Over the last few decades Community-based forestmanagement has become increasingly popular in many developing countries including Ethiopia in response to the continued depletion of forest resources due to the non-participatory and inequitable property right arrangements in the traditional forestmanagement systems. However, empirical evidences on aspects of gender roles specially, women's participation in the new approach is scarce. The current study was conducted at Humbo community forestmanagement project in Wolita zone of Southern Ethiopia with the aim to investigate the role and implications of gender for sustainable forestmanagement in context of CFM. Accordingly, three out of seven CFM co- operatives were purposively selected for the study. This was followed by a stratified random sampling of 150 households (113 male and 37 female) based on gender. Important research data were collected through household survey, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The data analysis was carried out by using descriptive statistics and econometric analysis. Results of the study showed that the participation of female headed household particularly in higher level decision making and forest protection activities was very low compared to the males. In contrast, results on division of labor among household members revealed that females were the primary collectors of NTFPs mainly for household consumption. Analysis of major demographic and socio economic variables influencing participation in CFM activities showed that gender (being male), wealth (richer), age (older) and education (literate) user group members have higher access to participate at decision making level. The study revealed that gender differences along with other socio economic disparities do affect the participation of households in forestmanagement activities and decision making. While the heavily forest dependent poorer and female headed households are merely involved in labor and time consuming forestry activities such as planting and NTFPs collection, the richer and male-headed households have taken most of the decision making posts. The study suggests that improving the participation and role of female headed households in higher level forestmanagement activities of the project should be given consideration.
The results of our analysis are presented in Tables 3, 4 and 5. Table 3 presents the marginal effects of the independent variables on the probability of controlling illicit grazing; Table 4 presents the results on the probability of controlling illicit felling; and Table 5 on the probability of regeneration in the allotted forest. As was mentioned in the previous section, two main specifications were used: one in which we included aggregate indicators of the institutional capabilities of the committees (Capacity Index, in the Tables) and of the degree of women’s participation in the activities of the committee (Women’s participation Index); and another where we included the disaggregated variables used to build the two indices. Results of these estimations are presented in columns (a) and (b) of each of the tables. In addition, to control for factors at the geographic or political level that our control variables may not capture, the same models were estimated including regional effects at the district level. 8 Results of the estimations including these regional dummies are presented in columns (c) and (d) of each table. In column (c) the results are based on the capacity and women’s participation index, while in column (d) we present results from using the individual variables that comprise the two indices. These tables are extracts of tables with full
Within the conservation and development communi- ties, there is increasing awareness of the role gender plays in natural resource management. Several papers and a book covering gender and forestmanagement in India and Nepal helped catalyse our interest in the topic [8, 17, 18]. Yet the extent and rigor of the evidence in the non- academic and academic literature was unknown, and thus a systematic assessment of the evidence was needed. This research was developed in an iterative process dur- ing a series of meetings among several of the authors. A consensus was reached to undertake a ‘systematic map’ of the available evidence. Systematic maps gener- ally involve reviewing a large body of literature to define tractable systematic review questions , but here we chose a systematic map because the knowledge base was expected to be insufficient for a full systematic review and meta-analysis, and a systematic map could provide the foundation for further research by identifying what is already known. Here we focus our systematic map on the geographic and thematic extent of the evidence, the qual- ity of the evidence, and the research needs.
A varied body of research suggests that a group’s gender composition can significantly affect decision-making pro- cesses and their outcomes. For example, a company’s fi- nancial performance tends to improve when both men and women are represented on a corporate board or man- agement team [1,2]. Likewise, forestmanagement com- mittees with a higher proportion of women represented have a greater likelihood of improving forest conditions . Collaboration, conflict resolution, and the capacity for self-sustaining collective action can increase when women are part of a natural resource management group . Women’s participation in a policy-making group can also lead to choices that promote particular public goods ; in rural India, for instance, female leaders on village coun- cils were found to be more likely to invest in public goods such as drinking water facilities than male leaders [6,7]. There may also be a ‘critical mass’ of women—for instance, one quarter to one third of a group—that is re- quired before women effectively participate in decision- making . At the same time, data from forest-user groups in Uganda, Bolivia, Kenya and Mexico (although based on small country samples which preclude general- isation) suggests that too high a proportion of women may also be suboptimal in that pre-dominantly female groups may be disadvantaged . In short, there is emer- ging evidence suggesting that the gender balance of decision-making groups influences outcomes.
Such approach means higher costs of forest road maintenance especially if it is taken into consider- ation that all roads are gravel surfaced all-season roads. Generally all roads are designed to ensure 40-ton truck transport with semitrailors with stan- dard carriageway width of 3.0 – 3.5 m. From a strictly economic point of view such solution seems to be not the most rational. But on the other hand the Slovenian foresters have to take care about 1.1 mil- lion ha of forests out of 2.0 million ha of the total country area and some 12.000 km of gravel surfaced forest roads. In such small-scale country managing forests only for wood production with no regards for other users of forest benefits is simply not an option - even though it implies a higher cost of wood produc- tion.
The IIC “connector fraction” shows that all isolated patches mostly next to river and at the top of the watershed slope (riparian forest or upland forest) are great connectors between upland forest and non-forest area. It could be explained by their proximity to the non-forest area like agricultural, no-data and water land use classes (figure 7, 9, 11, 13). Thus, they become obligatorily the only bridges within the fragmented forest.
Upon realising this, Nanyuki River Water Users Association (NRWUA) raised objections. The NRWUA claimed that already they had identified Kahurura as a site for dam construction with the help of a donor they had approached. Thus NAWASCO was supposed to scout for another site for the proposed dam. The CFA joined the fray and told off both NRWUA and NAWASCO arguing that water was a forest resource and the two (NRWUA and NAWASCO) had not joined the CFA as required by the Forest Act 2005. This conflict is due to legal pluralism which gave birth to multiple institutions whose mandates and interests overlap. It also reveals inadequate understanding of jurisdictions by some leaders’ in-charge of the NRUWA. For instance, the Water Act 2002 vests water resource infrastructure development on Water Service Boards and National Water Conservation and Pipeline Corporation (NWCPC) not Water Service Providers (WSP) such as NAWASCO.
Coulson Forest Products Limited has been in operation for over 50 years and is one of the last family owned forest companies still operating on the Coast of British Columbia. Cliff Coulson in partnership with John Prescott began logging in the Port Alberni area in 1960 under the name Coulson Prescott Logging Limited. Cliff Coulson was the manager and major shareholder of the company which started a relationship contract logging for MacMillan Bloedel in their Sproat Lake Division.
To facilitate multiple land use and to avoid any problems that might arise there are consultations between forests-owners and the Sámi. These take place before regeneration felling and other comprehensive forest operations are started. Innovative tools for consultation become an es- sential part of functioning and sustainable forestmanagement. The developments of reindeer husbandry plans through the use of participatory GIS has increased knowledge and understanding and improved communication between land users and thereby reduced conflicts.
Forest is a complex eco-system that supports a myriad of life forms. The major part of the Earth is composed by forests and are distributed all over the globe. Forest’s account for 80% of the Earth’s plant biomass and 75% of the gross primary production of the Earth’s biosphere. Destruction of such indigenous forests and woodlands leads to deforestation. There are many reasons why we should study deforestation as the land is used in urbanization, mining, industrialization and trees are used to satisfy human’s greed . Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remoste Sensing(RS) are being implemented for various applications of forestmanagement. As most of the rainforest are depleating in enormous rate due to increasing rate of agriculture, urbanization and various human activities encroachment in forest areas, GIS data are very useful for forestmanagement .
Jan Mertens, responsible for PEFC Deutschland public relations, mentions in the discussion the strengths of PEFC certification, which he sees mainly in low costs, especially for small forest owners who are thus able to take part in certification even with smaller estates. He further states that PEFC includes the principle of sustainability and attaches equal weight to all three pillars of sustainability – ecologi- cal, economic and social. PEFC certification is based on integrating nature conservation instead of leaving areas to their spontaneous development (PEFC 2015). Barbara Korak, responsible for PEFC Austria public relations, states the main reasons for the introduction of PEFC certification: in the first place she mentions the possibility of introducing a regional certification, PEFC as an internationally recognized and known system offers Austrian forest owners credible back- ing, joining this certification system is demonstration of a responsible approach to forestmanagement. The main reasons that convince companies to join this certification system include: credibility, ecological ap- proach with aspects of sustainability, widespread and globally recognized system, the possibility of regional certification (PEFC 2015).
The institutional capacity of FMU, particularly at the resort level, has a critical role in facilitating the implementation of community-based forestmanagement. The performance of community-based forestmanagement in the FMUs area of Central Sulawesi Province was still relatively low. The weak institutional capacity of FMUs at the resort level and the high forest enforcement cost were the problem situations confronted by managers. The strategy that could be carried out in strengthening the institutional capacity of FMU at the resort level is to optimize the role of foresters' volunteers and strengthen the social network of FMU at the site level. The priority needs for strengthening FMU in promoting community-based forestmanagement are closely related to the government bureaucratic issue concerning with the FMU system and the SF program. It is necessary to review and formulate policies governing the mechanism and synchronization of FMU system and SF program, related community-based forestmanagement. S o m e d o n o r a g e n c i e s h a v e f a c i l i t a t e d t h e preconditioning program to address the business legality of the two FMUs, included: a) facilitating for strengthening knowledge and skills regarding the preparation requirements for the financial management pattern of BLUD for FMU Dolago Tanggunung sponsored by FAO, b) facilitating the provision of requirements for the financial management pattern of BLUD for FMU Dampelas Tinombo sponsored by Word Bank, and c) facilitating for the preparation of regional regulations on forestmanagement in the FMU area, sponsored by Forclime.
region side has an elliptical configuration, from the NNW to the SSE direction, along 35km on the regional boundary. The shorter axis has a SSW-NNE orientation and it is extended for 8km from the regional boundary towards the Biferno river basin. Altitude ranges from 500m a.s.l. of Volturno river valley to 2050m a.s.l. of Monte Miletto. Under an administrative point of view, the SCI area overlaps the territory of 13 Municipalities which are grouped in Matese and Centro Pentria Mountain Communities. The total population in the SCI area is about 20300 inhabitants (ISTAT 10 2001). The Matese SCI belongs to the temperate oceanic submediterranean bioclimate (Rivas-Martinez 2004), with abundant annual precipitation (1614mm year -1 ), even in summer time (142mm year -1 ), and no aridity during summer months. The average annual temperature is about 11.5 °C, less than 10 °C for 6 months year -1 . However, the minimum temperature is even greater than 10 °C (Blasi 1996; Paura and Lucchese 1997; Blasi et al. 2007). The natural landscape of Matese SCI is extremely diversified and patched (Garfì and Marchetti 2011). Pastoral areas alternate with forests and farmlands. According to the CORINE Land Cover classification (Maricchiolo et al. 2005), the whole territory of Matese is framed into the following categories within Forest and semi-natural areas (class III of CLC Classification, Bosard et al. 2000) : (1) Forests (88%) with recently used forest areas (2%); (2) Shrub and/or herbaceous vegetation associations (9%); (3) Open spaces with little or no vegetation (1%). The most representative forest type (sensu EEA 2006) in terms of covered surface is the ‘European beech forest’ (about 8000 hectares), followed by the Ostrya carpinifolia and Fraxinus ornus forests (about 2300 hectares), and Turkey oak forests (2162 hectares) (Garfì and Marchetti 2011). In terms of forestmanagement conditions, coppice forests represent the 35% of the total forest resources, and high forests correspond to 55% of all forested areas (Chiavetta et al. 2009).
Equal Opportunities or Equal Rights Acts exist at federal level and in all German states. The federal and state laws oblige public organisations to appoint equal opportunities’ or women‘s representatives and, in general, to involve them in all staff-related, social and organisational measures which may affect women‘s or gender equality affairs. In some federal states, higher education institutions as well as other public authorities have to es- tablish female personnel development plans (Frauenförderpläne or Gleichstellungskon- zepte), which must contain targets for the improvement of the participation of women at all hierarchical levels as well as measures to reach these targets. The power and influ- ence of the representatives, however, is very limited. The amendment to the Framework Act for Higher Education (Hochschulrahmengesetz; HRG) of 1998 does not only state that there have to be women’s and/or equal rights representatives but also introduces an evaluation and performance-oriented funding of universities. The appropriation of government funds will be geared to the universities’ performance including the enforce- ment of gender equality. Within Germany, however, there are significant differences in equality measures and their funding within the individual states depend on the respective government.
Under Article 6, it devolves Kenya into 47 counties and further provides that the national and county governments are distinct and interdependent. Article 10 lists the various values and principles of national governance to include amongst others: sharing and devolution of power; participation of the people; protection of the marginalized; and sustainable development. The implementation of the Act has therefore not been smooth. Many issues remain unresolved, such as the transfer of power and resources between the traditional bureaucracy to community, and the sharing of costs and benefits between Kenya Forest Service (KFS) and communities. The benefits that accrue from conservation areas are not all obvious nor are they divided equitably among the different stakeholders. Communities based in areas adjacent to forest reserves have often had limited access, mainly restricted to forest products subsistence. This has occurred while other entities, often external to the community, have been able to generate substantial revenue from these reserves, especially by securing licenses for timber extraction (Thenya et al., 2007). The Constitution revolutionizes the entire system of governance by devolving authority to county governments and decreeing the need for citizen participation in decision making. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of devolution in the Kenya forestry sector as a contributing factor in conservation and sustainable management of resources and services in Kenya forest service.
Naturally such results do not support the idea of better forest roads. But we should be aware of the technical minimum that can ensure normal trans- portability with the least possible disadvantages of the forest road in terms of environmental impacts. Another important problem is maintenance of forest roads. Maintenance of the draining system should be ensured across the whole length of the forest road – efficient draining system is crucial for the normal service of the forest road (Poto~nik 1993, Poto~nik 1998). Higher traffic load indicates traffic as a more significant factor of destruction. The level of forest roads maintenance should reflect this fact. Beside maintenance of the draining system, reconstruction of the upper road layer, traffic signs etc. should also be ensured on the sections of forest roads closer to the public road. Periodical inspections and mainte- nance of the draining system are normally enough on the sections of the forest road with lower traffic load – depending on general maintenance plan and plan of forest operations.
DefInItIon of timberland ManagementForest administration is the plan and usage of an arrangement of activities in which stands are reaped, items are circulated, cutovers are recharged, and assurance against creepy crawlies, fire and malady is given (Baskerville, 1986) These exercises are controlled in timing, sum and geographic space with the goal that their aggregate impact creates a coveted blend of advantages, for example, timber, amusement opportunity, and so on from the entire backwoods after some time. The primary destinations of the woodland administration are to discover one calendar, i.e., plan, that seems liable to create the coveted future timberland improvement example and stream of advantages, - actualize that scheduil year-by-year, - screen backwoods execution periodicalyy to search for and cure dissimilarity amongst expected and real results (Jordan, Erdle, 1989).
3.Dept. of Geography, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria
4.Dept. of Urban and Regional Planning, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria Abstract
The exploitation of forest resources is carried out by both male and female; they do this because they have material gains they make from such exploitation. These gains include both timber and non timber forest products like food especially during shortfall in food supply as safety net, income from the sales of timber and non timber forest products, materials for building houses, medicine for ailments and other diseases and other environmental benefits like soil fertility replenishments. This study set out to assess how male and female participate in the exploitation of forest resources, what they benefits from the exploitation and how this benefits could translate to the rural development of the park enclave communities of the Cross River National Park, Nigeria. Two hypotheses were formulated for the study in the null form. Questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection, this is divided into section A and B, with section A eliciting respondent’s socio-demographic data, while section B elicits data on gender participation in forest resources exploitation and rural development of the park enclave communities. Using the stage-wise random sampling technique, a sample of 638 respondents representing 15% from the total population of 4249 people within the enclave communities of the park (Okwangwo, Okwa 1 and 2, Mkpot, Abung and Iku) was sampled for the study. The researcher with the help of three trained research assistants administered the instruments and collected same back. Chi square and Pearson Product Moment correlation was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 significant levels. Both hypotheses tested significant