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Effect of carbon price floor on levelised cost of gas-fired generation technology in the UK

Effect of carbon price floor on levelised cost of gas-fired generation technology in the UK

The UK government implements carbon price floor to provide long-term incentive to invest in low-carbon technology, thus, fossil-fuel power plants have to face in- creasing carbon price. This report addresses the effect of carbon price floor on leve- lised cost of gas-fired generation technology through the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) approach with the estimation of carbon price floor. Finally, the comparison of levelised cost of electricity for all generation technology in the UK will be shown and discussed.

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Effect of Carbon Price Floor on Levelised Cost of Gas Fired Generation Technology in the UK

Effect of Carbon Price Floor on Levelised Cost of Gas Fired Generation Technology in the UK

The UK government implements carbon price floor to provide long-term incentive to invest in low-carbon technology, thus, fossil-fuel power plants have to face in- creasing carbon price. This report addresses the effect of carbon price floor on leve- lised cost of gas-fired generation technology through the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) approach with the estimation of carbon price floor. Finally, the comparison of levelised cost of electricity for all generation technology in the UK will be shown and discussed.

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UK Electricity Market Reform Gas finally comes into focus

UK Electricity Market Reform Gas finally comes into focus

Industry participants believe that gas will play a vital contingency management role for base load supply as the government works out and implements its new zero carbon energy construction programme. As a current base case, investment in gas-fired generation will be vital for: replacing coal-fired power generation as it is phased out as part of the Large Plant Combustion Directive (LPCD) by 2016; filling the gap created as investment in new nuclear is further delayed; and making up the shortfall in offshore wind that is not forthcoming due to uncertainty over policy and operational challenges. Gas is also widely expected to play an operational risk management role in the future generation mix, providing backup supply when wind power generation fails to deliver during windless periods – assuming significant investment in wind gets made.
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EPA s Clean Power Plan and Reliability

EPA s Clean Power Plan and Reliability

Gas-electric coordination issues tend to focus on gas pipeline capacity shortages, leading to generators not being supplied with fuel during periods of peak, non-electric gas usage. This issue arises since gas pipelines have historically not been developed based on the fuel needs of the power system. Instead, most of the existing gas pipeline infrastructure is built based on the demand from local gas distribution companies and primarily used to meet heating related demand. As a result, most of the firm pipeline capacity today is not available for gas fired power generation, which instead tends to rely on non-firm capacity. The relatively low utilization of gas generation historically combined with an electricity market that focuses on short term marginal costs have also discouraged gas-fired generation from seeking long term firm pipeline contracts. There is evidence that natural gas generation is more likely to seek firm gas contracts on pipelines in which fuel supply is unreliable. 113 Furthermore, the switch from coal to gas
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The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory

The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory

the most likely) rather than means (i.e., a probability weighted average of all possible spot prices), and since market expectations are by definition mean expectations, reference case gas price forecasts cannot represent market expectations. Though, again, this argument apparently does not hold for the EIA reference case forecast, its implications are nonetheless worth noting. Specifically, since gas prices are generally believed to be lognormally distributed (i.e., positively skewed), the mean must lie above the mode, meaning that true market expectations must be higher than reference case gas-price forecasts (if those forecasts do indeed represent the mode). If this argument is accurate, it might explain some or all of the premium we have observed between forward prices and price forecasts (though, once again, note that the EIA does not consider its reference case forecast to be a mode). More importantly, however, this argument calls into question why utilities and others would ever place significant emphasis on the use of reference case gas price forecasts in modeling and planning exercises. By doing so, they would be systematically underestimating the market’s expectations of future gas prices (which, by definition, must be a mean estimate), thereby erroneously making gas-fired generation appear to be cheaper than the market expects it to be on average.
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Displacing Coal with Generation from Existing Natural Gas-Fired Power Plants

Displacing Coal with Generation from Existing Natural Gas-Fired Power Plants

System dispatch refers to the pattern in which power plants are turned on and off, and their power output ramped up and down, to meet changing load patterns. (For additional discussion, see Appendix A.) The concept of displacing coal generation with power from existing NGCC plants assumes that the NGCC plants are underutilized or idle when coal plants are operating. However, this is not necessarily the case. This can be illustrated by examining the monthly utilization of the coal and gas-fired plants in the study groups (Figure 9). As shown in the figure, the utilization of coal and combined cycle plants follows a similar pattern: utilization is highest in the summer and, to a lesser degree, in the winter, and lowest in the “shoulder” months of the spring and fall. The figure illustrates that when coal plant operation is at its highest and the most coal power can be displaced, NGCC plant operation is also at its highest and surplus gas-fired generation is therefore at its lowest.
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Computer Analysis of a Methane Fired Crucible Furnace

Computer Analysis of a Methane Fired Crucible Furnace

A study, both experimental and numerical, of temperature distribution during oscillating combustion in a crucible furnace is presented in [6]. The authors found that enhanced heat transfer rate, reduced processing time and increased furnace efficiency with visibly clean emissions are obtained when the conven- tional combustion mode is replaced by the oscillating combustion mode. In [7] the simulation of thermal analysis of fuel fired crucible furnace to predict the ef- fect of thermal stress and strain on it is studied using commercial simulation software. Here, the layers of the furnace walls having different materials with different thermal coefficient of expansion are considered. A report focused on the application of CFD modeling to solve challenging ventilation problems dur- ing metallurgical industrial process events, such as fume capture in furnaces, is presented in [8]. Some case studies in which various heat and fume sources with complicated geometry and interaction of natural buoyancy are discussed by the authors.
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The Effects of Flue Gas SO3 on the Operation of Coal-Fired Units and Countermeasures

The Effects of Flue Gas SO3 on the Operation of Coal-Fired Units and Countermeasures

at the entrance of SCR can reduce the deposition of ammonium bisulfate in an air preheater to avoid the blockage of the air preheater, decrease acid dew point and temperature of flue gas at the entrance of an air preheater, improve the thermal efficiency of boilers, and alleviate the erosion of heating surface at the tail.

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Evaluation of Performance of Electrical Power Supply in South-East Nigeria

Evaluation of Performance of Electrical Power Supply in South-East Nigeria

To effectively utilize gas for power generation requires highly efficient gas turbines and power facilities. Traditional methods of assessing the efficiency of power generation turbines do not take into consideration the stochastic nature of gas input and power output. In a power generation system, as in any typical production system, there is generally marked variability in both input (gas) and output (power) of the process. This makes the determination of the relationship between input and output quite complex. This work utilized Box-Jenkins transfer function modeling technique, an integral part of statistical principle of time series analysis to model the efficiency of a gas power plant. This improved way of determining the efficiency of gas power generation facilities involves taking input–output data from a gas power generation process over a 10-year period and developing transfer function models of the process for the ten years, which are used as performance indicators. Based on the performance indicators obtained from the models, the results show that the efficiency of the gas power generation facility was best in the years 2007–2011 with a coefficient of performance of 0.002343345.
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The Clean Power Plan: An Introduction To Cooperative Federalism In Energy Regulation

The Clean Power Plan: An Introduction To Cooperative Federalism In Energy Regulation

This Comment argues that the EPA's cooperative federalism approach to the regulation of greenhouse gas emissions by coal-fired power plants may afford states with dereg[r]

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912 MW Supercritical Boiler for the next Coal Fired Plant Generation

912 MW Supercritical Boiler for the next Coal Fired Plant Generation

The boiler is of tower type design and the air and flue gas systems are designed as single train systems. The capacity of the boiler is optimized in order to take full advantage of the scale of economy for single flue gas train plants using the largest Regenerative Air Preheater build. The boiler is equipped with Alstom's Low NO X Tangential Firing System (LNTFS) with

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Keeping The Lights On With Coal Energy: A Financial Approach

Keeping The Lights On With Coal Energy: A Financial Approach

he Governor of Kentucky in the U.S.A., Steve Beshear, expressed these words in a written statement, at the funding announcement for the University of Kentucky Research Foundation (UKRF) from the federal government in 2011. UKRF research into cleaner-burning coal technology received a $19.4 million dollar boost: $14.5 million dollars from the U.S.A. Department of Energy (DOE) and $4.9 million dollars from the state and industry partners. The objective of this grant was to support continued studies that seek to reduce costs and improve the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capturing from coal-fired power plants.
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MODEL TF, RF & SF GAS-FIRED TUBULAR UNIT HEATERS

MODEL TF, RF & SF GAS-FIRED TUBULAR UNIT HEATERS

VINYL TUBING (PRESSURE SWITCH) POWER VENTER MOUNTING PLATE LOUVER (QTY. REQ'D PER MODEL).. LOUVER SPRINGS (QTY.[r]

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Stair-like Multivariable Generalized Predictive Control of Pulverizing System in Thermal Power Plants

Stair-like Multivariable Generalized Predictive Control of Pulverizing System in Thermal Power Plants

“Rich in coal but poor in oil and gas” is a distinctive feature of China’s present energy structure. The National Potential Assessment of Coal Resources shows that China’s total coal resources are 5.9 trillion tons, which accounts for 94% of the total primary energy resources; however, the oil and natural gas resources account for only 6%. The total energy consumption in 2016 is about 4.36 billion tons of standard coal, of which, 2.7 billion tons of coal were consumed, which accounts for 62% of the total energy consumption; in which, the coal consumed for power generation accounts for 53% [1,2] . Further,
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Effect of heating rate on gas emissions and properties of fired clay bricks and fired clay bricks incorporated with cigarette butts

Effect of heating rate on gas emissions and properties of fired clay bricks and fired clay bricks incorporated with cigarette butts

In contrast, at slow heating rates particularly at 2 °C min −1 accessi- bility to oxygen was expected to improve due to the low level of water vapour within the pore system. Under this condition, oxidation of organic content was able to occur completely because of the free water vapour pore system, thus producing higher gas emissions. In bricks, the pore system is important because it affects the gas emissions that occur during dehydration, oxidation, dehydroxylation, decomposi- tion and the formation of new phases and vitri fi cation that generally im- prove the product's mechanical strength, durability and other properties. A slow heating rate is preferable to prevent the texture from being disrupted by the evolution of water vapour (Murad and Wagner, 1998; Parsons et al., 1997; Santos et al., 2003; Toledo et al., 2004). However, it leads to higher gas emissions.
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Design and Thrust Analysis of Compact Jet Engine

Design and Thrust Analysis of Compact Jet Engine

We found out that the application of a jet engine is very limited as due to its working and some other problem such as fuel consumption and stability. So what we were seeking it as make it in a compact size of the vast utilization of the thrust produced by the jet engine. So, this project involves building a ground based gas turbine engine for use as a technology demonstrator that has been given the title, Turbine Engine model.

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Quarterly Report. January - March, 2005

Quarterly Report. January - March, 2005

It is typical to see very few planned outages in the first quarter of the year as this time period is historically a high demand season with colder weather expected. It should be noted that some variation is expected on a year over year basis due to the nature of multi-year planned outage schedules of large coal plants. When reviewing the historical outages for each owner it has been observed that major turnaround maintenance on certain units is not necessarily completed each year. With this in mind it could not be considered overly unusual for varied levels of outage to be experienced year over year. The MSA will continue to monitor outage of specific owners to ensure they are reasonable and within tolerances given the age and past performance of their generation units.
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Direct Gas-Fired Indoor and Outdoor Heating and Make-Up Air Units

Direct Gas-Fired Indoor and Outdoor Heating and Make-Up Air Units

A high gas pressure switch monitors the gas supply pressure downstream of all the gas controls and disables the gas controls if high gas pressure is experienced immediately before the burner. This will shut off all gas flow to the burner to avoid the gas controls from being damaged or causing the unit to over fire. Both the low and high gas pressure switches are manual reset so that a service person must inspect the unit to make sure that none of the gas controls have been damaged. The switch must then be reset to allow the unit to operate when the gas conditions are returned to the normal operating pressure.
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2Dimensional CFD Simulation of Gas Fired Furnace during Heat Treatment Process

2Dimensional CFD Simulation of Gas Fired Furnace during Heat Treatment Process

Standard k- ε turbulence model combined with standard wall function is considered for modeling gas flow in combustion chamber. Turbulence in combustion chamber is represented by standard k- ε turbulence model [1] [5]. k- ε turbulence model determine turbulence viscosity by calculating turbulence kinetic energy equation and its rate of dissipation equation. The standard k-ε model is a semi-empirical model based on model transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy (k) and its dissipation rate (ε). In the derivation of the k-ε model, the assumption is that the flow is fully turbulent, and the effects of molecular viscosity are negligible. The standard k-ε model is therefore valid only for fully turbulent flows. The turbulent viscosity computed by combining both k and ε as shown below [3].
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USER'S INFORMATION MANUAL FOR THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF YOUR NEW GAS-FIRED FURNACE

USER'S INFORMATION MANUAL FOR THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF YOUR NEW GAS-FIRED FURNACE

11. When the furnace receives the start signal, the hot sur- face ignitor at the main burners is automatically heated for 15 to 20 sec. When the microprocessor control ver- ifies that there is sufficient heat to ignite, the gas valve permits gas to flow to the main burners. After ignition and a time delay of about 35 sec, your blower will start at low speed until the control makes the necessary adjustments to operate the blower at either the low- or high-fire speed.

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