frame Industrial structures has helped to optimize structural designs. The structures have been economized based on their span, height and spacing and with possible alternative roofing systems. In this study Alternative structural layouts for Industrial gable frames of long span light roof structures like Industries, Warehouses etc are been proposed. The Alternatives considered are Conventional Frame with Truss, Pre-engineered Frame and Lattice Girder Frame and they have been Analyzed and Designed as per IS 800-2007. The Finite Element software STAAD Pro-v8i has to be employed for this purpose. In this present study, an Industrial structure with plan dimensions of 22.5m x 48m having a eave height of 12m and with practically possible roof slopes is considered for Analysis and Design for 2-D frames (Gable End frame, Intermediate frame) and also a complete 3-D Analysis and Design with the addition of secondary members . By maintaining the same height and width of the frame for all the alternative designs the Economy of the Industrial building with the best suitable alternative roofing system is proposed in terms of its tonnage, in the case of 2-D frames and also Tonnage comparison in the case of 3-D building.
Starting out from these realities, the behaviour of roof gable walls, which are one of the architectural parts of con- structions constructed in our country, under the effect of earthquake load was investigated empirically. The exper- iments were carried out by constructing roof systems in Figs. 1 and 2 on 6.00 × 5.00 m shaking table in Earthquake Research Department of General Directorate of Disaster Af- fairs (TEC, 2007). According to the results of the exper- iments, it was also searched which precautions should be taken to make roof gable walls more secure against earth- quake load and suggestions were given about this. Thus, in our country, the construction of roof gable walls being more secure against the effect of earthquake and preventing the deaths and financial damages as a result of any earthquakes will be provided.
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A calculation example of load bearing capacity of the gable frame with a rigid beam-column joint having 4 bolts 9.45 mm in diameter and external load q along the rafter (see Fig. 7. (b)) developing internal forces H, V and moment M at the vicinity of beam-column joint is presented as follows. Evaluation of internal forces acting on each bolt was performed using rigid plate assumption, where the horizontal force H and vertical force V are equally shared by all bolts. The moment M is resisted by the moment-couple proportional to the distance of each bolt to centroid of the bolt configuration, as indicated in Fig. 8 (a). Finally, the lateral force acting on bolt number i can be further simplified according to Fig. 8 (b) where the lateral force equals to R i as
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Lattice Girder frames are supported on steel as well as R.C.C columns they are usually costlier than Steel portal or gable frames for lesser spans. Though they give the great framing possibilities for an enormous range of span more than 30m. For the service amenities needing space or machinery or cranes suspended from the roofing area, or where deflection criterion is predominantly critical (in case of using corrugated cement roofing sheet) such type of lattice frames are preferably used.
Research in the field of hydraulic engineering at IWW The research area of the IWW is broadly based and includes key topics from the fields of high water risk management, hydraulic engineering structures, navi- gable waterway constructions, hydroelectric power, pumped-storage plants, fish protection elements, sedi- ment transport and morphodynamics, coastal engineer- ing and water quality improvement. Projects are typically assessed both in fundamental and applied research, to not just give an understanding of the involved pro- cesses but recommend options for tailor-made solutions. Within its projects, the institute is working in close coop- eration with research facilities and administrative boards in Germany and worldwide, such as the Federal Water- ways Engineering and Research Institute (BAW), the German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), the Min- istry for Climate Protection, Environment, Agriculture, Conservation and Consumer Protection of the State of NRW (MKULNV) or the Israel Institute of Technology. The IWW is further integrated into the Project House Water , a joint venture of six RWTH institutes with a research focus on water. The project house is funded by
In support of their theory, Gable and Harmon-Jones (2010) reported a study showing that sad images selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) database (Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2005) broadened attention in a global-local letter task (Navon, 1977). That is, reaction times (RTs) to the global letter were faster when preceded by a sad image compared to when preceded by a neutral image. Similarly, they reported that disgust, a negative emotion high in motivational intensity, narrowed attention (Gable & Harmon-Jones, 2010). They also reported the same pattern for positive emotions: humor, low in motivational intensity broadened attention, whereas desire (i.e., films showing delicious deserts), high in motivational intensity narrowed attention (Gable & Harmon-Jones, 2008; for a recent replication of this study, see Domachowska et al., 2016; Gable & Harmon-Jones, 2016). Based on these studies they concluded that motivational intensity – and not valence per se – accounted for the differences in global-local processing.
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The advantage of this inclusive development indicator is that it uses an inclusive growth measure that is better than those proposed by Ianchovichina and Gable (2012) and Anand et al. (2013). In essence, the quality of growth index (QGI) of Mlachila et al. (2014) has integrated social dimensions into the intrinsic measurement of growth. The QGI conceives ‘inclusive growth’ as ‘pro - poor growth’ that is high, durable and socially -friendly. Therefore, some of the crucial dimensions essential for ‘growth quality’ entail: increasing productivity, stability, strength, better standards of living and reduction of poverty. To the best of our knowledge, this QGI has been employed by two studies, namely: Asongu and Gupta (2015) and Asongu (2015a). The latter has assessed the conditional effects of welfare spending on
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The 3D mathematical model of gable stay frame structure isgenerated in SAP2000 as shown in fig 3. The loads acting on the structure are defined and assigned to an individual members. The nonlinear time history analysis of an industrial steel frame is carried out under ground motions as mentioned in table 7.The plastic hinges are generated for column and beam member of a mathematical model as per ASCE 41-13.The ground motions are scaled as per spectral matching using time domine for peak ground acceleration of specific zone. The graph showing scaled pseudo spectral acceleration is shown in fig 4.
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pressures were measured at the gable roof end wall. The greatest suction pressures were found when the monitored wall was mounted at 80° to the wind. Wind loading was calculated using two approaches. In one approach, the peak measured cladding surface and cavity pressure coefficients were compared to determine the net peak pressure coefficient. Using this approach resulted in very low net peak pressure coefficient. However, as these peak pressures may not have been coincident, the authors suggested the approach may not have captured the actual net peak loading on the vinyl siding. They further measured instantaneous point PEF (suction) values of 71 to 106% and calculated instantaneous PEFs values for 1m 2 tributary area of 40% to 75%. These values are more in line with those measured Cope et al. (2012). However, they did not report PEF values coincident with peak suction pressures. Hence, the results are presented cannot be directly compared to those measured by Cope et al. 2012. The values, however, are greater than those used in ASTM D3679 providing further evidence the current design standard underestimated wind loads on vinyl siding products. Furthermore, the Moravej et al. study monitored pressure on the gable end wall while Cope et al.’s measurements were on the side wall. Ideally both walls would be monitored to capture the highest suction loads.
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IEL. The percentage of IEL that utilize Vb6 and -8 are com- parable to those previously reported by Rocha and colleagues (36). For the mice maintained in the specific-pathogen-free facility, the percentage of IEL utilizing different Vbs was rel- atively stable, compared to data presented by Viney et al. (45). However, in one noninfected group of mice, TCR Vb2 was increased to approximately 70% of the IEL, indicating unsus- pected exposure to a nominal antigen (possibly a superantigen) prior to evaluation (data not shown). The expanded families of TCR Vb genes utilized in conventionally reared mice con- trasted with results obtained from the germfree mice in which TCR Vb expression in IEL was uniformly low. These data suggest that sporadic introduction of microorganisms into the syngeneic mouse colony may occur and result in biologic vari- ability of T-cell responses under experimental conditions. Food antigens apparently result in minimal expansion of a/b TCR 1 T-cell subpopulations in the absence of commensal
cording to a modified protocol of Lefrançois (23). Intestinal tissue was trimmed of fat and connective tissue and Peyer’s patches were re- moved. The intestinal tissue was washed extensively in PBS, chopped and then incubated in 2 mM EDTA in PBS for 30 min at 37 8 C with stirring to release intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). Lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) were isolated from the remaining tissue frag- ments by incubation in 0.2 mg/mL collagenase/dispase (Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis, IN) for 30 min at 37 8 C with stirring. The IEL and LPL preparations were then washed and sieved twice through nylon gauze (pore size 100 m m) and twice through 70- m m Falcon cell filters (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ). Lymphocytes were enriched by centrifugation within 40% (vol/vol) Percoll (Pharmacia LKB, Uppsala, Sweden) overlaid on 75% Percoll for 20 min at 750 g . Before cell sorting, T cells were enriched by depletion of B cells, neutrophils and macrophages. Cell preparations were incubated with anti-B220, -8C5 and -Mac 1 Ab and the Ab-reactive cells were re- moved in a magnetic field using a combination of goat anti–rat IgG (Fc) and goat anti–rat IgG (H 1 L) coated magnetic beads (Advanced Magnetics, Cambridge, MA). The remaining cells were stained with CD4-FITC and CD8 a -PE for 20 min on ice. Flow cytometric analysis was performed using a FACScan ® (Becton Dickinson, Sunnyvale,
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Our efforts to quantify on an absolute basis the number of g / d IEL in HIV infection provided an overall count higher than that in normal controls, especially in the two subgroups pre- ceding the end stage. Provided that g / d cells really perform antimicrobial functions and that these cells are similarly in- creased at other epithelial surfaces, they might contribute to an important part of local resistance against pathogens in HIV 1 individuals. In a previous study (38), we found significantly increased duodenal g / d IEL in IgAD patients only when they had no infections, although the compensatory effect of mucosal IgM and IgG1 also might have contributed to their apparently well-functioning antimicrobial defense (39). The reasons why some HIV individuals remain healthy over a long period while others rapidly become infection prone have up till now been ascribed to variations in their CD4 cell numbers, but how HIV kills CD4 1 T cells is still a matter of controversy (21, 22).
recognize TAP-independent peptides in the context of MHC class Ib molecules, such as Tla, encoded by the T3 and T18 genes, and CD1 molecules, both of which are expressed by i-EC in association with ␤2m (4, 11, 13, 19, 40, 42). Beagley et al. reported that the reactivity of i-IEL to syngeneic spleen cells is enhanced by bacterial antigens such as PPD, HSP70, and HSP60 (2). It has also been reported that human ␥␦ i-IEL recognize stress-induced MHC class I-like molecules MICA FIG. 6. Survival rate of CD8␣-deficient mice receiving i-IEL trans- fer following 5-FU administration. i-IEL (10 7 ) from Ly5.1 congeneic
Abstract:- This study aim to identify and analyze the effect of organizational culture, organizational commitment, work motivation on employee performance. This research was conducted at Pusat Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informatika. The sample in this research of 42 employee all civil servants in the Pusat Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informatika. This study uses research instrument such as questionnaires distributed to employee of Pusat Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informatika. The analytical method used is multiple linear regression analysis. Data is processed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 23. The result showed that organizational culture variables has influenced positive and significant on employee performance Pusat Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informatika. organizational commitment variables has influenced positive and significant on employee performance Pusat Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informatika. work motivation variables has influenced positive and significant on employee performance Pusat Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informatika The result showed that organizational culture, organizational commitment, work motivation influence has positive and significant on employee performance.
There are publications suggesting that CD3 immunohistochemistry would help in the evaluation of İEL (25,26). In all groups of our study the majority of İEL was constituted from lymphocytes expressing CD3. Oberhuber et al. have shown likewise that; the majority of İEL in CD ,in giardiasis and normal duodenal mucosa shows CD3 positiveness (27).The number of İEL with CD3-positive enterocytes on the surface was higher in all groups when compared in crypts. Similar results shown in the literature in the jejunum mucosa (28) and in duodenal mucosa (29) in CD and in normal individuals .We observed that the number of CD3-positive cells onsurface and in crypts are reduced towards the CD from the group who has İEL in duedonum, and group of NSD and K group. CD8 positive cells gave similar results with the number of CD3. Our findings showed that predominant subtype in İEL were CD8 positive cells both in CD and normals and such study was done by Selby (30) and Verkasalo et al (30) in jejunum mucosa. Again,
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Single-cell suspensions of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) and spleen cells were obtained by gently mincing the tissue samples with a scalpel blade in RPMI 1640. After the tissue samples were cut into small pieces the tissue-RPMI 1640 mixture was pipetted repeatedly to create a single-cell suspension. The tissue cell mixture was then passed through a 100-m cell strainer (Becton Dickinson no. 352350) and collected in a sterile 50-ml conical tube (Becton Dickinson no. 353070). Mononuclear leukocytes (e.g., lymphocytes) were isolated from the cell suspension by using Percoll (Sigma-Aldrich Corp., St. Louis, MO) at 1.083 g/ml. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) were isolated to represent gut-associated lym- phoid tissue (GALT) from the duodenum (Fig. 1) as described previously (9).
Socio-legal approaches to international economic law acknowledge that international economic activities and their regulation are social phenomena and have pervasive effects on everyday life. 9 As traders and investors “cross boundaries”, “settle in new communities” and commercialize their products and services, international trade and foreign direct investments spread “knowledge, norms, and values”. 10 Not only do socio-legal approaches investigate legal provisions, but they also examine the contexts in which legal texts operate. 11 In fact, international economic law is much more than the mere sum of its provisions. 12 Socio-legal approaches to IEL explore the role that both public and private actors play in international economic relations considering economic interactions as “part and parcel of social life”. 13 Like other “law and …” linkages, the link between law and society can be a fertile one, allowing some cross-fertilization across international law and sociology – meant as the study of society. 14
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the secondary and tertiary industries in Shanghai are larger than those of Sichuan. In particular, the output proportions of the secondary industries in Shanghai are 10 % larger than those of Sichuan. From Fig. 4, we can see that most of the in- dustries with larger forward and backward linkages are sec- ondary industries. These two phenomena prove that Shang- hai’s IEL II is larger than Sichuan’s in terms of absolute value. In addition, as can be seen in Fig. 4, the bar repre- senting Shanghai is higher than Sichuan, and many of the industries in Shanghai have a self-sufficiency level less than 100 %. These two marked differences prove that Shanghai’s trade intensity is much stronger than that of Sichuan. The ARIO model simulates the impacts of mutual trade between a disaster-hit zone and the outside areas on indirect losses. For Shanghai, which has intense trade, the break-down of in- frastructure such as communications and transportation can damage regional trade, making the import of reconstruction materials, as well as the export of products, difficult. It is im- portant to mention that intense trade is like a “double-edged sword” to IEL. On the one hand, it has lower multiplier ef- fects. On the other hand, it blocks imports from outside of disaster-hit zones in emergency period. In the case of Shang- hai, the benefits of intense trade are offset by other factors such as industrial technology, determining industrial multi- plier effects (see Fig. 4).
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In this study we have evaluated the profile of IELs in a long cohort of patients with active and silent CD. According to other authors, we have also found a signifi- cant increase of both total and cd IELs and a significant decrease of CD3- IELs in active CD patients as compared to patients with absent CD [13, 16, 19, 22, 26]. Interest- ingly, we have observed similar alterations on IELs subsets in silent CD patients. Our results are in discordance with the study of Erias et al.  that reported the same IEL lymphograms in patients with active, latent and potential CD, and suggested that the IELs lymphogram may be particularly useful for the diagnosis of latent and potential CD. In the same way, Goldstein et al.  suggested that increased IELs could constitute, by themselves, the first sign of latent or potential forms of CD, even in the pres- ence of preserved villi. Moreover, several authors reported that potential CD was characterized by an increased num- ber of total and/or cd IELs [9, 13, 21, 27]. From our data, the evaluation of the IELs subsets may be of help as diagnostic tool in active and silent CD, but we do not have conclusive data on potential CD.
intraepithelial lymphocytosis to be present if >25 IEL/100 epithelial cells were observed) (Figure 2). All controls had normal duodenal aspect at endoscopy and normal histol- ogy at biopsy (Marsh 0). As expected, upon starting GFD, celiac patients experienced a progressive decrease in serum atTG and EMA levels and a gradual clinical improvement (data not shown). This was mirrored by progressive villous regeneration and IEL decrease at histology (Figure 2a). After 24 months of GFD, all patients were asymptomatic and their duodenal mucosa was macroscopically normal; at histol- ogy, none of the patients had villous atrophy and only 6% of them still showed a slight IEL increase (Marsh I) (Figure 2b). Table 1 Patients’ baseline characteristics