Function Point Analysis

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Function Point Analysis (FPA) or Function Size Measurement (FSM) . The FP measurement could be

Function Point Analysis (FPA) or Function Size Measurement (FSM) . The FP measurement could be

Abstract—Software effort and cost estimation are necessary at the early stage of the software development life cycle for the project manager to be able to successfully plan for the software project. Unfortunately, most of the estimation models depend on details that will be available at the later stage of the development process. This paper proposes to use Function Point Analysis in application with dataflow diagram to solve this timing critical problem. The proposed methodology was validated through the graduate student software projects at the Chulalongkorn University Business School. Although the results were disappointed but some interesting insights are worth looking into.
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Enhancement in COCOMO Model Using Function Point Analysis to Increase Effort Estimation

Enhancement in COCOMO Model Using Function Point Analysis to Increase Effort Estimation

Software are distributed among the various system, hence it can works in one or more than none processes. It is also works on the various operating systems. So with the change of time the need of software is also increase. To fulfill this need, the software engineering is required. As software requirement is increases day by day. So it is necessary to maintain the good quality software. To develop good quality software, software engineering is required. For this, the developer’s needs to adopt the software engineering concepts, strategies, and practices to avoid the conflicts that are occur during the development process. Software engineering is an approach to develop, maintain and operate the software. The software development plays a crucial role in software engineering. Many specific techniques are required to develop software. The most common thing in development process is the requirement gathering and customer needs. If a developer fails to complete the needs of the customer than he or she may fails to develop good quality software. Software can be said to of good quality, if it is capable to complete the needs of the customer. The customer can be satisfied in terms of quality, cost and design of the system software. Many developers adopt the techniques like systematic and organized approach to develop software [11].A software development process is use to translate the software product, in which the customer translate all the needs to the developers that what kind of changes a customer required. Software engineering is about evolving, building, and maintaining software systems [9]. Software engineering is a set of problem solving skills, expertise, methods and techniques applied upon a multiplicity of domains to develop and produce useful systems that resolve many problems like practical problems [10]. Software engineer is essential to hold software engineering projects which find out, make, make software and tells its performance. A controlled and methodically approach is adopted by software engineers about their work using some techniques and tools depending upon the resources presented and problem to be solved [ 8]. To estimate the size of the software there are different-different types of models are available. COCOMO 1 and COCOMO 2 are cost estimation models which help to estimate the accurate project size and cost. In this paper we will discuss COCOMO model with function point analysis. In section 2 nd we will do literature survey. In section 3 rd Function Point Analysis will be discussed. After that Proposed Methodology and experimental results respectively will be discussed.
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An Analysis of Use Case Point Method

An Analysis of Use Case Point Method

A brief introduction of various methods has been given in chronological order. First ever reliable methods used were Function Point Analysis and Test Case Point Analysis. After Use Case Point method which gave us such reliable results. Since then there have been many modifications introduced in UCP which have further improved the accuracy of our estimation. This paper is basically an overview of accuracy level of different estimation methods.

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Effect of the Illuminating Point Spread Function and Roughness on the Speckle Correlation Field

Effect of the Illuminating Point Spread Function and Roughness on the Speckle Correlation Field

Under conditions differing from those subjected for central limit theorem, the spatial autocorrelation function of speckle pattern resulting from illumi- nated rough surface is investigated. Its dependence on different illuminating apertures and the average of the roughness heights is presented theoretically and experimentally. The experiments were carried out using a set of circular and square apertures having different sizes. The results indicate that, increas- ing the size of the illuminating aperture leads to a decrease in the width of the main lobe of the spatial autocorrelation function.
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On fixed point theorems in fuzzy metric spaces using a control function

On fixed point theorems in fuzzy metric spaces using a control function

Fuzzy metric space is closely generalization of generalized Menger space. Kramosil and Michalek [19] introduced fuzzy metric space, George and Veermani [11] modified the notion of fuzzy metric spaces with the help of continuous t-norms. George and Veeramani[11] imposed some stronger conditions on the fuzzy metric space in order to obtain a Hausdorff topology. In [8], V. Gregori, A. Sapena proved that the topology induced by a fuzzy metric space in George and Veeramani’s sense is actually metrizable. The aim of this paper is to generalize the Banach fixed-point theorem to (fuzzy) contractive mappings on complete fuzzy metric spaces in George and Veeraman sense using concept of alternating distance.
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Function modification of SR-PSOX by point mutations of basic amino acids

Function modification of SR-PSOX by point mutations of basic amino acids

SR-PSOX is the first scavenger receptor that has been identified as a chemokine [14]. The extracellular part of SR-PSOX consists of two distinct domains: the CXC che- mokine domain and the mucin stalk domain. Shimaoka et al. have shown that only the chemokine domain of SR- PSOX is required for the recognition of bacteria and binding of oxLDL, however, bacterial phagocytosis via SR-PSOX is inhibited by oxLDL [21]. In addition, the replacement of some conserved basic amino acid residues in the chemokine domain of SR-PSOX with alanine sig- nificantly impaired the activities of bacterial phagocytosis, oxLDL uptake and the chemotaxis of CXCR6-expressing cells [26]. To examine whether the nonconservative basic amino acids in the chemokine domain are critical for the function of SR-PSOX, we generated a series of mutants of human SR-PSOX by replacing a single basic amino acid residue in the chemokine domain with alanine. Furthermore, we overexpressed these mutants in 293T cells and subsequently examined the uptake of oxLDL, phagocytosis of bacteria and adhesive activity. In this report, we demonstrate that the basic amino acids in the nonconservative region of the chemokine domain play a central role in the uptake of oxLDL, phagocytosis of bac- teria and adhesive activity of SR-PSOX. Our findings pro- vide new insight into the structure and function of SR- PSOX and the information may be useful for the devel- opment of drug target of atherosclerosis.
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Restoration of noisy images blurred by deterministic or stochastic point spread function

Restoration of noisy images blurred by deterministic or stochastic point spread function

2 In particular, we applied inverse filter, pseudoinverse filter least- squares , constrained least- squares filter and ·w iener filter in frequency domain to est imate the original real[r]

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Evaluation of spatial dependence of point spread function-based PET reconstruction using a traceable point-like 22Na source

Evaluation of spatial dependence of point spread function-based PET reconstruction using a traceable point-like 22Na source

Alessio et al. characterized the detector response using Monte Carlo simulations [7] and empirical measurements [8]. The detector response in an empirical measurement that separated radial and axial components was modeled as a point spread function (PSF), and PSF information was incorporated into a three-dimensional (3D) iterative re- construction [4, 6]. A reconstruction algorithm using PSF correction has been reported to improve the spatial resolution in the scanner FOV. Such algorithms are provided from the vendors under different names (SharpIR from GE, TrueX HD·PET from Sie- mens and ×Sharp from Philips). However, PSF correction changes quantitative accuracy due to the Gibbs ringing overshoot at the edges [4, 9]. Furthermore, although few stud- ies have evaluated the effects of PSF correction using the National Electrical Manufac- turers Association (NEMA) body phantom located at the center of the FOV [10, 11], the relationship between FDG uptake at any location throughout the FOV and the ac- curacy of PSF correction remains unclear. The spatial resolution of the scanner can be measured by placing a point source within the scanner and acquiring scan data at vary- ing locations in both the radial and axial dimension [6, 8].
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Analysis Of Software Estimation Method: Function Point And Use Case Point

Analysis Of Software Estimation Method: Function Point And Use Case Point

A number of different models and effort estimation methods have been developed in the past four decades. This clearly indicates the awareness among the researchers of the need to improve effort estimation in software engineering. Many factors have impact on the software development process. These factors are not only human, technical but also political and their impact can never be fully predicted. The even insufficiently accurate estimates are far better than none. We have illustrated result of two approaches for measuring the size in the estimation process in our work. If the estimation is done accurately, it decreases error. We have analysed the values of different matrix under function point as well as use case point method. The relationship among the matrix of these methods shows the practical results. Hence we conclude that the estimation process through use case point is better than the function point. The requirement & design is more clearly shown in use case point model than in function point model. The estimation using use case point shows practical reality of development. Hence the accuracy of estimation depends upon method used for estimation also.
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Common Fixed Point Theorems in Metric Space by Altering Distance Function

Common Fixed Point Theorems in Metric Space by Altering Distance Function

In this paper, we proved the fixed point theorem for four sub compatible maps under a contractive condition of integral type. These results can be extended to any directions and can also be extended to fixed point theory of non-expansive multi-valued mappings.

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Double Ramification Cycles and the n-Point Function for the Moduli Space of Curves

Double Ramification Cycles and the n-Point Function for the Moduli Space of Curves

Abstract. In this paper, using the formula for the integrals of the ψ-classes over the double ramification cycles found by S. Shadrin, L. Spitz, D. Zvonkine and the author, we derive a new explicit formula for the n -point function of the intersection numbers on the moduli space of curves.

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Minimally invasive method for the point-of-care quantification of lymphatic vessel function

Minimally invasive method for the point-of-care quantification of lymphatic vessel function

Another issue facing the use of NIR methods for lymphatic vessel function assessment, based on tem- poral measurements of the fluorescence signal of the locally injected probe, lies in the lack of suitable, affordable, and simple instrumentation for NIR fluorescence quantification for clinical use. Portable cam- eras (e.g., Hamamatsu PDE) would allow for quantitative imaging of ICG fluorescence in clinical settings by acquiring a series of images over time and quantifying the fluorescence signal based on image analysis (24, 25). However, the high cost of such instrumentation (ranging from several thousand up to tens of thousands of US dollars) limits their routine use outside specialized medical centers. Moreover, this type of measurement would be impractical due to the requirement for postmeasurement data processing (26–28). Therefore, the development of an affordable, compact, and portable fluorescence detector, without imaging capability but able to quantify the fluorescence signal intensity, would allow performance of the measure- ments in a routine manner outside of specialized hospital units (potentially even at a patient’s home) (29).
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One-local retract and common fixed point in modular function spaces

One-local retract and common fixed point in modular function spaces

the concept of uniform convexity in modular function spaces. In particular they proved that uniform convexity implies the property (R). Next, we show that uniform convexity implies compactness in the sense of Penot [17] of the family of convex sets. First, let us recall the definition of uniform convexity in modular function spaces. For more on this, the reader may consult [18].

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Analysis of function-2

Analysis of function-2

Proto-oncogene Cell growth and proliferation Tumor suppressor gene In a diploid cell…?. Cancer-promoting form… Oncogene.[r]

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A single point mutation has pleiotropic effects on pp60v-src function.

A single point mutation has pleiotropic effects on pp60v-src function.

1898 Downloaded from http://jvi.asm.org/ on November 10, 2019 by guest The Rous sarcoma virus mutant tsLA29 encodes a pp6ov-src molecule that is temperature sensitive for both tyrosine k[r]

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Analysis of Single Point Cutting Tool

Analysis of Single Point Cutting Tool

“Fluke IR Thermal Imager” is employed for mensuration temperature at tool-chip interface. Single point cutting tool has been solid modelled by using SOLIDWORKS 2013 and Finite Element Analysis carried out by using ANSYS Workbench 15. By varied parameters the result of these on temperature are compared with the experimental results and FEA results.

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Stochastic analysis of multivariate point processes

Stochastic analysis of multivariate point processes

Westcott (1970) attempted a proof of the generalized Korolyuk result (2.10) in the univariate case using the concept of a marked point process (Matthes, 1963b) in which he took the marks to be the positive integers. In Lemma 1.2 he generalized Leadbetter’s (1968) proof of Khinchin's result on the existence of a parameter, to stationary marked point processes by showing the existence of a certain probability measure (a group size measure) on the mark space. He then proved (though his proof is invalid) that when N is stationary so is N, concluding that this was stationarity of the
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Reich’s iterated function systems and well-posedness via fixed point theory

Reich’s iterated function systems and well-posedness via fixed point theory

In this section we first recall some well known aspects of iterated function system used in the sequel (more complete and rigorous treatments may be found in [–]). Then we present an interesting open question regarding an iterated function system associated with the Reich contractions, which was posed by Singh et al. in .

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Point-spread function reconstructed PET images of sub-centimeter lesions are not quantitative

Point-spread function reconstructed PET images of sub-centimeter lesions are not quantitative

as function of iterations (we stopped at 6 iterations 21 subsets, which is more than commonly used). This effect was particularly pronounced for the 6 – 8 mm spheres when using the 2-mm post-filter. The overshooting artifact leading to RC > 1 could be related to a broad PSF kernel. It has been shown that narrower PSF kernel reduces the overshooting artifact [2, 22], and that the artifact persists even when the width of the PSF matches the size of the system’s PSF [23]. It is not possible to change the PSF ker- nel width on commercial clinical scanners, but our results indicate that their standard PSF kernels may be too broad. However, wider post-filters suppressed the PSF artifacts and restored the expected relation that the RC fall monotonically as the sphere size de- creases (Fig. 5), but the post-filter should not be too wide because this would unneces- sarily reduce the RCs. As an example, TrueX with 4 iterations, 21 subsets, and a 3-mm Gaussian filter produced images that suppressed edge artifacts sufficiently to restore the expected monotonic relation between RCs and sphere size, but still provided maximum-based RCs that can be slightly larger than 1 (e.g., up to 1.2 for RC 50bg ). The Fig. 6 Schematic illustration regarding the challenges in choosing optimal reconstruction parameters in a clinical setting. The SUV max values are shown as a function of lesion size (SUV curve) up to 12 mm for
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Best proximity point theorems for Fρ-proximal contraction in modular function spaces

Best proximity point theorems for Fρ-proximal contraction in modular function spaces

Motivated by the above results, we first present some best proximity point results for F ρ - proximal contractions in modular function spaces. Then we give some sufficient conditions guaranteeing the existence and uniqueness of best proximity points for nonself Ciric type gen- eralized F ρ -proximal contractions in modular function spaces.

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