junction rectifiers and transparent electrode for the extraction of separated charge carriers from the absorbing region of semiconductor material[1-3]. Other applications like organic light-emitting device (LED) and flat panel display (FPD)  also employed TCO films as transparent conductive contact. Different TCO thin films materials have been used in this regard, such as zinc oxide (ZnO), gallium-doped indium tin oxide (GITO) and indium tin oxide (ITO) [6-8]. ITO thinfilm is the most widely applied TCO due to its excellent electrical conductivity (10 4 Ω -1 cm -1 ) and high optical transmittance (> 80 %) in the visible region of light spectrum[9, 10]. It’s a degenerate n-type semiconductor with an increasingly wide bandgap (3.5-5.1 eV) [11, 12]. ITO high transparency is as a result of its wide bandgap, whereas the presence of oxygen vacancies and extrinsic defect of tin dopant contributed to its high electrical conductivity [3, 13, 14].
Compositional variations from P51MQ stoichiometry is produced as a result of the argon ion bombardment processes, characteristic of RFMS, unveiling a non-stoichiometric atomic transfer. This parent glass-to-sputtered coating incongruent atomic transfer has been termed “preferential sputtering” and is the result of the counteracting interatomic forces and the inherent bonding strength interactions of the glass structure itself. Stuart et al. previously suggested that the variable energy required to break the respective oxide bonds within a glass was the dominant cause of preferential sputtering , whilst Gibbsian segregation due to ion bombardment allowed continuous alkali migration to the surface of the sputtered sample [53, 54]. Furthermore, Stan et al. reported on additional momentum exchange interactions such as backscattering based on differential mass of sputtered atoms and background argon ions, relating to the mean free path during travel from target to substrate .
Other metal-oxide compositions have been investigated as passivation materials. Incorporating nitrogen into IGZO by reactive sputtering following deposition of the channel layer was shown to improve the electrical characteristics of the device in atmosphere and under gate bias stress . IGZO:N also acts as a UV barrier, which makes it a viable light-blocking material. Another passivation layer is Zinc-Tin-Silicon-Oxide (ZTSO) was investigated by Sundholm et al. ZTSO provided a negative shift, indicating charge accumulation on the back side of the channel and severe distortion caused by increased surface states . Yttrium oxide (Y 2 O 3 ) is another passivation material studied
An ideal gas sensor needs to exhibit high sensitivity and selectivity, stability, rapid response and recovery times at reasonable cost. In addition to these, it should also consume low power, be compact and portable and should be durable. Among the various types of solid state gas sensors, semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) gas sensors have advantages over the others because of their high sensitivity, lower cost, long life, miniaturization and ability to be integrated into micro arrays along with simplicity of design and operation. However due to non-specificity to chemical interaction which leads to the response signal, SMO gas sensors suffer from poor selectivity limiting widespread application. These sensors also typically have to be operated at high temperatures of 200°C-400°C to ensure rapid kinetics . This requires incorporation of a heating element which makes SMO gas sensors unsuitable for detection of flammable gases and affects device portability along with high power consumption. Several approaches are investigated to realize the operation of these sensors at room temperature. These include use of novel semiconducting materials , photoillumination  and field effect .
Wang et al. (1998) prepared copper nitride films by changing the content of nitrogen gas at various sputtering pressures. They concluded that the band gap of the film could be engineered by controlling the nitrogen gas pressure. A calculation of electronic structure showed that copper nitride is a semiconductor with a small indirect band gap. It was also predicted that the copper nitride is a better conductor when it is rich in copper and that extra copper produces an increase in the lattice constant. (Monero-Armenta et al., 2004)
The chemical composition of ZnO and ZnO:Al films deposited onto silicon substrates was investigated using EDS. In Figure 3(a) it is possible to observe the spec- trum of the ZnO film, where the intensities of the peaks of the elements zinc and oxygen are consistent with the concentrations in the film. Similar zinc and oxygen peaks are also observed in the spectrum of Figure 3(b), but a small peak, which corresponds to aluminum, is also clearly observed. This result is expected since the ZnO film was doped from a metallic zinc target with 0.5 wt% of Al. It is also possible to infer the presence of silicon from the two spectra of Figure 3, which is probably due to the substrate, since the ZnO films are < 1 µm thick and during scanning the electron beam can reach the sub- strate. These results are in agreement with other studies [9,17].
in 0.1 M KOH electrolyte. Figure7. shows the C-V of ruthenium oxidethinfilm electrodes annealed at 900°C temperature. The capacitive behaviour of the oxide is enhanced by rectangular shape of the plot.  The electrode potential scanned between -600 mV to 800 mV in both anodic and cathodic directions for a thinfilm electrode annealed at 900°C showed the typical pseudocapacitive behaviour.
You are about to start reading my PhD thesis entitled Plasma diagnostics focused on new magnetron sputtering devices for thinfilm deposition. It deals with pro- cesses concerning sputtered particles in a deposition reactor. A magnetron cath- ode is sputtered and acts as a source of metal particles. These particles are ion- ized either by a microwave plasma located between the magnetron cathode and the substrate or by a magnetized plasma itself working in preionized high power pulse regime. To describe and understand these two different concepts of sput- tered particles ionization, different approaches to plasma diagnostics are needed. The microwave assisted PVD reactor consists of a magnetron cathode excited by a direct current and two microwaves antennas located perpendicularly to magnetron substrate holder axis. While a sputtered particle diffuses toward the substrate, it can be ionized anywhere between the magnetron cathode and the substrate. In this case, it is suitable to perform the spatially resolved plasma diagnostics. The role of various elementary processes which may influence the densities of species in magnetron and microwave plasma are discussed. Particular attention is given to the estimation and the role of gas temperature. In the high power pulsed PVD, sputtered particles are ionized in the magnetized region and after that, they can leave it and continue towards the substrate. These processes are time dependent and it is suitable in this case to perform time resolved measurements. Plasma dynamics, time evolution of plasma compositions and particularly the extremely fast transition to stable self-sputtering regime is discussed. Simultaneously with the creation processes of ions, their transport was studied too. Because we in- tended to work in a reactive magnetron sputtering too, I spent a time studying the plasma ignited by surfatron in nitrogen gas, oxygen gas and their mixtures. We started with moderate pressure microwave discharge. To detect the reactive rad- icals, such as N and O atoms, electron paramagnetic resonance and NO titration was used. The second mentioned method was advanced and permits now to obtain simultaneously N and O atom density without a calibration. My thesis consists of an introduction, 5 chapters and a summary. These 5 chapters are independent and can be red in any order. However, if you are not interested only in a particular topic, I advice you to follow the order, which I proposed.
thinfilm can be controlled by varying the surface wet- tability of the PEDOT:PSS/oblique ITO/glass. Contact angle images of the oblique ITO/glass samples were ob- tained to understand the variation of the surface wettabil- ity of the PEDOT:PSS/oblique ITO/glass samples, as depicted in Fig. 5. The wettability of the PEDOT:PSS/ob- lique ITO/glass samples is inversely proportional to the wettability of the oblique ITO/glass samples, so the vertical distributions of the hydrophilic PSS polymers and hydro- phobic PEDOT polymers can be manipulated by varying the surface wettability of the oblique ITO/glass sample. PSS polymers are suggested to be distributed mostly in the upper surface of the PEDOT:PSS thinfilm when the sub- strate has a hydrophobic surface (Fig. 5a), resulting in a small water droplet contact angle on the PEDOT:PSS thinfilm (Fig. 4a). The experimental results (XRD and SEM) demonstrate that the MAPbI 3 grains are multi-crystalline
The two maximum discharge capacity values after 50 charge/discharge cycles revealed in the present work are equal to ~145 nm (mass loading 0.033 mg/cm 2 ) and ~1200 nm (0.293 mg/cm 2 ) (overestimated values, as discussed above), which nearly fall into these intervals. It seems that such values of the Si film thickness provide the morphology with the best availability of the Si electrode surface for the electrolyte and the highest integrity of Si films upon lithiation/delithiation. These two optimal thickness values nearly correspond to the average sizes of agglomerated particles forming the silicon layer on the Cu substrate surfaces (see Fig. 2 and comments in Section 3.1), ~100–400 nm and 1–2 μm. It is likely that such film morphology ensures both strong adhesion of silicon granules and numerous micropores, which facilitates the contact with the electrolyte solution and reduces the stress caused by volume expansion/contraction during the cycling. In addition, it removes the limitations of Li diffusion into Si.
Figure 2 shows the three kinds of XRD diagrams of structural films. It can be clearly seen from the three film structure, 2 θ respectively for, 38.51 ˚, 44.75˚, 65.11˚, it has obviously peak after and elemental aluminum of stan- dard (JCPDS cards 652869) compared, respectively for Al corresponds to of (111), (200), (220) three a features peak, 78.29 ˚ at has weaker of Al (311) of features peak, description three species film structure in the are contains metal Al of components. By XRD analysis, Scherrer, Paul formula calculates the average grain size of Al film. Scherrer, Paul formula, where D is the average grain diameter and λ is the wavelength of x-diffraction, β is the most intense diffraction peak FWHM, in radians, and θ is the diffraction angle. Computed in single layer of Al film Al an average particle size of about 28 nm; SiO 2 /Al two-layer membrane structure of the average particle
Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films of different thickness were successfully grown on the corning glass substrate using radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. All the sample were undergone heat treatment at temperature of 600 ºC for 4 hours inside a furnace. The measurement of the thickness have been performed using surface profiler and optical properties have been studied using UV-VIS spectroscopy in wavelength regime 200-2500 nm for determination of energy band gap. Energy band gap was calculated based on the optical transmittance and photon energy and being measured in range of 2.76 eV – 3.54 eV while the transmittance was approximately 90 %.
of resistivity neither at high nor at low temperatures. This indicates that the films are “frozen” into the metallic state. The observed increase of conductivity with temperature for our films, contrary to what is expected in a metal, could be associated with contributions of grain boundaries material, or overall defective nature of the thin films. A strong defect or grain boundary scattering contribution in a metal can lead to the observed conductivity improvements with temperature, as their effect is reduced at higher temperatures. We relate the absence of the phase transition to the significant decrease of the lattice constant a for our films compared to the bulk, where it varies from 5.157 to 5.125 Å for temperatures between 20 and 600 °C . An alternative explanation is the low crystallographic domain size observed in the films, which leads to a high number of grain boundaries within the films. The high number of such boundaries could lead to the suppression of the transition behavior due to frequent disruption of the Ti-Ti bond which is the origin of the behavior. Both mechanisms, the lattice distortion and small grain size are most likely linked.
no. 040-1499). Various deposition parameters (such as target power, substrate temperature, or argon pressure) were previously investigated, and in all cases, the as- deposited thin films were amorphous. As it can be seen in Fig. 1, the annealing treatment leads to the crystallization of NASICON-type Li 3 Fe 2 (PO 4 ) 2 phases (JCPDS file no.
destroyed to form impurity level between conduction band and valence band in the process of TNT doped with Cu and N, which could prevent photogenerated-electron and photogenerated-hole recombine and result in less band gap and stronger absorption intensity in visible spectra. Therefore, the Cu,N-TNT film was further are studied in detail.
After the material level characterisation of the as-synthesised ZnO thinfilm it was assembled as an acoustic sensor with suitable electrical and mechanical interface and tested using an electroacoustic calibrator (Make:- NAL, India). The sensing film deposited on Elgiloy substrate was bonded on a metallic (SS304) pressure connection port using M Bond 200 adhesive. This metallic pressure port has M14 x 1.5 male thread as mechanical interface to mount on the acoustic calibrator. The electrical inter-connecting leads were taken out using enamelled copper wire of 0.07 mm diameter. Silver epoxy paste was used for fixing the electrical lead wires on to the device. It is to be noted that no separate electrode deposition was carried out in the present work. The metallic substrate itself acts as the bottom electrode and a fine layer of silver epoxy paint over the ZnO film acts as the top electrode. Fig.1 shows the schematic of ZnO thinfilm based acoustic sensor.
The XRD patterns of ZnO thin films given in Fig.1 are comparable with the standard JCPDS (File No: 36 – 1451), suggesting the formation of wurtzite phase of ZnO . In the case of ZnO II and ZnO III, the Bragg angles at 35.14° (002) and 32.39° (100) correspondingly revealed the orientation of growth along the c-axis  and a-axis . The average crystallite size (D) calculated by Scherrer formula  as 51.4 nm, 53.9 nm and 137.2 nm respectively for ZnO I, ZnO II and ZnO III.
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) gives the information of the functional groups of compounds. Generally, metal oxides give absorption bands below 1000 cm −1 , due to interatomic vibrations. Cobalt: Ruthenium oxidethin films were studied under IR spectroscopy. For the examination of absorbed molecules on a solid surface, FTIR is a well-known technique. IR spectroscopy was used to obtain additional information on the phases as well as structure transformations of RuO 2 phases. Figure.4
Based on electronic and optoelectronic properties, CdTe has proved to be an excellent II – VI semiconductor material with a near-ideal direct bandgap of 1.45 eV at ambient temperature for a single p-n junction. CdTe has attracted increasing interest due to its application in nuclear radiation detectors  and also in photovoltaic (PV) application. With photovoltaics (PV) being within the confines of this paper, CdTe-based solar cells have been well explored with its main deficiency being the formation of tellurium precipitates distributed randomly over the whole volume of the CdTe layer during growth [2 – 4]. The formation of Te precipitates within the CdTe layer creates uncertainty in the post-growth and/or post-growth treatment stoichiometry control. Post-growth treatment in the presence of Cd  and Cl  has been documented in the literature to reduce the Te precipitation . Fernandez  has also demonstrated the possibility of eliminating Te precipitation from the bulk of CdTe layer using gallium melt treatment, although, high Te precipitation density were observable on the opposite side of the surface not in contact with the Ga melt treatment. This observation was described as the capability of Ga to dissolve the Te precipitates [2,5].