahan yang boleh dikitar semula pada kadar nisbah yang berbeza – beza. Kajian ini juga turut dihasilkan dengan matlamat untuk menggunakan bahan – bahan terbuang seperti hasil buangan kelapa sawit dan bahan terbuang pada tahap yang optimum bagi mengurangkan kuantiti bahan terbuang yang dihasilkan dalam negara pada setiap tahun. Bahan utama yang akan terlibat dalam projek ini ialah EFB dan kertas terbuang. Secara keseluruhannya, EFB dan kertas terbuang tersebut akan dihancurkan dan dicampurkan menjadi satu adunan bagi menghasilkan sampel berbentuk pepejal yang dikenali sebagai “briquette”. Hasil campuran tersebut akan dimampatkan ke dalam bentuk pepejal menggunakan mesin mampatan pada tekanan 12 000 lb. Selepas pepejal briquette berjaya dibentuk, ia akan melalui dua jenis ujian iaitu ujian kimia dan ujian
Copper nanoparticles were impregnated onto oil palm empty fruitbunch (EFB) powders via in-situ sol-gel method. The impregnation and interfacial interaction of copper nanoparticles with EFB were analysed by fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The interaction of copper nanoparticles with the surface functional groups of EFB powders was identified by FTIR analysis. The peak shift of O-H and C-O functional groups in- dicated the interaction between EFB and copper nanoparticles. Besides that, XRD and EDX analysis confirmed the formation of copper nanoparticles on EFB powder. Due to the copper impregnation, the crystallinity of the EFB was increased as shown by XRD. The particles size of nanoparticles was analysed via TEM and AFM where the sizes were in the range of 60 - 100 nm. These findings strongly suggest that, copper nanoparticles impregnated EFB powders can be synthesized via in- situ sol gel method.
The experiments are carried by fast pyrolysis method in 2 kg Fixed bed reactor. The reactor inner diameter is 220 mm and length of 440 mm. Nitrogen gas (sweep gas) flow is connected in bottom of the reactor. The electric furnace is used to heat the reactor and temperature measured using a K-type thermocouple. A sample of sweet line empty fruitbunch (feed stock) and photo graphic view of experimental setup is shown in figure 1 and 2 respectively. The temperatures chosen are 500 °C, 550 °C and 600 °C and the heating rate is 10 °C /min. The sweep gas flow rates of N 2 are conducted at 0.2
There are losses of production due to oil palm field’s material handling. Activities that may raise the losses are harvesting and transportation, which may cause bruise and damage to fruit. This research was aimed to learn the bruise of fresh fruitbunch (FFB) phenomenon in harvesting and transportation. Method used in this research was measuring the bruise area resulted by FFB falling when harvested, loading (throwing up) FFB to truck bin, and transporting using truck. These data, coupled with weight of bruised fruit, were calculated to get FFB bruise index. Each FFB bruise index is related to potential free fatty acid (FFA) value. FFA is one of important quality indicator of crude palm oil. The harvesting was conducted at mineral land and peat land, and the loading and transportation was conducted using wooden board truck and dump (iron board) truck. There was a difference between bruise index and FFA of FFB fall on mineral and on peat land. FFA of mineral land harvesting was 2.19% while of peat land was 1.27%. It was obvious that fruit quality degradation was higher when FFB positioned at the bottom of bin truck layer rather than at the top. FFA of truck bin bottom layer was 2.79% while of top layer was 0.64%. It was found that there was a cumulative bruise on FFB within material handling, start from harvesting, loading up to truck bin, and transporting from field to loading ramp.
The natural fibers can play an important role in improving the bonding between the cement matrix which will increase the bending strength as well as the structural integrity of FC . Palm oil production is significant for the Malaysian economy, which is the world's second-largest producer of the product behind Indonesia. It should be pointed out that the Malaysian palm oil industry produces approximately 17.7 million tons of palm oil from a planted area of 4.5 million hectares . Throughout the world, there are roughly 417 productive palm oil extraction mills  and about 22.5 million tons of empty fruitbunch (EFB) solid waste produced by these plants annually. During the production of palm oil, a substantial quantity of solid waste are generated in the form of fibers which are from the fronds, empty fruit bunches, palm tree trunk, and kernel shells. These natural fiber wastes are usually merely disposed of without getting any economic return. Hence, this study will investigate the influence of EFB fiber inclusion on thermal properties of FC due to it being a beneficial and environmentally friendly material compared to conventional concrete.
Lignin from lignocellulosic biomass is a potential biopolymer for wood adhesive. The aims of this study were to characterize lignin isolated from the black liquor of oil palm empty fruitbunch fiber pretreated with steam explosion in alkaline conditions and to examine the bond quality of aqueous polymer isocyanate (API) adhesive prepared from lignin, natural rubber latex (NRL), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as base polymers with isocyanate crosslinkers. Lignin was precipitated from the black liquor by adding hydrochloric acid; then the precipitate was separated by filtration, thoroughly washed with water up to pH 2 and pH 5, and dried. The isolated lignin was characterized by ultimate analysis, UV spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. Three-layer plywood samples were prepared, and the bond strengths of the plywood samples were determined in dry conditions and after cyclic boiling. The lignin isolates with different pH values did not have significantly different chemical and thermal properties. Both lignin isolates had similar C, H, and O contents, identical functional groups in the FTIR spectra, similar absorption in the UV spectra, and high decomposition temperatures. The base polymers composition that could produce API adhesive for exterior applications was NRL/PVA/lignin (4/4/2). The use of more lignin in the adhesive formulation decreased the bond strength of the plywood.
Oil palm empty fruitbunch filled thermoplastic composites were studied by Rozman et al. (1998). In their study, they observed that as the oil palm empty fruitbunch filler loading increased in the high density polyethylene, the modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture of the composite increased and decreased respectively. The tensile and impact properties were found to decrease with the increasing oil palm empty fruitbunch filler in the composite. In addition, smaller sized empty fruitbunch filler particles displayed higher modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture compared to larger filler particle size
Figure 2 shows the effect of NaOH concentration used in the alkaline pre-treatment expressed by percent of weight loss. It is shown that significant weight loss increases gradually from 10% until 20% of NaOH and then decrease until 40% of NaOH. This indicates that the amount of hemicellulose and lignin removal increases gradually with increasing of NaOH concentration. The extent of hemicellulose and lignin removal reaches the highest value at 20% NaOH concentration with 50% loss in weight and the weight loss percent began to decrease until 40% NaOH. It can be seen that when the NaOH concentration is 20% the weight loss is 50% and the typical empty fruitbunch hemicellulose and lignin are 35-65%. Thus, it can conclude that almost all of the hemicellulose and lignin were removed in that condition.
iii. Based on the signal to noise ratio, the design setting of composite parameters for the optimum hardness strength of plantain empty fruitbunch fiber reinforced polyester composites and plantain pseudo stem fiber reinforced polyester composites are as follows: volume fraction = 50%, fibers aspect ratio = 25 and fibers orientation = 90 degrees iv. The results indicates that fibers volume fraction and fibers aspect ratio are the most significant factors affecting the hardness strength of the composites. Although the effect of fibers orientation is significantly less for both psudo stem and empty fruitbunch, it cannot be ignored as it is one of the major load bearing components in the composites. v. The study can be extended using other methods like
As the most efficient oilseed crop in the world, oil palm is able to produce up to 10 times more than other leading oil crops, and has surpassed soy oil since 2008  as the world’s most traded oil. Oil produced in the kernel and mesocarp is suitable for both human consumption and for oleo-chemical industries. The commercial oil palm plant- ing material in Southeast Asia is mainly derived from Deli dura x AVROS pisifera crosses, selected for high oil yield. The potential reduction of genetic variation in the Deli dura due to founder effects is a concern for oil palm breeders. In addition, self-pollination (“selfing”) and sib- mating, which are commonly practiced to concentrate the desired agronomical traits in Deli dura populations, has further reduced the genetic variation. This has resulted in various symptoms of inbreeding depression, such as abortive bunch formation, poor fruit set and oil yield de- pression in Deli dura trials . To address this problem, Sime Darby Plantation R&D adopted introgression using dura populations acquired from Nigeria to widen the gen- etic base of the commercial Deli dura materials. Deli x Ni- gerian progenies have improved fresh fruitbunch (FFB) and oil-to-bunch ratio (O/B) values, with useful trait vari- ation observed, resulting in a new series of mother palms for future commercial material. Still, the emphasis placed on the introgression program was low because of the slow nature of breeding progress in oil palm, which is typically 10 – 12 years per selection cycle . Hence, the ultimate goal of GS is to expedite the breeding progress by maxi- mizing the genetic gains per generation.