Garbage Can Model

Top PDF Garbage Can Model:

Explaining Local Self-Government Reorganisation in Croatia: The Garbage Can Model of Decision-Making

Explaining Local Self-Government Reorganisation in Croatia: The Garbage Can Model of Decision-Making

In the explanation of reform outcomes, two perspectives prevail in the literature on Croatian local self-government reform: the rational-instru- mental and the power and conflict perspective. Within the first perspec- tive, reform outcomes are a product of conscious decision-makers. The territorial organisation of local and regional self-government starting in 1993 was conceived in such a way as to ensure the centralist administra- tion of public affairs and this persisted through the years. Though some steps towards decentralisation have been taken, especially since 2000, to this day Croatia continues to be a highly centralised country, because that is what suits the decision-makers. Within the power and conflict perspec- tive, however, it is recognised that different political actors have different interests and goals and that the current organisational structure is the result of the power relations and bargaining processes amongst them. This paper argues that in addition to the rational-instrumental and power and conflict perspectives, reform outcomes can, at least to some degree, be attributed to the garbage can model of decision-making. The garbage can model of organisational decision-making can offer new and interest- ing insights with regard to reorganisational efforts at local levels of gov- ernment in Croatia. The aim of the paper is to offer an understanding of the reform outcomes by focussing on the preceding processes, adopting the garbage can perspective as an explanatory model. In addition, the pa- per establishes that the garbage can model has taken place in Croatia due to low state administrative capacity and a rapidly changing environment, thus adding theoretical value to garbage can insights.
Show more

22 Read more

Termination of the leprosy isolation policy in the US and Japan : Science, policy changes, and the garbage can model

Termination of the leprosy isolation policy in the US and Japan : Science, policy changes, and the garbage can model

Both of these draft legislation intended drastic changes in leprosy control policy, including: dissemina- tion of pertinent facts concerning leprosy (to promote an enlightened public opi[r]

16 Read more

Trafficked women, the garbage can, and frustrated policy : EU failure to combat human trafficking

Trafficked women, the garbage can, and frustrated policy : EU failure to combat human trafficking

Scholars have observed that in many respects the EU practices archetypal garbage can policy formation. The EU is a complex and to some degree unique policy making system. The European Union is marked with problematic preferences and unclear goals; unclear technology for implementing decisions; and fluid participation. It is multinational yet quasi- federal, with extremes of openness to outside influence and acquiescent to member states dictates. Indeed, Richardson has argued that, “At best the EU policy process has exhibited some stable patterns of cross-national coalition-building; at worst some of the extrem aspects of a garbage can model of decision-making.” 74 These processes are generally true of the EU,
Show more

62 Read more

Beyond the Garbage Can

Beyond the Garbage Can

Ramsey County strongly supports a product-stewardship framework, also known as extended producer responsibility, which creates effective producer-led reduction, reuse and recycling programs, to address a product’s lifecycle impacts from design through end-of-life management, without relying solely on state and local governments. Product stewardship has historically focused on products with a toxic or hazardous character, but should be focused broadly on other products, such as packaging. Such an approach can reduce the need for government programs to assure proper end-of-life management of discarded items. Ramsey County believes that the objectives in the Policy Plan are more likely to be met and sustained in an affordable manner only if a product-stewardship framework is implemented in Minnesota.
Show more

118 Read more

Smart garbage monitoring system

Smart garbage monitoring system

One of the main concerns during this present era is solid waste management. Lack of monitoring and managing solid waste has affects the health and environment of our society. The manual way of monitoring the waste is an inefficient process and use more human effort, time and cost. This inefficient process can be avoided with present technologies.

16 Read more

Subheap-Augmented Garbage Collection

Subheap-Augmented Garbage Collection

The reasons behind the sharp division in performance on caches between subheaps and non-augmented tracing GC, illustrated in Section 4.4, are worth exploring. Caches have several features that make them well-suited to subheap management. First, isolation between cache entries minimizes remembered set maintenance costs and eliminates the possibility of creating subheap-cyclic garbage. Second, the lifetime of a cache entry is well-defined; this makes it relatively obvious how and where to modify the cache to use subheaps. Third, cache entry lifetimes are not statically predictable, which makes it difficult for traditional heuristic approaches like generational collection to work efficiently. Fourth, the line-based granularity of subheaps minimizes space overheads for cache entries that may vary widely in size. Caches also have aspects favoring subheaps which are not related to their heap structure. Traditional workloads have fixed heap requirements, so the only effect of overprovisioning the heap is to reduce GC throughput overhead. In contrast, extra space can be used to improve the behavior of the cache itself, creating an impetus to operate with a tight heap. Subheaps thus resolve the tension between GC throughput and cache hit rate.
Show more

186 Read more

Generational Real-Time Garbage Collection

Generational Real-Time Garbage Collection

We have presented a new algorithm for performing generational collection incre- mentally in real-time, based on a tri-partite nursery which overlaps allocation, collection, and defragmentation. Generational collection can be interleaved with incremental real-time collection of the mature space at any point. The resulting algorithm allows the use of large nurseries that lead to low survival rates, and yet is capable of achieving sub-millisecond latencies and high worst-case utilization. We have implemented this new algorithm in a product-based real-time Java virtual machine, and evaluated analytically and experimentally the situations under which our generational collector is superior to a non-generational real- time collector. Programs with inherently non-generational behavior and pro- grams whose setup phase includes unusually high survival and allocation rates, will require more space to achieve the corresponding real-time bounds. However, the results show that for most programs, generational collection achieves compa- rable real-time bounds while leading to an improvement in space consumption, throughput, or both.
Show more

25 Read more

Azul Pauseless Garbage Collection

Azul Pauseless Garbage Collection

Concurrent Relocation Objects in the memory heap must also be concur- rently relocated in the process of compacting and defragmenting the heap. In long-running Java ap- plications compaction is unavoidable as the heap gets fragmented over time to a point where further object allocation is impossible without defragmenta- tion. For this reason, all commercial JVMs except Azul perform memory heap compaction that pause application execution. Semi-concurrent collectors that do not concurrently compact delay the pause that they need to perform compaction, and will peri- odically pause to perform this task. This is typically the longest pause found in any garbage collector and has the most impact on performance. Among commercially available JVMs, Zing C4 garbage col- lection is unique in its ability to concurrently relocate objects and compact the heap without a stop-the- world pause.
Show more

17 Read more

Real-Time Replication Garbage Collection

Real-Time Replication Garbage Collection

Huelsbergen and Larus[11] have recently built a concur- rent collector for SML/NJ which uses replication-based copy- ing. They use a to-space invariant and a consistency protocol which requires that the mutator read and write the to-space version if it exists. Our previous work[14] considers this pro- tocol, the from-space invariant and other consistency options for replication garbage collection. In addition to maintaining a to-space invariant, their collector has a number of other differences from our own. Their collector is not generational which leads to a slow down relative to the original SML/NJ collector (despite the use of multiple processors) and makes it difficult to directly assess the overhead of their technique. Less important their implementation does not merge forward- ing pointers with header words and thus has a substantial space penalty. Also their implementation is more closely tied to the semantics of mutable values in SML and to the de- tails of their processor memory consistency model. We hope to implement their technique along with others from[14] in the context of a concurrent version of the collector described here. This will allow a quantitative comparison of these options.
Show more

10 Read more

Garbage Monitoring System for a College

Garbage Monitoring System for a College

The Wi-Fi module is programmed to connect to the MQTT-server. MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport) is an ISO standard publish- subscribe based messaging protocol. A client sends a message (the publisher) to that receive the messages (the subscribers). Here publisher is ATMEGA-2560- and Subscriber is node.js. MQTT uses the topics to determine which message goes to which subscriber. Here in this model we have 9 topics for 9 sensors. The client connections are handled by a broker (here Eclipse Mosquito) which is liable for getting all messages, filtering the messages, finding out who is subscribed to each message, and also to send the messages to the subscribed client (node.js). Thus in node.js we get the values which is then stored in the database. Node.js queries the data from the database and every 5-6 seconds data gets published which we retrieve through the web application. For sending the SMS to the respective person for collection of garbage, Node-JS contains SMS API through which it sends the message. The overall work flow is depicted in Fig 3
Show more

6 Read more

Hospitals as factories of medical garbage

Hospitals as factories of medical garbage

2 brings the question of plastic to bear upon the longer history of twentieth-century sanitary science. The widespread adoption of single-use disposable medical plastics consolidated a century’s worth of changes in medical hygiene. As strange as it may seem today, the initial uptake of medical plastics was not driven primarily by concerns about hygiene. Plastic began as a mid-century technology of convenience and durability. It was not until the end of the twentieth century that it morphed into a powerful symbol and instrument of medical hygiene. Today, both patients and practitioners have embraced plastic as an indispensable technology of clean medicine. The procession of single-use medical plastics through everyday medicine now comprises a constant, if disposable, infrastructure of medical hygiene. This new processional infrastructure of disposable hygiene has produced another, albeit unintended, consequence. This new regime has exponentially increased hospitals’ material out-puts. In so doing, plastic has refigured the ecologies of everyday medicine. Plastic hygiene has rendered hospitals factories of medical garbage.
Show more

23 Read more

On comprehensive global garbage Detection

On comprehensive global garbage Detection

Although distribution can be made transparent to some extent, a direct adaptation of centralised GC algorithms would lead to unacceptable overhead. Dis- tribution introduces additional costs such as unpre- dictable and unbounded delays in the delivery of mes- sages across site boundaries and a potentially much larger object space. However it provides more avail- able resources. Not only should the approach be dif- ferent, but also the expectations put on GGD, leading to dierent tradeos. For instance, a longer latency in the detection of garbage objects could be more easily tolerated, as well as more space overheads, because resources are less likely to be scarce in such environ- ment. In particular it should not be necessary to rule out potential approaches based on unlikely \worst case scenarios."
Show more

7 Read more

Introduction to Spark and Garbage Collection

Introduction to Spark and Garbage Collection

Spark is gaining wide industry adoption due to its superior performance, simple interfaces, and a rich library for analysis and calculation. Like many projects in the big data ecosystem, Spark runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Because Spark can store large amounts of data in memory, it has a major reliance on Java’s memory management and garbage collection (GC). New initiatives like Project Tungsten will simplify and optimize memory management in future Spark versions. But today, users who understand Java’s GC options and parameters can tune them to eek out the best the performance of their Spark applications. This article describes how to configure the JVM’s garbage collector for Spark, and gives actual use cases that explain how to tune GC in order to improve Spark’s performance. We look at key considerations when tuning GC, such as collection throughput and latency.
Show more

16 Read more

Smart Garbage Collection Monitoring Systems

Smart Garbage Collection Monitoring Systems

Solid Waste Management is a challenge for cities' authorities. As per the Municipal Solid Waste Management and Handling Rules of 2000 in India, waste collection and dumping is the responsibility of the Municipal Committees/Corporations. But unfortunately, the waste management is not paid enough attention and the duties are thus performed poorly by these local bodies. This leads to numerous problems related to sanitation, health and the environment. Keeping all this in mind innovative system is proposed which will help to keep the cities clean. This system monitors the level of waste in garbage bins and informs about the level of garbage collected in the garbage bins via a SMS.
Show more

5 Read more

AUTOMATIC GARBAGE TRACKING AND COLLECTION SYSTEM

AUTOMATIC GARBAGE TRACKING AND COLLECTION SYSTEM

With the increasing need of automation in every field, we can make the best use of it by proposing a system for garbage collection. By using the conventional methods, many cities are recognizing that those existing methods and techniques are no longer effective. Thus, this type of system implementation should be used particularly in new housing development projects.

8 Read more

GARBAGE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR SMART CITIES

GARBAGE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR SMART CITIES

In this paper, a model has been proposed in which the collection of garbage is made real time. A network is established using wireless sensors with each dustbin attached to a sensor circuitry. The sensor is placed in the garbage bin, set at a particular level. If that level is crossed by the garbage in the bin, the sensor will send a signal to the nearest vehicle driver along with the authorities in charge. Each block of the system architecture is explained in detail and the process is elaborated with a flow chart.

8 Read more

Concurrent Compaction in JVM Garbage Collection

Concurrent Compaction in JVM Garbage Collection

GC is not without cost. Just like the application, GC re- quires processing resources to run. When using a single core of a processor, we get a serial garbage collector operating in a stop-the-world fashion [5]; GC requires pausing the appli- cation in order to clean up. Growing storage media is lead- ing to more memory availability for programs, which means garbage collectors have more garbage to remove. Thus, stop- the-world pauses experienced by applications are increasing. In some environments, application pauses are unaccept- able; such a scenario is described within the section on real- time GC in [5]. In order to decrease or remove pauses, we want to use multiple processors and cores to share the work of both running an application and its GC. This is known as parallel processing, and it can be used to enhance perfor- mance. With demand for faster responding applications cou- pled with more memory needing managing, it is paramount that GC be optimized using parallel processing.
Show more

7 Read more

Smart Garbage Monitoring System: Review

Smart Garbage Monitoring System: Review

Abstract: Waste management is a big issue in the world. Many countries provide different methods for garbage management and maintain cleanliness of surroundings. In India there is improper waste management and people also not maintain the cleanliness of environment. At many places the garbage containers are overflow but GCT (Garbage Collection Truck) not arrives. Also with the increase in the population of country current garbage collection system not capable to maintain the green environment.. Here we actually use arduino board connected to an ultrasonic sensor and a Wi-Fi module and this entire system is connected to every single bin inside the campus area. As the Internet of things (IoT) is giving us unique solutions to everyday problems, we propose a smart garbage alert system for efficient waste monitoring. The proposed system will consist of waste bins that are equipped with ultrasonic sensors ,DHT 11, Gas sensor which are interfaced with Arduino Uno and a Wi-Fi module. The system will collect the waste fill level status and upload the data to database. This data will be used to represent the fill levels of all the bins on the android application .The ultrasonic sensor is directed towards the face of the bin and whenever the bin is less than 3 cm empty the status of the bin will be shown as full, otherwise it will be shown as empty.. Once a bin gets filled, notification will be sent to the appropriate client based on their location. Based on the number of filled bins an optimized pickup path will be displayed to cover all the filled bins. This system will thus eventually reduce the manual process of verification of the garbage fill levels.
Show more

7 Read more

Designing and Modeling of Automatic Garbage Collector

Designing and Modeling of Automatic Garbage Collector

Seohyun Jeon, Minsu Jang, Daeha Lee, Young-Jo Cho, Jaeyeon Lee(November 2015)[6] presented a mathematical formulation of the problem of cleaning a large public space with multiple robots ,along with a procedural solution based on task reallocation. The task in this problem is the cleaning zone. A group of robots are assigned to each cleaning zones according to the amount of Resource constraints make cleaning robots stop operation periodically, which can incur a mission failure or deterioration of the mission performance. In our solution approach, continuous operation is assured by replacing robots having resource problems with standby robots by task reallocation. Two resource constraints are considered in our formulation: the battery capacity and the garbage bin size. We describe and compare the performance of three task real location strategies: All-At-Once, Optimal-Vector ,and Performance-Maximization. The performance measures include remaining garbage volume, cleaning quality, and cleaning time.
Show more

5 Read more

GL System (Garbage Listing System)

GL System (Garbage Listing System)

A barcode is an optical machine-readable representation of data. Barcodes can be read by optical scanners called barcode readers, or scanned from an image by special software. Originally, barcodes represented data in the widths (lines) and the spacing of parallel lines, and may be referred to as linear or 1D (1 dimensional) barcodes or symbologies. They also come in patterns of squares, dots, hexagons and other geometric patterns within images termed 2D (2 dimensional) matrix codes or symbologies. Although 2D systems use symbols other than bars, they are generally referred to as barcodes as well. Barcodes can be read by optical scanners called barcode readers, or scanned from an image by special software. The first use of barcodes was to label railroad cars, but they were not commercially successful until they were used to automate supermarket checkout systems, a task in which they have become almost universal. Their use has spread to many other roles as well, tasks that are generically referred to as Auto ID Data Capture (AIDC). Other systems are attempting to make inroads in the AIDC market, but the simplicity, universality and low cost of barcodes has limited the role of these other systems [1].
Show more

24 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...