Cotton is one of the major crops in the Mid- South growing region of the U.S. and producers there often farm numerous fields spread across a large area. Although sufficient groundwater is avail- able for surface irrigation in many areas, the supply and cost of labor is always a concern. Producers commonly employ patterns such as every-other-fur- row irrigation to allow them to irrigate fields in one set and thereby avoid the time and labor required to change sets. In many years there is sufficient rainfall that no obvious deleterious effect is observed from the non-irrigated furrows, however producers are concerned that yield could be reduced. A study was conducted at the University of Missouri Fisher Delta Research Center near Portageville during the 2014 through 2016 growing seasons to investigate the impact of different furrow irrigation patterns on cotton yield and canopy properties. Although yield loss due to waterlogging is a constant concern in the region, in 2014, with four irrigations followed by ≥ 25 mm of rain within the subsequent three days, all irrigated plots yielded significantly more seed cotton than the rainfed treatment. Canopy temperature, plant height, and normalized difference vegetation index were all effective in differentiating between the rainfed and irrigated treatments including differences among some of the irrigation pattern treatments.
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In 2004, several days of backwater flooding had a negative effect on lint yield response to deep tillage and to irrigation. If 2004 data were excluded from the analysis of the data, irrigation in the presence or absence of deep tillage of cotton on the average would have had a greater average yield response over similar NI- treat- ments. This positive response would be in line with the expected outcome. On average, effects of deep tillage of cotton would switch from slightly negative to a more positive effect under non-irrigated conditions; however, the difference would not be large enough magnitude to be significant. This data would still not agree with data from a similar soil nearby that showed deep tillage increased yields in a non-irrigated environment (Tupper and Pringle, 1997). Average yields for irrigation with deep tillage of cotton would increase but would not be better than irrigation alone. After excluding 2004 data which had several days of backwater flooding, yield responses to deep tillage and irrigation are less than previously reported (Pringle and Martin, 2003; Tupper and Pringle, 1997). Reduced response levels may be explained by soil types, by benefits of the crop sequence masking the benefits from deep tillage and irrigation, or by other years in the study having short term floods due to slow watershed drainage.
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Furrow irrigation delivers water to 96% of the cotton crops in Australia (Spragge 2002). Use of siphon over bank irrigation is the most common method for applying water to the field. However, measuring the volume of water applied to a crop through siphons is difficult. The need for measuring water use has been generated from prolonged droughts which have led to farmers having less water to irrigate with. To maintain the same level of production with a decreasing amount of water, farmers need to become more water-efficient. To measure a farm’ s water use efficiency, the amount of water applied to the crop needs to be measured. The most practical method to achieve this is to use siphons as a measurement device.
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The process used to test image resolution was to capture images of a 1-metre square MDF board at ten-metre intervals along a furrow. From the acquired images the height of the top of the board (in pixels) was noted and plotted. Sample images captured by four towers (3.2 m, 6.7 m, 10 m and 14 m) are included in Figure 6.3. Images (a), (b) and (d) are from a barley crop in Dalby whereas image (c) is from a cotton crop in Jondaryan. The ten-metre tower is considered separately in Appendix E since exper- iments with this tower were conducted after the conclusion of the height experiments with the other towers.
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Overhead systems are the dominant irrigation technology in many parts of the world, but they are not widely used in California even though they have higher water application efficiency than furrow irrigation systems and lower labor requirements than drip systems. With water and labor perennial concerns in California, the suitability of overhead systems merits consideration. From 2008 through 2013, in studies near Five Points, California, we evaluated overhead irrigation for wheat, corn, cotton, tomato, onion and broccoli as an alternative to furrow and drip irrigation. With the exception of tomato, equal or increased yields were achieved with overhead irrigation. Many variables are involved in the choice of an irrigation system, but our results suggest that, with more research to support best management practices, overhead irrigation may be useful to a wider set of California farmers than currently use it.
The yearly sum of precipitation at Buchel locality varies between 100–150 mm, approximately 80% (80–120 mm) of which take place during the veg- etation period (June–September); it differs from year to year. The summer air temperatures rise up to 21–25°C (maximum up to 40°C). During winters they drop down to –19°C (minimum –36°C). The frost-free period lasts from May to September. An extreme fluctuation of the air temperature in short time intervals may happen during the day. Dust storms appear mainly during March and April and they have a significant desiccation character. Wind blows also during the whole vegetation period, but its speed has not been recorded. It is a typical arid zone, where agricultural farming is not possible without irrigation.
Economical evaluation of furrow irrigation systems is analyzing the cost that invested during growing season and benefit gained from yield produced by application of water. Marginal Rate of Return (MRR) was used for analysis following the CYMMYT method . Economic water productivity was calculated based on the information obtained at the study site: the size of irrigable area, the price of water applied and the income gained from the sale of onion yield by considering the local market price. Yield and economic data was collected to evaluate the benefits of application of different levels of water in deficit irrigation treatments. Economic data includes input cost like cost for water (water pricing) and other costs. However, cost of water pricing and yield sale price were the only cost that varies between treatments
Soil samples for gravimetric moisture determination both for gated pipe irrigation and conventional open field head ditch were collected at furrow top, middle and end for evaluating the soil moisture deficit prior to the irri- gation. Soil moisture deficit is a measure of the soil moisture between field capacity and existing moisture con- tent multiplied by the root depth, and it represents the depth of water the irrigation system should supply; which mean the required infiltration depth. At each location along the tested furrow, soil samples were monitored at 20 cm increments to a depth of 100 cm just before and 72 hours after irrigation. Then the gravimetric moisture content (w/w) were calculated and converted to volumetric values (v/v) by multiplying by the dry bulk density . Then the soil moisture change was converted to the infiltrated depth at different sites of the furrow.
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This paper reports the effect of straight furrow (SF) and meandering furrow (MF) irrigation strategies, as well as inflow rate, on infiltration and hydraulic parameters including advance time, recession time, and runoff hydrograph. The performance of SF and MF irrigation in terms of runoff ratio, deep percolation, and application efficiency was evaluated in 6 furrow fields at Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran. The required data were collected from the farm, consisting of free drainage furrows with length 70 m, top width 0.8 m, depth 0.25 m, and slope 0.2%. The advance and recession times were significantly longer in MF than SF irrigation. The infiltration was estimated by Lewis-Kostiakov equation. The infiltration coefficients were calculated: The values of k were higher and of a were lower in MF furrows than in SF furrows. The average runoff ratio and application efficiency for the SF irrigation events were 50.53% and 49.07%, respectively, while those of the MF irrigation events were 7.04% and 52.94%, respectively. Based on the results, the velocity of water advance in MF irrigation is decreased and, thus, the runoff, erosion losses, mass of fertilizer lost and surface water contamination were reduced. Using a lower inflow rate and appropriate irrigation time leads to better management outcomes in irrigation systems.
becoming increasingly important in arid and semi-arid regions with limited water resources. Furrow irrigation is the most widely used system in Ethiopia and is characterized by low efficiency. The objective of this research study was to investigate the effects of alternative and fixed furrow irrigation system onion yield, WUE, irrigation water productivity, and economic return as compared with conventional method.This experiment was conducted for the last two years in Misrak Azernet Berbere woreda, Ethiopia. The experiment had three levels of treatments (alternative, fixed and conventional irrigation system) and which were arranged in RCBD with three replications. Different data were collected and analyzed using SAS software in probability of 5% confidence level. From the result water saved alternate furrow and fixed irrigation with 20% and 30% could save irrigation water applied. With respect to water use efficiency; alternative furrow irrigation results maximum values relative to fixed and conventional irrigation in both years. In the case of net return (NR) interaction of FFI and CFI, the highest was produced by alternate furrow AFI. Finally the finding indorses that farmers can practice alternate furrow irrigation (AFI) with 20% water saving as a best option, with maximum yield compared convectional furrow irrigation having full water application.
The SIRMOD model uses three approaches, viz., the full hydrodynamic (HD), zero-inertia (ZI) and kinematic-wave (KW) to simulate the hydraulics of surface irrigation (border, furrow and basin) on the field scale and helps in the evaluation of alternative field layouts, i.e. field length, slope and management practices like water application rates and cut-off times (Walker 1998). It presents a simplified field design module and a ‘‘two-point’’ solution for the calculation of the infiltration pa- rameters from the irrigation advance data. The software allows the user to specify furrow, bor- der, or basin configurations with free-draining or blocked downstream boundary conditions under continuous or surged flow regimes and cutback options. The input data requirements for the simu- lation component include the field length, slope, infiltration characteristics, and advance data, target application depth, water application rate, Man- ning’s resistance, and furrow geometry. The output includes a detailed advance–recession trajectory, the distribution of infiltrated water, volume bal- ance, runoff hydrograph, depth of water flow at the end of the field, application and requirement efficiencies, and distribution uniformities.
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Water management strategies based on irrigation scheduling are intended to reduce the amount of water applied and to minimize yield reduction due to water stress. This will ensure that water is applied to the crop when needed and in the amount needed. Based on the knowledge of the growth stages and application in AquaCrop model we can conclude that, irrigation from first day of sowing throughout the crop development stage up to field capacity before the soil moisture drops to a threshold where the crop starts to experience canopy cover expansion stress results in the highest yield with the least irrigation requirement. The water management practices implemented included other measures such as altering the irrigation technique and the mulching practice. From the study conducted, we can infer that the maximum crop yield obtained remains the same regardless of the management practices (irrigation techniques and mulching practices) employed; however, the amount of irrigation water required to reach the maximum crop yield is different. This applies for both wheat and maize, the only difference being that the maximum crop yield attained by maize is more than that of wheat. Using drip irrigation resulted in requiring the least amount of irrigation water followed by furrow and sprinkler irrigation, respectively. Using organic mulches reduced the evaporation that takes place reducing the crop’s water requirement. However, using organic mulches in drip irrigation has no effect. Similarly, the maximum marginal productivity is unaffected by the different irrigation techniques and mulching practices employed but the irrigation requirement at which the crops reached this maximum varied.
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The present study was conducted at the experimental site of Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Sindh Pakistan (Figure 1) during May-July, 2014-2015. The field is located at Latitude of 25.2528 o N and Longitude of 68.3224 o E at an elevation of 26 MSL, while the irrigation water supply was ground water. The meteorological data, i.e., mean monthly temperature, rainfall and pan evaporation rate were collected from the metrological observatory of Drainage Reclamation Institute of Pakistan (DRIP) Tandojam. The average monthly temperature were recorded 34.7º C, 33.8º C, and 33.6º C and 10.40 mm, 10.27 mm, and 9.95 mm were noted for the average monthly evaporation rates for May, June, and July respectively. The rainfall was 0.17 mm during the entire crop growth period in the experimental area.
water resources become scarcer, more emphasis is given to efficient use of irrigation water for maximum economic return and water resources conservation (Khamssi et al., 2014). This requires appropriate methods of measuring and evaluating how efficiently water applied is used optimally to produce crop yield. Evaluation of irrigation systems would help define irrigation losses, which are major constraints in agricultural production. Optimizing irrigation performance would minimize losses,which would increase water application efficiency and uniformity. Also, it will lead to improve in-farm production and reduce negative impacts on water sources. Shehata (2009) showed furrow irrigation with gated pipes as the best irrigation practice for salt leaching would also give high water use efficiency. Doable methods of increasing efficiency in corn farms are through optimized furrow design and irrigation parameters. Many surface irrigation systems are ineffective and inefficient. This can be caused by physical constraints (e.g., steep land slopes, shallow soils, poor water supplies, etc.), by poor design and layout, or by improper operation and management (Clemmens, 2007). Furrow irrigation is one of the inexpensive and probably low-technique methods of surface irrigation. This traditional method generally requires higher labor and fuel consumption. It also has lower water use efficiencies and sometimes causes erosion. However, with the right intervention in furrow design and irrigation management, it could also yield high irrigation efficiency and consequently reduce loss and cost of operation.
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In the present study, AIANS and AICN significantly improved the total N uptake by maize compared to AIAND and CICN (Table 3). The reduced N accumulation in AIAND could be related to the lower N uptake from the relatively dry soil zones. In AIAND, the separation of fertilizer N from the irrigated furrow each time resulted in that the root zone of N supplied became relatively dry. In CICN, CI resulted in the decreased soil water content in the plough layer (0-40 cm soil layers) compared to AI  . It has been shown that the soil N availability and its transport to the roots are determined by soil moisture content  . Both mass flow and diffusion rates and the release rate of the nutrient of available N were reduced by water deficit  , resulting in the decreased N uptake under AIAND and CICN (Table 3). Moreover, in this study, biomass was smaller in AIAND, which contributed to the reduced total N uptake  . Thus, these results suggested that the synchronized supply of N fertilizer and water with alternate furrow
Further, there are very few crops where detailed information is available regarding production responses to variable inputs throughout the growing season. Hence, the major stumbling block to the introduction of effective prescription irrigation systems is the necessary understanding of the crop production systems and the ability to identify the interactions between the various crop inputs, productivity gains and operating constraints/costs. The relatively recent development of crop simulation models for the grain, cotton (eg. Hearn, 1994) and sugar (Keating et al., 1999) sectors provide the first steps towards a framework which may enable the identification of optimal strategies. These models are currently being used to identify fertiliser and irrigation requirements at the "strategic" decision level. They are also currently being used to quantify the effect of various irrigation scheduling strategies including the potential for deficit irrigation and partial root-zone drying during less sensitive periods of crop growth. However, stripped down versions of these and other models could also be used as part of the real-time decision support systems required for tactical prescription irrigation by incorporation into controllers on irrigation application systems.
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