IV. M EASUREMENTS FOR E NERGY C ONSUMPTION M ODEL Our energy consumption model is based on measurements in which we used Bluetooth 4.0, Wi-Fi, and 3Gwirelesscommunicationtechnologies at a full load. The process of designing our energy model can be divided in three phases. The first phase consists of measuring and collecting several parameters like the amount of transferred data, percentage of available battery, and elapsed time. In the second phase we made a comparison between the collected data. For each wireless technology we compared a maximum specified data throughput with a real world data throughput. In the third phase, based on the measured data, we designed energy consumption model for each of the communicationtechnologies above. In our previous work  we made an energy model for Android phones as opposed to the model proposed in this paper that is based on iOS phones. Moreover, in this model we included the measurements of Bluetooth 4.0 standard that is present on today’s iOS phones.
Abstract--- Consumers demand more from their technology. Whether it is a television, cellular phone, or refrigerator, the latest technology purchase must have new features. With the advent of the Internet, the most-wanted feature is better, faster access to information. Cellular subscribers pay extra on top of their basic bills for such features as instant messaging, stock quotes, and even Internet access right on their phones, E-mail, video calling. To support such a powerful system, we need pervasive, high- speed wireless connectivity. A number of technologies currently exist to provide users with high-speed digital wireless connectivity; Bluetooth, 802.11 and HIPERLAN are examples. These two standards provide very high-speed network connections over short distances, typically in the tens of meters. The goal is the same: long-range, high-speed wireless, which for the purposes of this report will be called 4G, for fourth-generation wireless system. Fourth-generation is characterized by new frequency bands, higher data rates and non backwards compatible transmission technology. The first release of the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard does not completely fulfill the ITU 4G requirements called IMT-Advanced. First release LTE is not backwards compatible with 3G, but is a pre-4G or 3.9G technology, however sometimes branded "4G" by the service providers. Its evolution LTE Advanced is a 4G technology. WiMAX is another technology verging on or marketed as 4G
Cellular communication uses 2G standards that defined for 1.9 GHz band and have GSM, IS-36 and IS-95 licenses. The 3G and 4G cellular technology operates on 824–894 MHz/1900 MHz spectrum range . It used in the latest technology whereas LTE and LTE-A standards . It has features that different from other wireless communications technologies make it more applicable for smart grid. For example it has high volume capacity that can move huge amount of data on the smart grid applications. And the power grids are already being used it, therefore initial investment cost does not exist, so the data can be transmitted with existing infrastructure. In addition to the cellular communication system has developed infrastructure security , .
Success of the communication technology deployed will decide the success of the smart grid. Each of the technologies discussed above are having lucrative advantages but the discouraging drawbacks as well, making it a highly confounding to choose one technology above the other. Let’s start with the GPRS, the whole purpose of real-time connectivity gets lost as connections are highly susceptible to communication drops, and reconnection time is nearly 20 seconds. The problem can be magnified in the rural areas where the range is limited. Theoretical speed of 200kbps can be achieved, but in reality it is just 15kbps.GPRS was designed with the idea of higher data download speed than upload speed. As the upload bandwidth is limited, meters in the field will take more time to send the data to the server. All the time connectivity of millions of devices will make the server design extremely complicated and costly. It would also additionally burden the telecom operators with the huge operational cost to allow continuous logging of millions of SIM cards on their network. The SIM card change on site would require extraordinary efforts and manpower if service operator discontinues the operation in that circle. For utility boards also it would be a recurring cost as they are obligated to pay for the bill amount of SIM tariff. On the positive side, the existing communication ecosystem and infrastructure can be used for communication for GPRS.If properly chosen, a single modem will be compatible with different networks like 2G, 3G, 4G etc., hence mitigating the risk of technology obsolescence.
3G networks offer greater security than their 2G predecessors. By allowing the UE (User Equipment) to authenticate the network it is attaching to, the user can be sure the network is the intended one and not an impersonator. 3G networks use the KASUMI block crypto instead of the older A5/1 stream cipher. 3G can implement various network technologies such as UMTS, GSM, CDMA, WCDMA, CDMA200, TDMA and EDGE. 4G Fourth generation (4G) also called Next Generation Network (NGN) offers one platform for different wireless networks. A successor of 2G and 3G, 4G promises a downloading speed of 100Mbps and is yet to shower its wonders on. then with the case of Fourth Generation that is 4G in addition to that of the services of 3G some additional features such as Multi-Media Newspapers, also to watch T.V programs with the clarity as to that of an ordinary T.V. In addition, we can send Data much faster than that of the previous generations. A 4G system is expected to provide a comprehensive and secure all-IP based mobile broadband solution to laptop computer wireless modems, Smartphone’s, and other mobile devices. Facilities such as ultra-broadband Internet access, IP telephony, gaming services, and streamed multimedia may be provided to users. In 4G the integration of network and its applications is seamless therefore there is no risk of delay. While implementing 4G the cost issue needs to be taken into consideration so that users can benefit from this technological development fully.
Malicious threats such as Botnet can cause serious damage to the smart grid. A bot is an application that performs automated task over the internet. Number of Bots together is referred to as Botnet. Bot attacks involve threats like Denial- of-Service (DoS) attack that causes excess traffic in data transmission between nodes by circulating false information into the communication network resulting in delay or blockage in legitimate data transmission process.
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), also called GSM-IP, sits on top of the GSM networking architecture offering speeds between 56 and 170 Kbps. GPRS describes the bursty packet-type transmissions that will allow users to connect to the Internet from their mobile devices. GPRS is nonvoice. It offers the transport of information across the mobile telephone network. Although the users are always on like many broadband communications methodologies in use today, users pay only for usage.This provides a great deal of flexibility and efficiency. This type of connection, coupled with the nature of packet-switched delivery methods, truly offers efficient uses of network resources along with the speeds consumers are looking for.The data rates offered by GPRS will make it possible for users to partake in streaming video applications and interact with Web sites that offer multimedia, using compatible mobile handheld devices. GPRS is based on Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication and as such will augment existing services such as circuit-switched wireless phone connections and the Short Message Service (SMS).
Given the constraints associated with Wireline Broadband, 3G is well poised to be India‟s champion for providing broadband services to the masses. While the recently concluded 4G auctions are providing alternate technologies like LTE (Long Term Evolution – Time Division Duplexing) and WiMAX which are better and faster than 3G, but the restriction of voice over 4G spectrum and high investment costs would mean that operators target these services towards subscribes which have high ARPU. These subscribers typically belong to urban areas and enterprise subscribers. Till WiMAX or LTE achieve a certain scale the devices with which to connect the internet would remain expensive. On the other hand 3G handsets are available for as low as INR 4700. Nokia launched its Nokia 2730 Classic model at a price point of INR 4700 15 . The availability of 3G devices at affordable prices would mean high volume of subscribers adopting 3G technology. This coupled with the fact that the capital expenditure involved in 3G technology is less means that 3G will drive the broadband growth in India in medium to long term.
The single-line high-speed digital subscriber line technology is a point-to-point high-speed data transmission technology. Li et al.  used this technique for long- distance local area network connections to meet the user’s long-distance requirement, small-capacity enterprise network leased line interconnection, and symmetrical band- width Internet access. The VxWorks-based wired communication module uses the ARM9 control chip as the master chip to complete the configuration and control of the communication chip SDFE-24624. This module also provides the function of state information reporting, host control, and automatic reconnection. Modules can auto- matically run connections without human intervention. The use of the entire module is convenient. Abbasi et al.  studied the design of a smart 1553B bus communication module based on an ARM processor. With the embedded CPU, the 1553B bus data can be packaged and reassembled within the module, thereby realizing the one-time transmission of multiple sets of data and the consumption of computer system re- sources at the bottom. According to actual tests, the efficiency of this method is great- ly improved compared with the traditional 1553B bus module. The design method of intelligent processing within the module is confirmed. It can also be extended to the design of other intelligent low-speed bus communication modules to improve the performance of the entire system.
Mobile wireless technology has been assessed from 0G to 4G, bringing the revolution in mobile communications [1, 2]. Each generation is an old, improved version . 4G technology has many applications, such as remote host monitoring, video call data ﬂow and machine type communication . 4G has some advantages but is unable to solve the problems of poor quality, poor coverage, loss of connections, high energy consumption, bad interconnectivity and overcrowded channels [3, 4]. Due to the rapid growth of communication system connected devices, current 4G technology will not meet the recent demand . Therefore, the mobile communication system must be upgraded to the next generation (5G) in order to meet the future demand of high data rates . Research is underway for 5G mobile communications and is expected to be commercialized early in the 21st century [4, 7].
9 3G: UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications system). Provide high bit rate services that enable transmission and reception of high quality images and vide. Max Throughput of 144 Kbps (mobile), 384 Kbps (pedestrian) and 2Mb/s (motionless). Improvement with HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Acces ): up to 10 Mbits/s.
The IoT also has its significant growth in business and home application that increases the world economy. For example smart home using IoT is used to prepare coffee, switch on the TVs and other appliances. IoT having layered architecture is highly capable of connecting enormous object to the internet, hence there is a need of layered architecture for IoT that should be flexible in nature and they should provide security and privacy. Smart devices are now linked to the internet with the help of communication protocols such as WiFi, Zigbee and soon that helps in processing and collecting the data. Although the Iot has significant advantages, the major issue faced in IoT is security that is caused by internet hackers other problems include scalability which is a major problem 
In recent years, the world has witnessed the deployment of sev- eral 3G and 3.5G wireless networks based on technologies such as CDMA 1x EVolution Data-Only (EVDO), High-Speed Down- link Packet Access (HSDPA), and mobile WiMax (e.g., WiBro). CDMA 1xEV-DO was standardized by Third Generation Partner- ship Project 2 (3GPP2)  and it allows cell phone users to connect to the Internet with speed of up to 2.4 Mbps for downlink opera- tions. The HSDPA technology is considered a 3.5G technology and currently supports a downlink bandwidth of up to 7.2 Mbps . Al- though 3G and 3.5G wireless networks support enough bandwidth for typical Internet applications, performance varies greatly due to the wireless link characteristics.
I propose the wireless vehicular network consist of both WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e) and MBWA (IEEE 802.20), as well as 3G. Since WiMAX was initially intended to replace existing phone lines, WiMAX should be used both to replace these lines, as well as provide a base station for traveling vehicles. WiMAX would be deployed primarily in residential and metropolitan areas since that is where it is best suited and for what it was originally intended. MBWA would be used along highways and roads since it can support high speeds and has a lower latency. At times this would provide overlapping coverage with WiMAX, but would primarily emphasize provision of connections for vehicles that are on these roads and highways. 3G would provide coverage where WiMAX and MBWA are not yet deployed and where cellular towers already exist. Figure 4 illustrates such a network.
However, IEEE 802.11 has accelerated the development of related protocols. Based on their physical & MAC layer designs, these protocols are evolving into standards supporting vehicular networks. Examples include Blu- etooth, WIMAX, WIMAX-2, Wireless Access Vehicular Environment (WAVE, comprised of IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609), ZIGBEE, and Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC). All of these are employed to provide safety, control, Internet access, health monitoring or diagnostics for the high speed vehicular environ- ment. All these standards also support IP, which gives them an edge over GSM-R. DSRC& WAVE are the most suitable for deployments in HSR. Salaberria et al.  advocated a unique concept of inter-railcar connection with Bluetooth. The research is a product of findings in industrial applications such as the Safe Driver Machine Interface (SAFEDMI) and On Board Wireless Video Surveillance (BOSS). Before downloading train diagnostics data and updating software in-train systems through wireless links, SAFEDMI tests the wireless links thorough- ly. And BOSS is a proposed research solution in trains for CCTV surveillance utilizing IEEE 802.16.In the pro- posed architecture, the middleware consists of a Train Communication Manager (TCM) and a Ground Commu- nication Manager (GCM) to distribute the active load of train-to-ground communication. The system includes a Bandwidth Management Service (BMS) to notify GCM of available bandwidth. It can be deployed using existing cellular and non-cellular technologies for robust operation.
Since WSNs are energy and processing limited, important considerations must be made before the deployment phase of the network. These considerations includes, but not limited to; understanding phenomena/event requirements and the deployment environment (as this will assist in deciding on relevant equipment and their capability, and also whether there are no radio frequency disturbances within the area (in case of industrial or city/infrastructure deployments)), sensor network connectivity (i.e. critical measure must be taken to maintain connectivity), the ability of the network to self-configure in adverse or intrusion situation ,  choice of wireless protocol depending on the sensor type to be used as protocols/standards differ in power usability, throughput and communication range , . We therefore put emphasis towards these considerations, so that if necessary; any software or resource oriented limitation be accounted for during the network planning phase.
requires external resources to be renewed. Current technologies can increase battery capacity by only 5% per annum. Several energy harvesting efforts have been in progress since the 1990s to replenish energy from external resources like human movement and wireless radiation, but these intermittent resources are not available on-demand. Alternatively, application offloading and fidelity adaptation approaches are proposed to conserve local mobile resources, especially energy. However, application offloading is a risky, resource-intensive approach that needs further research and development to be deployed in real scenarios. Fidelity adaptation solutions compromise quality to conserve local resources which impoverish quality of user experience in MCC. Researchers endeavoured to mitigate application offloading challenges by exploiting secure, reliable, elastic cloud resources instead of insecure, limited surrogate’s resources. However, cloud based application offloading cannot always save energy with current developments and demands further efforts. Therefore, the energy constraint of mobile nodes remains a challenge in MCC.
Software stack comprises the structure effectively hosting protocols and algorithms enabling WSN nodes to offer the required functionality in the context of a specific WSN network. On top of the communication platform, a wide range of complex algorithms implementing the respective intelligence must be effectively developed. From a communication point of view respective algorithms may include routing, transport, application and middleware protocols that must be supported or developed. Even more, user algorithms for data pre-processing, compression, event detection, security etc. are increasingly required by many demanding applications. All these requirements must be provided by a flexible, extendible and efficient software development environment. Moreover, adequate operating systems enabling synchronization, multitasking, shared memories and many other features typically found in highly efficient computer systems are also required. An optimum selection in this context also facilitates heterogeneity and support of new technologies.
Whenever an LCD projector is used for a presentation it basically needs a VGA cable between the VGA port of a computer and the projector. The projector displays whatever appears on the monitor of the PC on the projector screen. And the settings of the screen, volume and others can be changed with the help of switches placed on the projector or with the help of a wireless infrared remote. With this existing system it is difficult to maintain and control the projector with IR remote due to its line of sight property and short range it works in. This paper shows how these limitations can be overcome and also in addition ensures security from theft with the help of a PIR Sensor controlled with an android mobile via Wi-Fi. This paper aims at replacing the IR technology with WIFI technology. And the projector makes the interface wireless using a Wi-Fi protocol.
ABSTRACT: Wireless Sensor Networks have attracted much attention now a days. They are collecting ,storing and sharing sensed data.In proposed system we are going to monitor properties of soil .Wireless Sensor Network enables monitoring and managing of large set of environment data which includes climatic, atmospheric, plants and soil parameters that influence cropland growing enviroment . Generally the basic soil properties are soil water holding capacity, moisture content, Temperature, salinity, soil colour, soil texture, fertility of soil, etc. In an advanced Wireless embedded Network has been developed recently for monitoring of soil property at multiple depths and different soil water contents . Wireless Sensor Network consist of Wireless devices that operate below the ground surface. These devices buried completely under dense soil.This Wireless Sensor Network uses multiple sensor nodes to sense soil property data, data sink and long distance cellular network to transmit field data to remote database.