Gay-Straight Alliances

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MAKING SCHOOLS SAFE AND INCLUSIVE: GAY-STRAIGHT ALLIANCES AND SCHOOL CLIMATE IN ONTARIO 1

MAKING SCHOOLS SAFE AND INCLUSIVE: GAY-STRAIGHT ALLIANCES AND SCHOOL CLIMATE IN ONTARIO 1

While American research suggests that GSAs have a positive impact (Lipkin, 1999; Lee, 2002; Griffin, Lee, Waugh, & Beyer, 2004), there is little research on GSAs in Ontario schools let alone on the impact GSAs are having on safety and inclusion. As the Canadian context differs markedly from that in the United States, evidence from provinces such as Ontario can help inform policy discussions and evidence-based practices. Our current and ongoing research, “Gay-Straight Alliances and Homophobic Bullying in Ontario Schools: Perspectives of Educators Working with GSAs” offers the perspectives of GSA advisors on this issue. The first stage of the study, which is examined in this paper, involved an on-line survey of 41 GSA advisors; during the second stage, 14 survey participants were interviewed.
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Gay-Straight Alliances and Student Activism in Ontario Public Secular and Catholic High Schools

Gay-Straight Alliances and Student Activism in Ontario Public Secular and Catholic High Schools

etc.), which exemplified how he believed he had “…the ability and authority to accurately determine who is a woman and who is a man…” (Serano, 2007/2016, p. 166). In doing so, he reaffirmed cissexist assumptions that invalidate personhood when bodies, identities, and expressions do not align (Stryker, 2006). The speaker also further entrenched the fe/male binary by using the cissexist salutation, “ladies and gentlemen,” on a PowerPoint he displayed during his presentation, as opposed to using language that affirms gender diversity, such as, “assembled guests,” “folks,” or “all.” Similarly, the guest speaker preserved dichotomous notions of gender by inviting all male athletes on stage to recite and repeat the phrase, “It’s ok to be gay.” It was unclear, but highly improbable that trans men and trans masculine folks were invited to participate. After the guest speaker asked all male athletes to accompany him on stage, he stated, “Sorry girls,” which, once again, reinforced the gender binary and consequently excluded non-binary students. The purported purpose of this activity was to break down homophobic tendencies among male athletes, but this activity was blatantly underpinned by heteronormative beliefs that all (cisgender) male athletes are heterosexual, and thus homophobic. Altogether, these blunders strengthen Malatino’s (2015) argument that a guest speaker approach cannot be used as a sole strategy for addressing GSRM education: “I understand the ‘guest speaker’ approach to addressing trans, intersex, and gender-nonconforming issues as part and parcel of this neoliberal management of difference, and I find it inadequate for increasing awareness and action regarding the intense institutional and systemic discrimination trans and gender-nonconforming folk regularly encounter” (p. 399).
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The Experiences of Transgender Youth in Our Nation s Schools A Report from the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network

The Experiences of Transgender Youth in Our Nation s Schools A Report from the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network

Another dimension of school climate for transgender students is the availability of positive resources about LGBT-related issues and of supportive teachers and other school personnel. Students were asked about the availability of in-school resources and supports: student clubs that address LGBT student issues (such as Gay- Straight Alliances); the inclusion of LGBT people, history, or events in class curricula; teachers and other school staff who are supportive of LGBT students; and school policies for addressing incidences of harassment or assault. In the 2007 National School Climate Survey, we found that each of these resources can have a positive impact on overall school climate and the experiences of LGBT students. Given their potential to improve school climate, it is important to examine students’ access to these in-school resources and supports. We did not expect that the availability of these school-based resources would be different for transgender students than for non-transgender LGB students; and, in fact, there were no significant differences in availability of resources. However, we believed it important to describe transgender students’ access to resources and do so in the following section.
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Barriers to Gay-Straight Alliance Social Activism: An Assessment Model for Education Researchers and Practitioners

Barriers to Gay-Straight Alliance Social Activism: An Assessment Model for Education Researchers and Practitioners

Drawing from previous conceptualizations of heterosexism in high schools gendered harassment in high schools, this article presents a school-level assessment model that can be applied to studies of Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) and the roles they play (and do not play) in high schools. The proposed assessment model provides both conceptual categories of institutional and social features of schools and methodological assessment tools that education researchers and school-based social work practitioners can use to better understand the challenges GSA members and their advisors face as they attempt to convert their desire to disrupt homophobic and heterosexist school climates into daily schooling practices. Results gathered from the implementation of the proposed ecological assessment model will be of value to those interested in replacing oppressive school structures with socially-just educational climates and to those directly involved in GSA formation and implementation.
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The Self-Organisation of Strategic Alliances

The Self-Organisation of Strategic Alliances

The original focus of Williamson’s seminal work on transactions costs (Williamson, 1975, 1981) was the rise of hierarchies in response to market failures. The proliferation of strategic alliances in the 1980s and 1990s was largely beyond the explanatory scope of the theory. Responding to this criticism, Williamson (1983, 1991) and other transaction cost theorists (e.g. Anderson and Gatignon, 1986; Hennart, 1988; Jones and Hill, 1988) have sought to extend the analysis by viewing strategic alliances as a hybrid mode of governance between markets and the internal coordination of production. Strategic alliances combine features of internalisation and market exchanges because a joint venture partially internalises an exchange. Contracts are still needed but, since these are often incomplete, much of the activity will be left to joint coordination. According to the transactions costs approach, alliances are preferred when transactions costs are intermediate. However, if a transaction is characterised by a high degree of asset specificity then it will be handled internally within a single firm. If an alliance is established under such conditions then, the transaction costs approach predicts, it will be unstable due to the high risk of opportunistic behaviour amongst the partners.
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Alliances Among Asymmetric Countries

Alliances Among Asymmetric Countries

In recent years academics have shown a growing interest in transnational alliances and collectives. Such collectives, e.g. organizations like the UN, the WTO and the WHO, are concerned with peace-keeping in the world’s hot spots, controlling environmental degradation and terrorism, promoting world health, eliminating trade barriers, etc. This interest is also partly fuelled by the recent troubles confronting organizations like the EU and the UN.

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Shifting alliances in accessing the underground

Shifting alliances in accessing the underground

How this plays out in forms of cohabitation will continue to depend on complex processes of negotiation and collaboration. The legal framework stipulates that newly arrived Chinese miners may put their technological capabilities to work only in alliance with Ghanaian nationals. Moreover, up-scaled and more ef fi cient technologies are useless without access to the underground. This access can be secured only through speci fi c alliances with others – with those able to make claims that are persuasively framed in terms of belonging and autochthony. Crawford and Botchwey also describe other kinds of collaboration. The dom- inance of the Chinese, they show, is possible only if the military provides security and if state of fi cials are agreeable to accepting bribes. Press reports emphasize that resistance against Chinese dominance in small-scale mining was triggered by the collusion of Ghanaian state authorities of different sorts. 1 Crawford and
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Antitrust Immunity for Airline Alliances

Antitrust Immunity for Airline Alliances

With respect to the SkyTeam Alliance, a landmark investigation out of several applications of members of SkyTeam was the first attempt to receive antitrust immunity for the consolidation of core SkyTeam (Delta/Air France) and Wings (Northwest/KLM) partnerships in 2004. 93 The investigation was of particular importance for at least two reasons. First, it was the first time that two large airline alliances planned to merge, and members of both alliances applied for antitrust immunity. Second, it was the first time that two US airlines applied for immunity on international markets within the same alliance (although forced to continue competing in the US domestic market). Given the applicants’ failure to show that sufficient public benefits would be produced by the agreement, together with the fear that close cooperation on international markets might have spillover effects on US domestic competition, the DOT first denied antitrust immunity for the enlarged SkyTeam alliance. 94 Anticipating the introduction of the US-EU Open skies agreement, and following the development of a more sophisticated integration concept, SkyTeam members reapplied 95 for antitrust immunity in 2007, and the DOT (in its Show Cause Order 96 ) in April 2008 “…tentatively find that the proposed alliance is consistent with the public interest, will produce public benefits, and will not substantially reduce competition” (p.1). In May 2008, the DOT finally decided 97 to grant six-way antitrust immunity to members of the SkyTeam alliance. Comparing the first and second application for antitrust immunity, the latter especially introduced the concept of ‘metal neutrality’, 98 which refers to the practice of revenue and cost pooling within the alliance. Therefore, the identity of the airline operating the flight was not important. 99 For the DOT, this agreement was essential for the decision to grant antitrust immunity, as only such a merger-like joint venture was likely to generate the operating efficiencies and cost reductions on a significant and sufficient scale.
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Technological Diversification and Strategic Alliances

Technological Diversification and Strategic Alliances

A third remark concerns the pattern toward the “downward specialisation” in the chemical and petrochemical sectors. By “downward specialisation” we mean that firms in the petrochemical sector enter the chemical sector, and that firms in the chemical sector move downward into the pharmaceutical sector. Both patents and alliances confirm this pattern. This is consistent with the history of the chemical industry in the past decades. Due to increased competition, firms’ profitability in the chemical industry started to decline in the early 1960s. In the 1970s and 1980s, the oil shocks, the entry of competitors from the developing countries, the slower demand growth, the diminishing opportunities for product innovation made the profitability decline become a severe problem. Firms in a large number of chemical markets, especially basic intermediates, experienced excess-capacity. To solve their problems, firms started a process of restructuring. A number of companies in the US and Europe exited from the commodity chemical businesses, and moved into downstream sectors. In their place, many oil companies took over existing commodity chemical firms. This process led firms to specialise either on commodity chemicals, or on more downstream specialty sectors. The restructuring process occurred through a large number of inter-firm alliances and acquisitions, both in production and R&D (Arora and Gambardella, 1998).
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Do Alliances Deter Aggression? The Influence of Military Alliances on the Initiation of Militarized Interstate Disputes

Do Alliances Deter Aggression? The Influence of Military Alliances on the Initiation of Militarized Interstate Disputes

Yet, both Smith and Snyder assume that allies can not control the nature of their promises and the information they convey through them to allies and adversaries about their willingness to join a conflict. Their claims suppose that all alliances are equivalent in their terms; that an alliance necessarily constitutes a “blank check” promis- ing support in all circumstances, or at least that allies are unable to provide clear information about the condi- tions under which they will and will not intervene to help their partners. This is an inaccurate characterization of actual alliance agreements, which are rarely blanket com- mitments of support, but instead usually include detailed discussion of the conditions under which alliance obliga- tions are invoked and the actions that are required of the signatories upon invocation (Leeds et al. 2002). Most of the time, information about the specific conditions under which support must be rendered and the character of that support is publicly known. 2
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Forging a gay mainstream : negotiating gay cinema in the American hedgemony

Forging a gay mainstream : negotiating gay cinema in the American hedgemony

Chapter one, "Cruising: The Economic Rise (and Fall?) of Gay Independent Film," will first examine the history of economic hierarchies within the American film industry, bringi[r]

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Gay Ghetto comics and the alternative gay comics of Robert Kirby

Gay Ghetto comics and the alternative gay comics of Robert Kirby

I will first discuss the conventions of the gay ghetto comic strips and cartoons. I argue that the gay ghetto sub-genre participates in the construction of a dominant gay habitus, representing the gay community as relatively stable and unified and, related to this, how certain types of gay male bodes are represented as desirable and acceptable, representing a ‘typical’ gayness, whereas others are devalued and excluded. I will then go on to discuss the ‘alternative’ gay male comics that have been created, in part, as a response to the more traditional gay ghetto comics and that take up some of the elements of these comics, while at the same time subverting them. I argue that these ‘alternative gay ghetto comics’ critique some of the values and ideologies of the more traditional strips and present an alternative gay – or ‘queer’ – habitus. I will focus my discussion of the alternative gay comics on the work of Robert Kirby, an influential cartoonist and editor in the field of alternative gay male comics, and particularly on his story ‘Private Club’, in order to explore some of the typical themes and concerns of alternative gay ghetto comics and demonstrate how they challenge the dominant habitus while representing, and creating, an alternative.
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Straight Forward. Extraövningar. At Risk

Straight Forward. Extraövningar. At Risk

Check out www.mcdonaldsmenu.info to find out exactly how many calories a Big Mac, French Fries and a Caesar Sallad contain... Too Much[r]

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Diary of a Gay Bride

Diary of a Gay Bride

“It’s been a while since I’ve had boobs,” my only grandparent without cancer said. My dad’s mom was referring to her sagging set that rested just above the pants she hiked way up. She had worn pants since the 1930s, attended business college, and traveled the world mostly on her own. She was the strongest woman I knew besides my mother. “Stand up straight and stick your breasts out,” Grandma used to tell me. Why did I want to have breasts so badly if they were going to fill with cancer and be cut off or sag down to my waist anyway?

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Dante as a Gay Poet

Dante as a Gay Poet

It is the corporeality of his moral universe that makes Dante a crucial predecessor for American gay poets – as well as for some earlier poets with similar sexual orientations. Michelangelo’s sonnets, while appar- ently springing to some extent from the contemporaneous Petrarchan manner, are hugely indebted to Dante’s bodily imagination. A legend has it that Michelangelo even made illustrations of the Commedia, but they were unfortunately lost in a shipwreck. The body is the main preoccupation of Michelangelo both as an artist and a poet. Giovanni Testori, another of the poets I anthologized, wrote that Michelangelo’s poetry is based on
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Progetti Europa. Straight and true.

Progetti Europa. Straight and true.

Rather than new technology, what PEG does like to offer is old fashioned professionalism. “We like to remain absolutely straight and always work to the highest standards,” says Trocca, “doing our best to meet the agreed delivery dates.”

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STRAIGHT TALK ABOUT BRACES

STRAIGHT TALK ABOUT BRACES

Nature gives you two sets of teeth. The first set is your baby, or primary, teeth. They are later replaced by your adult, or permanent, teeth. When the jaws grow normally and the permanent teeth are in the correct place, you have a normal bite. But if the jaws grow too much or too little, or if the teeth don’t come in straight, you have a bite problem.

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Calculating Straight-Time Pay

Calculating Straight-Time Pay

Weekly deductions include federal, Social Security, and Medicare taxes, a state tax of 2.5 percent on gross.. earnings, a local tax of 1 percent on gross earnings, and medical insurance?[r]

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And everything crooked will become straight

And everything crooked will become straight

Together these dissident fragments collate histories and situations to incite a new kind of consciousness. They bring to the fore the codes and systems through which we now view the world and ask us to challenge them, to again problematise morality, to step forward and not back, to crook that which appears straight.

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Properties of straight line segments

Properties of straight line segments

Any point, A say, can be described by an ordered pair of numbers ( x, y ) , where we measure the distance of A first from the y axis, and then from the x axis.. The ordered pair ( x, y )[r]

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