Gender and Cultural Studies

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Cultural Studies, History and Cosmopolitanism in UK

Cultural Studies, History and Cosmopolitanism in UK

I will use my own cultural historical work to illustrate this claim. There are of course many other appropriate examples but my book Visceral Cosmopolitanism: Gender, Culture and the Normalisation of Difference (2007) is what I know best and it does effectively exemplify the shift in that it doesn’t fit comfortably into any critical mode except cultural studies-cultural history. This is in broad terms because it privileges argument, draws on an expanded archive (sources include ballet narratives, costume design, department store promotions, contemporary fic- tion, film, photographs, social science texts, media reports, psychoanalytic theory, biography and autobiography – including my own) and, in the tradition of cultural studies, is less preoccupied with adhering to methodological convention than I think are its closest neighbours, history and sociology.
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‘Consumer culture and cultural studies’

‘Consumer culture and cultural studies’

boundaries was a hallmark of the work of the CCCS (Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies) at Birmingham from 1964. The cross-pollinated work produced there developed approaches to understanding the meanings, politics and lived experiences of consumer culture as a part of popular culture. For example, Angela McRobbie used political, sociological and gender studies work to analyse how the British girls’ magazine Jackie ‘sought to win…a set of particular values’, including both ‘a close intimate sorority’ and an unsisterly ‘claustrophobic world of jealousy and competition’ (McRobbie 1978). Dick Hebdige’s work Subculture: The Meaning of Style borrowed from sociology, politics and aesthetics to find meaning and political contestation in the clothing and affiliations of particular groups of young people, like skinheads and punks (Hebdidge 1979). In ‘Woman becomes an individual’, Janice Winship focused on how the encouragement to buy things operated to produce a particularly gendered and individualised sense of self, borrowing from gender theory, politics and sociology in the process (Winship 1981).
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(Con)figuring gender in Bible translation: Cultural, translational and gender critical intersections

(Con)figuring gender in Bible translation: Cultural, translational and gender critical intersections

dividing lines to consider when engaging ancient texts, whether in interpretation, translation, or other investigations. Literary, social, historical and other configurations are committed to the quest for scholarly excellence, the promotion of (their) academic ideals and even the pursuit of intellectual converts. There is little indication that differences will be resolved and no synthesis is anticipated. These culture wars have no peace, truce or even diminished hostilities in sight. What follows will take these theoretical positions as starting point for illustrating the relevance of cultural studies for translation studies amidst the culture wars. In fact, it is on such uneven and contested terrain of theory that one needs to plot, trace and evaluate translation studies, which means neither to take sides nor to insist on facile conjunctures. Methodological – not to mention epistemological – accord in translation theory and work is acknowledged as a distant dream. Scholars increasingly admit that translation and interpretation cannot be separated from one another and that neither of these pursuits can be considered outside of culture and ideology (cf. Elliott & Boer 2012:2). 2 Or to put it differently, translation studies (also) are simultaneously
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Progressive Traditions: Cherokee Cultural Studies

Progressive Traditions: Cherokee Cultural Studies

insistence on absolute and exclusive value. If there are tensions between the Cherokee and Lenni Lenape aspects of the man Mooney discusses, a binary limits him either to Cherokee or Lenni Lenape identity, for according to the logic of the dialectic he cannot finally be both, either through mediation, which enacts a temporary bridging, or through synthesis, which is a new creation, an evolutionary hybrid. We cannot know how this man thought of himself, but as Anne McClintock astutely notes, “race, gender and class are not distinct realms of experience, existing in splendid isolation from each other; nor can they be simply yoked together…Rather, they come into existence in and through each other—if in contradictory and conflictual ways,” 12 suggesting that the ripples of influence, if diminishing, are nevertheless ongoing. We may usefully take a snapshot of a pooling moment we then title an identity—and that representation may even be faithful for a great long while—but it is no more eternal than it is the moment itself, and we may never see the other currents pushing or pulling our subject into frame. McClintock’s emphasis on experiential reticulation is well taken, yet she, too, narrowly defines the spheres of identity in Eurocentric terms, privileging currently acceptable neo-Marxist categories. In the midst of the Second Great Awakening in Cherokee country, religion, age, clan, town, and more, theorized and not, swirl in other relevant eddies of experience.
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Cultural memory and paradigms in the study of the past: philosophy, history, cultural studies

Cultural memory and paradigms in the study of the past: philosophy, history, cultural studies

The concepts of “mentality and” identity “, in our opinion, reveal the peculiarity of memory studies in the framework of cultural studies and the paradigmatic shift that occurred in knowledge of the past in the twentieth century. This explains why the idea of identity in modern science originates from the study of the consciousness of the patriarchal collective. Identification in this case becomes self-identification with the collective in a spontaneously direct form. As contrasted with the representatives of German classical philosophy, whose act of rational self-consciousness is the basis of the universe, modern ideas about identity are a return to what seemed to be left in the distant past. Through a sense of collective involvement we return from conscious personal choice to the mechanisms of unconscious rallying. As M. Halbwachs and J. Assmann show, they are modified at the level of religious consciousness. And in modern society an irrationally organized cultural memory comes to the fore. First and foremost, it is due to the fact that an irrational collective identity, unlike individual self-consciousness, is an effective form of manipulation. The mechanisms of the formation of the “mythology from above” are innovation of the era of managed democracy.
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The cultural turn? On the "Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies" (1992   2004)

The cultural turn? On the "Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies" (1992 2004)

I think this gives a fair image of the Journal and its intel- lectual context at the time. Of course, by this time historical com- munism had collapsed, sparking a crisis of futuricity associated (but not identical) with postmodernism. Jameson’s foundational work in this respect—Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capital- ism—was published the year before (although its fundamental theses were already well-known from the mid-1980s). Interestingly, although extraordinarily widespread, the term has never been an important one for the Journal. Latin America, meanwhile, was being rocked by debt- crisis, violent civil war, neoliberalism—including the emergence of a powerful illegal capitalism: narco-tráfico and the privatization of public resources—and (the traumas of) post-dictatorship—all, of course, very much Cristóbal Nonato territory. One of the key debates emerging at the time, for example in Punto de vista, as well as in the several volumes of essays dealing with the “fin de siglo,” and associated with the crisis of futuricity mentioned above, was the perceived “fall” of the figure of the intellectual (or, as Gramscians might say, of the “traditional” intellec- tual). As it scanned for popular alternatives, some of the work associated with the Latin American Subaltern Studies Group was also a particular, slightly later inflection of this idea. Taking what is arguably Angel Ra- ma’s weakest essay—La cuidad letrada—as its point of departure, such perspectives also eventually lead, via Edward Saidian accounts of the neo-colonial aspects of Area Studies, to critiques of Latin-Americanism as a whole. Although Néstor García Canclini, Beatriz Sarlo and Jesús Martín-Barbero are not associated with this later set of US-centred ar- guments, they are associated with the conjuncture and regarded as the “founders” of something called “cultural studies” in or of Latin America. At its origins the Journal also shares in this moment, but ex-centrically so to speak—switching between (or even combining) Latin American
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The Final Issue Cultural Studies Review

The Final Issue Cultural Studies Review

Our frustrations aside we would wish to make of this moment a sea of thanks to each of you and the many who have enabled the Journal to be a leading light in cultural studies thinking and writing. We shout out our respect for Lee Wallace who took our standards of book reviewing to new heights and acknowledge the work of Alex Dane, the last in fine line of Managing Editors who have helped sustain our high editorial standards. And before a closing note, some indulgent back slapping. Katrina would like to acknowledge and thank her co- editor Chris Healy. We are both serial offenders as editors, having worked with others and returned for more. In the face of institutional and personal challenges, Chris has been a source of support for both the journal and for me personally. His intellectual imagination and verve are so delightfully complemented by a sense of the absurd—who else would choose Perpetua as the font for a draft of a final editorial—and a proper idea of when we should get cranky. Chris would like to thank his co-editor, Katrina Schlunke. Katrina’s intellectual creativity is a unique departure from the constraints of conformity, her every engagement with scholarship— and with all forms of life— is rooted in wonder, warm integrity and joy. I have adored the professional and personal connections with Katrina granted by our work on this Journal.
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Approaches to Gender Studies: A Review of Literature

Approaches to Gender Studies: A Review of Literature

The dominance model, a feminist oriented perspective, stresses that differences between men’s and women’s speech style arise because of the male’s dominance over women which persists in order to keep women subordinated to men. Associated with this paradigm are scholars such as Dale Spender (1981), Deborah Cameron (2003, 2006), and Pamela Fishman (1980, 1983), to name a few. Through the social inequality and patriarchy lenses, the proponents of dominance paradigm voiced their objection to cross-gender model of the difference camp. In a speech delivered at Leeds University entitled ‘Men are from Earth, Women are from Earth’ Deborah Cameron (2003, p. 145) while addressing John Gray’s book Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus (1992) clearly articulated the underlying premise for much of her work. She opines that “any difference in men’s and women’s way of communication is not natural and inevitable but cultural and political”. In her latest article (2010) Cameron argues that in mixed-sex conversations, women try to “disarm potential threats by displaying a submissive or non-provocative attitude while with other women it is rational to try to form protective alliances by displaying solidarity and mutual regard. Men are ‘less polite’ not because they cannot use these strategies, but because in most situations they feel no need to” (p. 185). She criticizes the ‘difference theorists’ for seeing childhood socialization as the most important gender constructing process. She (2006) believes that all versions of the myths regarding men’s/women’s different speech style share some or all of the following premises:
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ANNA SIVULA. Cultural Heritage Studies

ANNA SIVULA. Cultural Heritage Studies

IDENTITY WORK OF CULTURAL HERITAGE COMMUNITY Shared history Participant experience Trace of past, symbol.. MONUMENTAL IDENTITY WORK Shared history Trace of past, symbol.[r]

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Australian cultural studies in an ‘Asian century’

Australian cultural studies in an ‘Asian century’

by Asian area studies—especially detailed training in Asian languages, histories, cultures and politics—while drawing on cultural studies approaches as a means of productively complicating the cold war rubric of geo-cultural ‘areas’ that underlies their field. Tessa Morris- Suzuki’s call for a new formation she provocatively called ‘anti-area studies’ was particularly interesting. She defined anti-area studies as the study of ‘anti-areas’: its aim would be ‘not to plot the communal trajectory of a civilisational area within the march of global progress, but to observe major global forces from a variety of positions which are as far apart as possible.’ 12 We
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A cultural turn in New Testament studies?

A cultural turn in New Testament studies?

It is postcolonial theory as a particularly energetically pursued approach with important spin-offs within cultural studies that has, in recent years, consistently aided the interpretation of biblical texts. Postcolonial studies flowed from cultural studies, or became an aspect of new concern within cultural studies (Gallagher 1996:229), both of which sit uneasily with being conceptualised as another academic or scientific discipline in the traditional sense of the word. The value that postcolonial theory brings to biblical hermeneutics is found particularly in its role of accounting for the contexts of origin of biblical and related contemporary texts and documents. Going beyond traditional historical– critical concerns, postcolonial work is particularly interested in the extent to which these texts and their interpretation were influenced by imperialist, socio-cultural, and economic– political powers – both past and present. More specifically to the discipline of theology, and to NT studies in particular, postcolonial theory offers valuable theoretical support for interpreting texts which originated in an imperial setting dominated by the Roman Empire and its collaborators. The interpretation of biblical texts in the complex and often tension-filled situations and relationships between people and groups of people in the wake of the end of colonisation in Africa, and the fall of the South African apartheid regime – with the lingering effects and influences of these systems on the former colonies and ‘new
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Cultural Nationalism and the Rise of Dutch Studies

Cultural Nationalism and the Rise of Dutch Studies

As was mentioned above, the same period also saw the rise of an offfijicial language policy. In 1804 and 1805, an orthography and a grammar were published on behalf of the national government, to be used for admin- istrative and educational purposes. The author of the orthography was Siegenbeek. The Rotterdam-based clergyman Pieter Weiland wrote the offfijicial grammar, which will be discussed in chapter 6 by Jan Noordegraaf. The fij irst offfij icial codifij ication of the ‘national’ language was carried out under the authority of the Minister of Education, Johan Hendrik van der Palm. In chapter 7, Ellen Krol focuses on van der Palm and his extensive contributions to Dutch studies.
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Cultural studies questionnaire

Cultural studies questionnaire

I am working on three things at the moment: a book on Latin American poetry since the 1950s, which looks at how poets explore changes in the language and at what has changed in the type of reading required by recent poets. A study of the 1930s in Peru, which is a type of cultural history centred on language through the whole social/cultural/political field, but which takes the work of certain poets (Vallejo, Westphalen) as a useful hermeneutic. And a book on non-hermeneutic reading, which is an experiment in non-academic reading, centred various recent Latin American and American poets (Creeley, O'Hara, Gola, Zurita, etc). The idea is to see what happens if you give up having any institutional handle on the poems - if that makes sense - not, in the actual act of reading, reaching out for interpretative powers granted by academy or marketing, but trusting what the poems are able to do. I guess that's not cultural studies, but part of it will be the question what happens to reading now, at the edge of the future, when electronic media have expanded vastly the possibilities of cutting and recombining - what happens to imagination then? To study the arts without taking imagination
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SOCIO-CULTURAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL-LEGAL DIMENSIONS OF THE GENDER IDENTITY PROBLEM

SOCIO-CULTURAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL-LEGAL DIMENSIONS OF THE GENDER IDENTITY PROBLEM

Speaking about the concept of gender, it is necessary to immediately point out two dimentions of its interpretation in scientific research, as a consequence of social and legal relations in which the activity is regulated by gender norms, and as determination of power relations in which an attempt to regulate the power of men and subjugation of women is most often carried out. In this case, the authors of the article adhere to the position according to which the gender socialization as a manifestation of the formation of sexual identity is an important component of social and legal socialization. Therefore, it is reasonable to state that the problem of gender in the context of contemporary development of society, state and law, is multidimensional by its nature and involves conducting research at the interdisciplinary level. Moreover, nowadays in the Ukrainian socio-cultural space it is still necessary to state the separation of society from the stereotype of belonging of such personal qualities as courage, professionalism, activity, autonomy in decision- making, determination and self-confidence, exclusively to men.
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The Construction of Cultural and Gender Identity in Children, Adolescents and Young People

The Construction of Cultural and Gender Identity in Children, Adolescents and Young People

Tejeda, L., in her conception about identity, states that this depends to a large extent on the educational action of society and on the possibility of the individual to conduct his own development; for this reason, creativity is not a capacity of the human being, but is that which allows it to deploy, to the maximum, its potential for itself, its particular modes of appropriation of culture and, at the same time, expression of your inner universe through play, recreation, study or scientific, technical or artistic work. [7] Technical advances and the development of science in general do not have to imply loss of cultural identity, because both are compatible and necessary, in the same way the coexistence of modernity and tradition should not occur in such a way that one assimilates the other. Culture is assumed in a permanent evolution, in interconnection with hundreds of channels, we think of a cultural identity, not as a manipulation of forms of the past, nor as a formal resurrection of national styles, but as an inter-organization of what we were, we are and we will be; This is how the conservation of the autochthonous is understood so that it serves as a vital daily reference and becomes a true cultural identity.
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Gender ideology in the U.S. and Japan : cross-cultural measurement equivalence

Gender ideology in the U.S. and Japan : cross-cultural measurement equivalence

The factor analyses conducted for this paper provide evidence of distinct cultural patterns of gender ideology in the U.S. and Japan, yet also leave open the possibility of a high level of measurement equivalence between the two cultures for seven of the eight gender ideology items tested. The assumption underlying the creation of a single gender ideology scale from the ISSP questions – that all eight items are equally reliable measures of a single latent dimension of gender ideology – is shown to be incorrect for Japan and the U.S. The three factors the questions appear designed to measure – “Working Women and Relationship Quality,” “Personal Fulfillment for Women,” and “Gender Division of Labor” – based on the values of individual autonomy and gender equality are also not equivalent between the two countries. This model is inadequate even in the U.S. The other country-specific gender ideology model for Japan, which redefines the second two factors as “Valuing Housewife Role” and “Valuing Working Woman Role” improves on the first model, but still does not provide a good fit with the data. From these confirmatory analyses, it is clear that the previous assumptions about the measurement of gender ideology in Japan and the U.S. are incorrect, but the results do not resolve whether equivalent concepts exist across the two countries or what cultural differences in gender ideology remain.
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SOCIAL-CULTURAL FUNCTION AND ROLE OF GENDER IN DEVELOPMENT OF GLOBAL BUSINESS

SOCIAL-CULTURAL FUNCTION AND ROLE OF GENDER IN DEVELOPMENT OF GLOBAL BUSINESS

In Georgia the traditional views on the gender roles are still firm: a woman’s function is to take care and bring up her children, to do housework, and the function of a man is to provide his family financially. Despite the fact that at present 30% of family breadwinners are women, the population considers this is not an ideal situation and in case of economic potentials a woman had better not to work or to have less busy job, the job :suitable for a woman”, A woman should obey her husband and concede to him a leader’s position on different arenas. Both recent and older researches show that Georgia is still masculine, patriarchal country, in which the men occupy domineering positions. As for various campaigns directed to actualization of women’s rights, their greater part talks the language which the wide circles of population cannot understand. That’s why the society shares the gender equality only at the level of declarations, and in thinking and actions the idea of equality failed to be perfectly reflected yet.
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Irish studies, cultural pluralism and the peace process

Irish studies, cultural pluralism and the peace process

For all the fury of the ‘revisionist controversy’ what is most striking with hindsight is how much the protagonists shared; in particular their mutual overweening fascination with cultural identity. For sure, the postcolonial theorists revealed a much keener appreciation of the relationship between identity and power. Drawing on insights about the role of culture in government, they demonstrated the centrality of stereotypes of Irishness to British colonial rule: unable or unwilling to see the possibility that Irish underdevelopment was the product of an unequal colonial relationship, English writers and administrators chose instead to see it as a product of defects in the Irish national character, or cultural identity as we would call it today. The persistence and influence of these stereotypes is illustrated by the geography textbook still in use at the secondary school I attended in the 1970s. It was a state school – complacently Protestant – in a suburb north of Belfast. The book was first published in 1938, the edition in my possession is the fifteenth, reprinted in 1968. The book is entitled, The British Isles. It has fifteen chapters on English regions, three on Scotland, one on Wales and one, the penultimate chapter, on Ireland. This chapter has a section on political divisions that attempts to explain partition. It makes some reference to the troubled history of British/Irish relations and then says:
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Gender bias and the journal of roman studies

Gender bias and the journal of roman studies

The interpretation of the data requires some initial sense of the overall representation of female scholars in the profession. In the case of an international journal such as the Journal of Roman Studies, which regularly publishes work by scholars from across Europe and North America, this is complicated by signi  cant differences between countries. Nor can the overall gender breakdown of active researchers in Classical Studies be established with any real precision: in addition to postholders in universities and colleges, the category (ideally) ought to embrace retired academics, independent scholars, postgraduate students and individuals employed in museums and national archaeological services. Add to which signi  cant differences in the nature of the post held: permanent, adjunct,  xed-term, part-time. It is important to emphasise right at the outset that any statistics on the gender make-up of the ‘ profession as a whole ’ are therefore bound to be somewhat impressionistic.
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Gender, language and a lipstick: creating cultural change in a world of paradoxes

Gender, language and a lipstick: creating cultural change in a world of paradoxes

Paradox 1: the double bind of present-day academia as corporate institution and site for critical knowledge production. In the Third Millennium, capitalism has shifted into a type of cognitive info-capitalism in which ‘immaterial’ intellectual labor (Hardt and Negri 2003, p. 10) is the new source of surplus value. This means that most aspects of human social life and activities, including thought, imagination, creativity, emotions, and communication, are subjected to capitalist exploitation. That is, anything can be converted into a commodity that makes profit (cf. Negri 1989, p. 79) including knowledge produced by intellectual labor in corporate universities. This knowledge is a commodity shaped by the market and purchased by customers (students) at high or low prices (fees) (Alvanoudi 2009). The scientific ‘precariat’ working in corporate universities, that is, teachers and researchers, is exposed to ‘toxic’ academic cultures (Gill 2010) that generate intense workloads and make the articulation of activism and academic work difficult (Pereira 2016). Moreover, universities sustain power structures, such as “exclusionary systems of access, Eurocentric canons and curricular structures, sexist and racist campus cultures and the simultaneous marginalization and cooptation of feminist, race and ethnic, and gay/lesbian/queer studies agenda in the service of the corporate academy” (Mohanty 2003, p. 174). Yet, in spite of its toxic nature, academia remains a prominent site “of struggle and contestation” and “a crucial locus of feminist engagement” (Mohanty 2003, p. 175).
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