Future Generations

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The future generations University

The future generations University

Whilst not replicating all aspects of the contemporary university (which allegedly suffers from pluralism) we believed the Future Generations Universiry would be one which was[r]

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Establishment of sustainable health science for future generations: from a hundred years ago to a hundred years in the future

Establishment of sustainable health science for future generations: from a hundred years ago to a hundred years in the future

Fig. 1 There are three key points of Sustainable Health Science. The first is that it is focusing on not only the current generation but also future generations. Hence society should improve the environment so that possible adverse health effects will be prevented. It is a new public health, ‘‘Environmental Preventive Medicine’’. The second key point is that it is based on the precautious principle. When a small phenomenon appears, society should take action before the effect becomes obvious. The third key point is that it should be ‘‘Trans- disciplinary Science’’. Medical science alone is not enough to protect future generation’s health. Many other sciences, for example archi- tectural and engineering sciences should be involved
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Do people favour policies that protect future generations? Evidence from a British survey of adults

Do people favour policies that protect future generations? Evidence from a British survey of adults

Long-range temporal choices are built into contemporary policy-making, with policy decisions having consequences that play out across generations. Decisions are made on behalf of the public who are assumed to give much greater weight to their welfare than to the welfare of future generations. The paper investigates this assumption. It briefly discusses evidence from sociological and economic studies before reporting the findings of a British survey of people’s intergenerational time preferences based on a representative sample of nearly 10,000 respondents. Questions focused on two sets of policies: (i) health policies to save lives and (ii) environmental policies to protect against floods that would severely damage homes, businesses and other infrastructure. For both sets of policies, participants were offered a choice of three policy options, each bringing greater or lesser benefits to their, their children’s and their grandchildren’s generations. For both saving lives and protecting against floods, only a minority selected the policy that most benefited their generation; the majority selected policies bringing equal or greater benefits to future generations. Our study raises questions about a core assumption of standard economic evaluation, pointing instead to concern for future generations as a value that many people hold in common.
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Do people favour policies that protect future generations? Evidence from a British survey of adults

Do people favour policies that protect future generations? Evidence from a British survey of adults

Changes in the Earth’s environment and climate are putting the issue of intergenerational impacts into sharp relief (Myers & Patz, 2009; Pretty, 2013). Pre industrial societies, with their limited technologies and low fossil fuel consumption, have modest temporal impacts; their economic systems and lifestyles do little to alter environmental conditions for future generations. However, industrialising and post industrial societies rest on systems of production and consumption that are ‘producing futures …the innovative use of the earth’s resources ushered in the industrial revolution, but it has taken until now for people to recognise the long term consequences of these practices’ (Adams & Groves, 2007: xiv). Economic growth and health gains for their populations have been sustained at the cost of risks and hazards that fall forward in time – and fall on future generations in particular (IPCC, 2014). As the Brundtland Commission on the Environment and Development noted three decades ago, modern societies ‘borrow environmental capital from future generations with no intention or prospect of repaying [it]’ (UN, 1987: 8).
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Finite lives and infinite ends : an account of imperfect obligations to future generations

Finite lives and infinite ends : an account of imperfect obligations to future generations

However, there are good reasons to reconsider whether it truly is the case that future generations cannot aid us in achieving our ends. 34 Consider as an example Jim the Researcher. Jim dedicates his entire life to what he believed was a promising form of medical research in which he was able to manipulate the growth of new blood vessels. Jim is convinced that a restriction of growth of new blood cells will provide a cost- effective and life-saving new form of cancer treatment. Jim’s colleagues are less convinced. His last research grant was denied, and all of his publications on the subject have been rejected. But Jim is determined. He uses all of his personal funds (mortgages the house, sells his cars) and starts up his own research company in order to perfect his technique. Then he dies. His lab is sold off to pay for his outstanding debts, and his papers are auctioned off to a local museum where they are archived. There they sit until one day a group of scientists decide to reevaluate his work. There are then two things that could happen. Either they could see that Jim was onto something, or they could re- confirm their suspicion that Jim was just a crazy, deluded old man. But importantly, whichever they do will either help or harm Jim – they will determine whether his life was a success or a failure, whether he achieved his end of curing cancer. As John O’Neill has argued, future generations can play an important role in determining whether our projects are successes or failures; they can vindicate our work or confirm it to have been a waste of our time; whether or not our projects are brought to fruition will often be determined by future generations. 35
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West Virginia School of OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE HUMAN GIFT REGISTRY. For the benefit of future generations

West Virginia School of OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE HUMAN GIFT REGISTRY. For the benefit of future generations

The beliefs of most religions are consistent with the donation and use of one’s body for the purpose of health and medical science education and research. Such a gift benefits the lives of future generations and is the ultimate embodiment of the humanitarian principals that are the foundation of most religions. Should you have any questions regarding the religious considerations of donation, consult with your spiritual advisor for guidance. Family members or other legally responsible individuals may choose to offer a body for donation after death, even if a donor form was not completed by the individual before death. In this case, a responsible individual must contact the Human Gift Registry immediately following death and complete a Relative Release Form. It is critical that this contact be made promptly.
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2.    Africa, Depletable Natural Resources and the Rights of Future Generations

2.    Africa, Depletable Natural Resources and the Rights of Future Generations

However, our lack of knowledge about whether future generations will need exactly the same resources we are dependent on should not in any way deter us from being proactive in foreseeing the future as a replica of our current situation. The civilisation that we currently have is dependent on certain resources, and if we pass on this civilisation to those coming immediately after us and they in turn pass it on to those after them, then the resources on which we are dependent will be required to sustain civilisation as it is handed over to future persons from us. Our thinking about future beings needs to change, we need to “ stop thinking of generations as monoliths and give due consideration to the fact that generations overlap.” 22 It is not impossible that outcome of Research and Development in the future will lead to the discovery of other means of sustaining this civilisation but truth is that we do not know that for certain. Therefore, the safer thing to do is to act based on the knowledge we possess now and not “ expect that future generations will develop the knowledge and technology necessary to cope with all the problems they inherit from us.” 23 We can only justifiably believe that since existing civilisation is dependent on certain resources, and since future generations will inherit civilisation as we know it, they will need the resources with which we sustained civilisation in our time.
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Wealth Preservation. making your wealth last for you and future generations FINANCIAL GUIDE

Wealth Preservation. making your wealth last for you and future generations FINANCIAL GUIDE

Welcome to our Guide to Wealth Preservation. After a lifetime of hard work, you want to make sure you protect as much of your wealth as possible and pass it to those who you would like to receive it. Wealth, just like your health, must be carefully preserved, and the correct solution for you is the one that suits your personal circumstances. The subject of wealth preservation can be an emotional and complex matter. By making use of lifetime planning opportunities and tailor-making Wills and trusts to your particular circumstances, you can ensure that your valuable assets are retained for future generations in the most financially prudent and effective way.
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Constitutions, Democratic Self-Determination and the Institutional Empowerment of Future Generations: Mitigating an Aporia

Constitutions, Democratic Self-Determination and the Institutional Empowerment of Future Generations: Mitigating an Aporia

tutions of democratic self-determination, destabilising those constitutions by tempo- rally limiting their legal force purportedly for the sake of future generations’ self- determination would also undermine the very value of self-determination we seek to save for them. We cannot create self- determination tomorrow by jeopardising the working of democratic self-determination today. Instead, if we want to facilitate the self-determination of future generations, we should perpetuate the basic institutions of democratic self-determination and pro- tect them by constitutional law against their misuse or abrogation. The right of self- determination is an essential element of liberal democratic forms of government, and this form of government is usually enshrined in the nation’s constitution. The universalistic premise of the claim for future generations’ full self-determination Admittedly, this argument is based on the assumption that there are universal rights and values, one of these being “self- determination”. Such universal rights are often placed beyond the reach of simple democratic majorities, since their source of legitimacy is not the affirmation by major- ity, but, for example for Jefferson, natural law, or other universalistic ethical concepts. From this point of view, it seems to be legitimate to bind current and future ge- nerations to these rights and values, and to establish basic institutions that are deter- mined to guarantee them. Consequently, a special constitutional protection of these rights and institutions seems to be legi- timate, too. However, both the very sub- stance and the degree of abstraction of these constitutional commitments are disputed, and there are good reasons for keeping such constitutional regulations as parsimonious as possible in order to avoid unnecessary restrictions on future generations’ right of self-determination.
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POLICY HANDBOOK VOICE OF FUTURE GENERATIONS HOW TO ACHIEVE 100 % RENEWABLE ENERGY

POLICY HANDBOOK VOICE OF FUTURE GENERATIONS HOW TO ACHIEVE 100 % RENEWABLE ENERGY

A transition is underway around the world: Away from an energy system powered by increasingly expensive and unsustainable fossil fuel resources toward one powered fully by abundant, local, and affordable renewable energy sources. In the years ahead, this transition is poised to improve the quality of life for millions, reduce harmful greenhouse gas emissions, and help forge a world that is more just toward both current and future generations. This report provides an overview of some of the early pioneers leading the way toward such a future. The rising economic, health-related, and environmen- tal costs of burning fossil fuels, combined with the accelerating impacts of climate change are intro- ducing a new urgency into global efforts to rapidly diversify away from fossil fuels. As the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports highlight, in order to ensure planetary habitability for today’s and future generations, we urgently need to build societies powered by safe, affordable, and sustainable energy. More than 2/3 of global GHG emissions originate from the burning of fossil resources such as oil, gas and coal. In order to remain below a 2 degrees Celsius increase compared to pre-industrial temperatures, it will be necessary to move to a fully decarbonized energy sector by 2050. The close interconnection between our current energy system and the emerging climate crisis demonstrates that energy is not only the key problem we need to solve; it is also the solution.
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Wealth Preservation. making your wealth last for you and future generations FINANCIAL GUIDE

Wealth Preservation. making your wealth last for you and future generations FINANCIAL GUIDE

Welcome to our Guide to Wealth Preservation. After a lifetime of hard work, you want to make sure you protect as much of your wealth as possible and pass it to those who you would like to receive it. Wealth, just like your health, must be carefully preserved, and the correct solution for you is the one that suits your personal circumstances. The subject of wealth preservation can be an emotional and complex matter. By making use of lifetime planning opportunities and tailor-making Wills and trusts to your particular circumstances, you can ensure that your valuable assets are retained for future generations in the most financially prudent and effective way.
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Should we discount future generations welfare? A survey on the pure discount rate debate.

Should we discount future generations welfare? A survey on the pure discount rate debate.

Once we introduce some uncertainty regarding the existence of future people, it seems to me that the case for a positive discount rate is stronger, as Dasgupta and Heal argued, by developing their “probabilistic” argument for a positive discount rate under uncertainty. However, it should be mentioned that the resulting temporal discount rate, or “pure” discount rate, is, as Parfit rightly underlined, nothing else than an approximation for a probabilistic discount rate, which does not violate any “impartiality” requirement: it only takes into account the less likely existence of future generations. However, this use of one discount rate as an approximation of another can only be made if there is a sufficient (negative) correlation between time and likelihood of existence. It was showed that such a correlation was derived by Dasgupta and Heal, on the basis of several assumptions on the way the choosing party, under a veil of ignorance, forms his probabilities. Those strong assumptions might be justified on the grounds that Dasgupta and Heal’s “probabilistic” argument for a positive discount rate is purely normative: hence their requirements simply correspond to what one might require from a rational impartial choosing party making social choices. However, Dasgupta and Heal’s argument, exactly like Harsanyi’s initial derivation, is subject to Diamond and Sen’s critique, according to which social choices should not be based on the expected utility theory only. From a normative point of view, one might require from a choosing party to take into account, in his decisions, not only the social expectation of welfare, but also the entire intergenerational distribution of welfare. Therefore, Dasgupta and Heal’s argument might not be completely immunized against criticisms, and hence does definitely not bring the “pure” discount rate debate to its end.
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Should we discount the welfare of future generations? : Ramsey and Suppes versus Koopmans and Arrow

Should we discount the welfare of future generations? : Ramsey and Suppes versus Koopmans and Arrow

Our interest is in applying prescriptive social choice theory to an issue that arises in welfare economics — namely, specifying what discount rates one should apply to future generations’ welfare. For this one uses an individu- alistic theory of social consequences that starts with a “universal” personal consequence domain, which we take to be a non-empty set Y whose typi- cal member y has many attributes or dimensions. Following the discussion of Sections 3.1 and 3.2, we postulate that each y ∈ Y is “all-inclusive” in the sense that includes everything that is ethically relevant to any decision, whether individual or social, that concerns a person’s life history. These di- mensions should include the individual’s own preferences and beliefs, insofar as they are deemed relevant. They should also allow for variations in the date and circumstances surrounding an individual’s birth, upbringing, and death, including those aspects that also affect parents, partners and fam- ily members. Thus, with one exception, we assume that each consequence y ∈ Y has attributes which include personal copies of any ethically relevant common or impersonal circumstances that are shared with other persons.
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Preservation Factory. Preserving, protecting and managing assets for future generations

Preservation Factory. Preserving, protecting and managing assets for future generations

By providing technical solutions for restoring and managing archives in today’s digital age, Preservation Factory™ offers institutions, broadcas- ters, corporations, libraries, museums and many other organisations a way of safeguarding precious material for future generations. This comprehensive new service will repair archives with physical or chemical deterioration, restoring them to the best possible condition before conversion to digital media. It’s an easy way to ensure long-term preservation, fast access and efficient distribution of essential audiovisual assets in the Twenty-First Century. Sony is the first company in the world to offer such a wide-ranging service. Clients can choose the level of support they need to protect precious archives from simple digitalization to a full package including restoration, conversion to digital media, storage, distribution and
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Child Benefits and Welfare for Current and Future Generations: Simulation Analyses in an Overlapping-Generations Model With Endogenous Fertility

Child Benefits and Welfare for Current and Future Generations: Simulation Analyses in an Overlapping-Generations Model With Endogenous Fertility

The decline in fertility rate is a major concern for the Japanese economy. The reason for this is that an economy with a low birth rate and an aging population has created serious problems in terms of the sustainability of fiscal and social security systems, including public pension. In order to maintain sustainability, we have several policy choices. The first is to promote fiscal reform, e.g., increase consumption tax. The second is to carry out social security reform, e.g., decrease public pension benefits. The third is to revise the population trends, e.g., increase fertility rate by expanding child benefits. The Japanese government has attempted to work with the first and the second policies. However, due to conflicting interests between younger and older generations, obtaining an agreement on the reform by both generations is often too difficult for the government to achieve. Therefore, the government is trying to promote child benefits expansion as the third policy. Consequently, we should consider how to finance child benefits expansion. In general, the financial resource selection to provide child benefits determines the type of welfare effects on current and future generations. At this point, key research results on the OLG models with exogenous versus endogenous fertility should be compared.
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Education for sustainable development in tourism: empowering future generations

Education for sustainable development in tourism: empowering future generations

Blij (2011) perceives the defining moment in sustainability the publication of the Brundtland Report Our common future in 1987, with the now well-known definition (and the basis of the present report): ‘sus- tainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’. This definition puts the needs of citizens at the forefront of the discussion, and those needs are not necessarily only material ones. Sustainable development should be seen as a process which does not focus on economic development alone, but which also includes well-balanced ecological and social development. In fact, sustainable development refers to quality of life in the broadest possible sense. The difficult thing about the social aspect of sustainability is that it is layered (it pertains to both an individual and a collective level), and that it is reflexive (there is a continu- ous exchange between what we observe, how we interpret this, and how we behave). Added to this, in a social respect, too, sustainability is a process in which goals are frequently being adjusted, which makes it difficult to measure it with any precision.
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Me, Myself, and Future Generations: The Role of Affinity and Effectiveness in the Creation of Consumer Environmental Stewardship (CENS)

Me, Myself, and Future Generations: The Role of Affinity and Effectiveness in the Creation of Consumer Environmental Stewardship (CENS)

People's AFG can be stimulated by making them think of their own progeny (Wade- Benzoni, 1999; Wade-Benzoni & Tost, 2009). By thinking of their own children it becomes easier to envision future generations, reducing the social distance that would prevent them from acting on the future generation’s behalf. A stimulus was designed to help respondents think of their own progeny in the form of a story writing task about having (grand)children of their own (high-AFG condition). Since this experiment utilizes a student sample of young adults born after the 1980s who mostly do not have children, a text was added that asked respondents in the high-AFG condition to imagine how it would be to have (grand)children of their own and how they would see their relationship with them. In addition, a neutral stimulus was designed to ensure that people in the neutral-AFG condition faced similar circumstances to people in the high-AFG condition other than the intended differences between stimuli. This neutral stimulus involved a story writing task about respondents' favorite brand and their relationship with it. The AFG stimuli used are presented in Appendix A.
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Genetically modified sexed semen: a simple review about methodology, application and fallouts for present and future generations

Genetically modified sexed semen: a simple review about methodology, application and fallouts for present and future generations

undo the harmful effects of them. If a cow produces milk that contains mutagenic properties or our children feed upon the beef that has mutant elements in it, we probably will not be able to perceive these effects in generation one or two and in future generations when these defective genes will accumulate in greater numbers and we will be encountering a generation of humans who might have developed taste buds, canines and digestive habits like the carnivorous animals and who will prefer to feast on raw human flesh like living Draculas; then it will be too late in repenting over the crime of present day multinational corporations marketing sexed semen to our existing generation. There will be no point in crying after billions and billions of tons of water might have flown down the Thames, Ganges, Amazon, Niles or Volga by then.
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In fairness to future generations : ethical decision making in human experimentation

In fairness to future generations : ethical decision making in human experimentation

in place. First, this presupposes that we are morally required to act benevolent while there is reason to think that beneficent acts from non-obligatory, moral ideals that are not obligatory for anyone to undertake. I think this is the case for medical research, while there are theories of justice that specify that there is a right to a basic minimal health care. Moreover, it is difficult to draw the line between which acts of beneficence are obligated, and which are supererogatory (Beauchamp, 2013). If we to say that the actions of researchers to expand medical knowledge with the ultimate aim of improving medical care are supererogatory, it would mean that they have the status of moral heroes or saints. Yet, medicine tends to the healing of the wounded and ill, and while the acts of tending to those who are in need are beneficent and stem from a motive of benevolence, they are not saint-like. Rather, they are morally required. In that case, it can be argued that we are required to provide the best care as possible. However, for many diseases we are unable to provide proper care. In order to improve on this research is conducted. In that sense, research is necessary and morally required, in service of attaining to the needs of people who are ill or wounded. Does this exclude future generations? I don’t think so. While the benefits of research are aimed at those who will become ill in the future, it lies also in our best interest to do something about it now . We are not bound only to tend to the people who are ill now, but also the people who will become ill in the future. And this provides all the more reason to conduct research and improve medical care in the present, especially when current practices are not ideal and can be considered bothersome for patients. Yet, does justice then demand that we improve on health care for the sake of future generations? Or are there limitations?
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Climate change: discount or not? future generations don't care that much

Climate change: discount or not? future generations don't care that much

Nordhaus believes the far-distant damages are speculative. If this is a way to re- fer to the scientific uncertainty about the impact of climate change in the very long run, then it cannot by itself be taken as a justification for disregarding it. Gollier (2006) shows, on the contrary, that uncertainty on environmental damage should lead to a decrease in the discount rate. In fact, one can infer that Nordhaus can hardly figure out that after several centuries of temperature stabilization, very-distant future generations could suffer from the fact that the average temperature is hotter than nowadays. However, this is consistent with his own modeling of the temperature as a public bad. The alternative modeling we propose in this paper may fit to what Nordhaus has in mind when he calls speculative the far-distant damages. It focuses on the change in the temperature and not on the level of the temperature as a factor of damage. Of course, this modeling also has its challenges. Life on earth would certainly be impossible for very low or very high temperatures. Thus, if economic welfare can be represented as a function of the temperature, the curve would probably be a reverted U-shaped one, whereas our modeling implicitly assumes it is flat. Figure B.5 pictures what should probably look like the impact of climate change on economic welfare. This impact is twofold: first, the change would be harmful by itself because of the adjustment costs, second it would lead the economy to a different temperature, that would be more of less welfare enhancing. In this case, Stern-Nordhaus’ approach and ours would only be two polar cases, and discounting would have a bigger impact than what we find here. Thus, the big issue is to determine which of the slopes is the greatest. If W (T, ∆T ) is the welfare as a function of the temperature and of the change in temperature, then the big issue is to compare
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