To the original owner, our Infinity® System gasfurnaces are covered by a 10-year parts and lifetime heat exchanger limited warranty upon timely registration. The parts limited warranty period is five years if not registered within 90 days of installation except in jurisdictions where warranty benefits cannot be conditioned upon registration. See warranty certificate at carrier.com for complete details and restrictions.
Unit is equipped with a blower door switch which cuts power to blower and gas valve causing shutdown when door is removed. Unit must not be altered to allow operation with the blower door removed. Operation with doors removed or ajar can permit the escape of dangerous fumes. All panels must be securely closed at all times for safe operation of the furnace. Failure to follow this warning could result in property damage, personal injury or death.
Under normal operating conditions, sufficient negative pressure will be created to close the pressure switch, and keep it closed to keep furnace operating. Under abnormal conditions, however, such as a restricted vent pipe, or a leak in the heat exchanger, sufficient negative pressure will not be created. This will result in the switch failing to close or failing to remain closed during furnace operation. When servicing a unit whose pressure switch will not close, or remain closed during operation, the operating pressure of that furnace should be checked and compared to approximate operating pressures listed in this manual. It is important to remember, that greater negative pressures are created by the furnace when “HOT” (I.E. upon initial start−up) than when “COLD” (I.E. after furnaces has been in operation for a few minutes). Because of this, furnace pressure should ONLY be checked when “HOT” to insure accurate readings.
Despite the uncertainties arising from uncertain upstream emissions and the GWP of methane (Table 2 and Figure 5), the ranking of substitution options in terms of net GHG reduction is likely to be robust because it reflects fundamental differences. Natural gasfurnaces and power plants have higher thermodynamic efficiencies than fuel oil furnaces and coal power plants, whereas CNG vehicles have lower efficiencies than gasoline or diesel vehicles. Meanwhile, domestic power plants are not impaired by the methane leaks associated with in-use CNG vehicles, local distribution of natural gas, or overseas shipping of LNG. Furthermore, the coal displaced at power plants is more carbon intensive than the petroleum displaced in vehicles or furnaces. Taken together, these considerations mean that deployments of natural gas to replace coal electricity and fuel oil furnaces are almost certain to achieve more emission reductions than LNG export or CNG vehicles, despite the uncertainties in exact magnitudes of impacts.
This project was conducted in six steps as follows: Regarding the fact that environmental sustainability is an index of sustainability by means of establishing a balance between the level of consumption and the carrying capacity of the region [ 20]. It requires studying both economic and environmental indicators that are almost opposite, using computational methods, to set up a sustainable and appropriate environmental schedule in dust collectors of a steel industry. That is, we estimate the level and cost of energy consumption, initial capital cost and cost from environmental damage in bag houses and electrostatic precipitators based on their operational lifetime (20 years) in 3, 6 and 12-ton capacity steel electric furnaces and when compared, the manner of selecting one would be identified. That is, to assign the capital cost, it requires estimating purchase, installation and operation costs for each dust collector, then calculating the depreciation expense based on their
Tunnel furnaces used in bakery and confectionery belong to the furnaces of the pipeline type. The pipeline type furnaces are arranged in such a way that the cooking process is split into sections with different temperature regimes. Electric tunnel belt furnaces of the pipeline type are produced with a standard width of 0.6 to 4 m (with 0.1 m intervals). They may be mono-, bi- and multi-storey depending on the production volume. A furnace can also contain a steam moisturizing zone. The axonometric section of the sample of an electric furnace with a mash zone, duo-thermal zone, hydraulically pulled netted-wiry belt and tape drive with two fixed movable cone-frontal gearboxes see in Figure-1.
configurations can be either vertical or drum type furnaces. In a coreless furnace, the power coil completely surrounds the crucible. In a channel furnace, a separate loop inductor is attached to the upper-body, which contains the major portion of the molten metal bath. In a coreless furnace, solid charge materials are melted using the induction field, whereas in a channel inductor, the induction field is used to superheat colder molten metal within the channel loop. A vertical channel furnace may be considered a large bull ladle or crucible with an inductor attached to the bottom. Figure 2 illustrates how insoluble components, such as slag, accumulate over time in the inductor loop or throat area. Buildup on the sidewalls of channel furnaces is also a common occurrence.
The formation/combustion of soot in laminar and simple turbulent jet diusion ames has been studied by many researchers 6-10]. Brooks and Moss 9] presented results of numerical modeling of piloted ax- isymmetric turbulent methane-air simple jet (without swirl) ames using an extended amelet approach. Kronenburg et al. 10] investigated the modeling of soot formation and oxidation in the same ames by the conditional moment closure (CMC) method. Gen- erally, good agreement with the experiments has been achieved by the two models. Swirling ows are used in many technical applications particularly in furnaces and gas turbines to improve ame stabilization, igni- tion stability, mixing enhancement, pollutant reduction and blow-o characteristics 11, 12]. Although the eect of many parameters on soot formation has been investigated by many investigators, the inuence of swirl intensity on soot formation of methane diusion ames has not been studied. The aim of this paper is to study the eect of swirl intensity on soot formation and oxidation in swirling turbulent diusion ames. The investigation is conducted with both numerical simulation and measurements.
archaeologists in the twentieth century (Lechaptois, 1913, Wyckaert, 1914, Greig, 1937, Robert, 1949, Wise, 1958a, 1958b; Willis, 1966, 1981; Wembah-Rashid, 1969, Mapunda, 1995, 2003, 2010; Barndon, 1992, 2001; Ngonadi, 2010). The first stage is the primary smelting conducted in three different furnaces: The earliest is the globular, Katukutu, dated to between 1550 and 1800 AD; the high shaft, Malungu, an impressive 2 - 4 m tall furnace and the low shaft generally classified as Type C furnaces (Childs, 1991; Kense, 1983), Barongo, are dated to later than the mid-nineteenth century AD. Brown ores of limonite and hematite were reduced in these furnaces fuelled by charcoal and green wood. The second stage was the secondary refining carried out in a smaller forced air draft furnace, ichiteengwe, varying in height of 40 - 50 cm and of the B type. This furnace was used in order to consolidate the bloom and was operated by three bag bellows of goatskin connected to bamboo sticks and tuyère made of clay. The third stage was the forging, ukusula, of iron, ulolo, into objects. The forging was conducted over an open fire or a small three-walled stone forge. The Fipa forge, impeembe, was a grass- thatched hut located within the village (Mapunda, 1995; Barndon, 1992). Two of the same bellows, umwuuwa, that were used in the secondary refining furnace were also used during forging (Barndon, 2001: p. 2).
carried out on about 80 tons of granulated lead-blast- furnace slag (LBFS), containing 14% ZnO and 2.8% PbO. This was smelted at feed rates of over 800 kg/h and power inputs up to 800 kW (3 kA, 270 V) in a 1 MW DC arc furnace. The furnace shell was lined with chrome- magnesite bricks, and an alumina castable refractory was used for the lining of the roof. The average temperature of the tapped slag was around 1500°C. Charcoal was used as the reducing agent. The charcoal-to-slag ratio in the feed was chosen to selectively reduce the zinc and lead oxides, while leaving most of the iron oxide in the smelted slag. The lead-blast-furnace slag and charcoal were fed continuously through three feed ports, equispaced around the central electrode. Zinc and lead vapour, and carbon monoxide, were burned at the off-gas port of the furnace, and the mixed oxide of zinc and lead was collected in a bag filter. High extraction levels (more than 95 per cent extraction from the slag) of zinc and lead were achieved. Almost all the extracted zinc and lead reported to the vapour phase and fume in the bag filter. Only about 0.1 per cent of the zinc input and approximately 1 per cent of the lead input passed into a metal phase that accumulated in the hearth of the furnace. The impurities in the fume were relatively low. The fume produced contained about 80% ZnO, 15% PbO, 0.5% FeO, 0.6% SiO 2 , 0.4% CaO, 0.2%
The "Pigging" method has been used for many years to clean larger diameter pipelines in the oil industry. But nevertheless, it is nowadays, the use of smaller diameter systems "pigging" is increasing in many continuous process plants and plant where furnaces operate this in order to seek greater efficiency and lower costs in their processes.
The regenerators are heated by the exhaust flue gases and combustion is carried out under oxygen diluted condition achieved by internal/external flue gas recirculation in the combustion chamber at a temperature above the fuel auto-ignition temperature. This combustion technology for industrial furnaces offers unique features such as: high energy savings, more uniform and relatively moderate gas temperature profile and thus a reduction in pollutant emissions, a larger flame and thus a low maximum local heat release rate as well as the possibility of low combustion noise, and high quality of furnace output/product at increased production rate [1-3]. Although this technology was developed more than 10 years ago and has been commercially applied in different types of furnace as reported by Yasuda, et al , the basic chemical-physical phenomenon still needs to be better understood and explained.
a plane adjacent to the reactor tubes for the first and alternative designs is shown in Fig. 9. It can be observed that improving recirculation of the flue gas and employing another burner on the top of the furnace has a significant effect on the tube skin temperature distribution. It is shown that the temperature on the reactor tubes changes between 1115 and 1257 K for the first design, which is in reasonable agreement with the experimental data reported by Stefanidis et al. . However, the temperature field in the alternative design varies from 1149 to 1191 K. The first advantage of the alternative design is that the temperature field is more uniform throughout the furnace. This subsequently leads to a more even heating on the reactor tubes and therefore a uniform conversion of the process gas along the reactor tubes. The other benefit is the lowering of the maximum temperature on the reactor tubes which reduces the presence of hot spots on the tube walls.
The amount of energy required to increase the temperature of the loads by a few hundred degrees is con- siderable both in real application and computational studies. The immersed solids gain only few hundered degrees above their initial temperature. Such a 3D computation has yet required 5 days on 32 cores. Hence, an additional effort is still necessary to supply fast algorithms in order to calculate this kind of full heating sequences in reasonable reducing time. These numerical results indicate that the IVM approach is suitable for the parallel numerical simulation of industrial furnaces with different loads.