theme. The theme of teacher experience was comprised of the codes in the categories for instruction and application, both of which reflect the students’ experiences with **learning** through the framework of their past teachers. From the students’ perspectives, how they learned was directly related to how they were taught. The student **learning** experience was impacted by the methods used in their math instruction. From the students’ perspective, the **teaching** itself was a critical component of how they experienced their math **learning**. Student perceptions of math and their **learning** experience were directly linked to the teacher they had in the past. Respectively, the most commonly repeated statements were reflective of overall positive self-efficacy in math. All eight participants, females and males, offered statements that were coded in the category of achievement efficacy. The participants had a very positive perspective on their achievements in math and their abilities to perform in this subject. There were six out of the eight participants, three females and three males, who deemed their past experiences with their math teachers as having had an impact on both their performance and their math choices. Some of the experiences were positive and some negative, but the past experiences still played a role in their decisions regarding math course taking choices. Based on past experiences of students and feelings related to their performance and instruction in math, the students demonstrated this influence as having a strong impact on their current math perspectives and choices. I found this to be the case almost equally among males and females across interviewees and almost equally represented across the two major themes. Quantified in Table 11 is the frequency with which female and male participants

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Primary school educations are basically at the concrete operational level. By their nature, they need a large number and variety of educational or instructional resources to interact with. **Teaching** and **learning** involves a dynamic interaction of human and material resources. Children at the primary school level like to explore, experiment, create and interact intensively with the environment. For a lesson to be meaningful, children would therefore require copious use of instructional resources so as to provide them with enabling environment to learn **mathematics** (Meremikwu, 2008).

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1.1 Statement of the Problem
The issue of **gender** **differences** in **mathematics** performance by various researchers (Beller & Gafni, 1996; Eshun, 2000; Hedges & Nowell; Randhawa, as cited in Alkateeb, 2001) has raised a major concern in the **teaching** and **learning** of **mathematics**. To this effect, many researchers have investigated into several areas such as teachers characteristics and female students achievement (Awuah, Eshun & Sokpe, 2011); **gender** **differences** in attitude and **mathematics** performance (Eshun, 2000) and various recommendation in suggesting innovative ways of **teaching** **mathematics** are made through such works to improve upon classroom practice as well as improving females performance in **mathematics**. However, many studies have shown that instruction that makes use of instructional materials or manipulatives have positive influence on student’s performance (Sowell, 1989; Kurumeh, Chiawa & Ibrahim, 2010). Heddens (1997) defines manipulative as “any material or object from the real world that learners move around to show mathematical concepts” (p. 47). He adds that the use of manipulatives help in understanding the basic concepts in **learning** **mathematics**. The uses of such materials provide the teacher or instructor with multiple ways of presenting basic mathematical concepts to learners. Larbi (2011) opines that mathematical lessons should involve multiple instructional techniques. When several different instructional techniques are used in a lesson, it enables students with different **learning** style to develop mathematical understanding through at least one of the techniques used.

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primary teachers may pursue different goal orientations in their **teaching**, and through their instructional practices they signal to students that the point of school work is to learn and progress, or to perform better. several studies provide evidence that students adopt the goal orientation emphasized through teacher’s use of instructional strategies, and the importance of students’ perceptions of the **learning** environment is underlined. to date, the knowledge about teachers’ beliefs and instructional practices in **mathematics** at the lowest primary grade levels is limited. in addition, studies focusing on **differences** in the **learning** environment created by male and female teachers through their use of **teaching** strategies are sparse. however, research findings show that female teachers tend to be more student-centred and supportive of students than male teachers. in the present study female teachers report somewhat higher levels of mastery goal structure for students and mastery approaches to instruction, while male teachers report a somewhat higher level of performance approaches to instruction. positive relationships were also found between students’ math performance and female teachers’ mastery orientation, mastery approaches to instruction and **teaching** efficacy, respectively. these relations are somewhat stronger for girls than for boys. for the male teachers the relationships between the teacher constructs and student math performance are clearly different. the relatively small sample of male teachers constitutes a serious limitation for the interpretation of these findings. the **gender** **differences** that were registered may, however, serve as an interesting starting point for further research. in future studies qualitative research methods should be included, and female and male teachers’ interaction with female and male students should be explored more closely.

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There is no significant difference between boys and girls in the understanding of the language of **mathematics**. This results suggests that, during the **teaching** and **learning** process, **mathematics** teachers should teach the language of **mathematics** the same way other spoken languages are taught. This approach would enable students to construct meaning internally, understanding what is asked, develops a correct plan in order to solve a problem and carrying out the plan. Therefore, deliberate efforts should be made to teach from simple language of **mathematics** to complex language of **mathematics** as an objective. Testing of the students’ understanding of the language of **mathematics** should start earlier in different schools, districts, and regional levels. When setting assignments, teachers should emphasize increasing students’ awareness and comprehension of mathematical concepts. Adopting these assessment techniques will allow **mathematics** teachers to direct students’ thinking towards the understanding of the language of **mathematics**.

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A survey was conducted in several secondary schools in rural area of one district in Johor to gather information regarding students’ perception on **teaching** and **learning** **mathematics** in English. The instrument used for this study was a set of questionnaire that comprised of two parts. Part one elicited information on the students’ background. Part two of the questionnaire comprised sixteen items regarding students perception on **teaching** and **learning** science and mathematic in English. The questionnaire was administered to 279 form one and two students of several secondary schools. The respondents were given 40 minutes to complete the questionnaire. The data were analyzed statistically by using SPSSPC software program. The statistical analyses used are frequency, percentage, reliability index and correlation coefficient. The reliability index (Cronbach α) of the study for all the 279 respondents was 0.70. For the qualitative analysis, written responses of the students were analysed by listing the problems encountered by each students in his explanation.

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performance in math (Pajares, 1996; Seegers & Boekaerets, 1996; William, 1994; Zimmerman & Martinez Pons, 1990). Seegers and Boekaerets (1996) reported that even after controlling for achievement in **mathematics**, eighth-grade boys express stronger judgments of their **mathematics** capability than do eighth-grade girls. In addition, female students have lower self-efficacy than do male students about their prospects to succeed in **mathematics**-related careers (Hackett, 1985; Hackett & Betz, 1989). Research in self- efficacy beliefs suggests that **gender** **differences** emerge in the middle school years (Wigfield & Eccles, 1995). These age-related **gender** **differences** in self-efficacy beliefs have been attributed to increased concerns about conforming to **gender**-role stereotypes, which typically coincide with the entry into adolescence (Wigfield et al., 1996).

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The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering and **mathematics** (STEM)-related fields remains a concern for educators and the scientific community. **Gender** **differences** in **mathematics** and science achievement play a role, in conjunction with attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs. We report results from the 2011 Trends in **Mathematics** and Science Study (TIMSS), a large international assessment of eighth grade students’ achievement, attitudes and beliefs among 45 participating nations (N = 261,738). Small to medium sized **gender** **differences** were found for most individual nations (from d = -.60 to +.31 in **mathematics** achievement, and d = -.60 to +.26 for science achievement), although the direction varied and there were no global **gender** **differences** overall. Such a pattern cross-culturally is incompatible with the notion of immutable **gender** **differences**. Additionally, there were different patterns between OECD and non- OECD nations, with girls scoring higher than boys in **mathematics** and science achievement across non-OECD nations. An association was found between **gender** **differences** in science achievement and national levels of **gender** equality, providing support for the **gender** segregation hypothesis. Furthermore, the performance of boys was more variable than that of girls in most nations, consistent with the greater male variability hypothesis. Boys reported more favorable attitudes towards **mathematics** and science and girls reported lower self-efficacy beliefs. While the **gender** gap in STEM achievement may be closing, there are still large sections of the world where **differences** remain.

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As for **learning** strategies, various learners’ factors have been identified as factors related to language **learning** strategies, including language being learned, level of language **learning**, proficiency, degree of metacognitive awareness, **gender**, affective variables such as attitudes, motivation, and language **learning** goals, specific personality traits, overall personality type, **learning** style, career orientation or field of specialization, national origin, aptitude, language **teaching** methods, task requirements, and type of strategy training (Oxford & Nyikos, 1989). In terms of **gender** and language **learning** strategies, Kamarul et al. (2009) show that females report using language **learning** strategies more often than males and there are significant **differences** between genders in the use of affective and metaphysic strategies. Females tend to use them more often than males. According to the aforementioned issue, it can be seen that **gender** is one of the factors that can influence both language **learning** styles and strategies. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the **gender** **differences** in language **learning** styles and language strategies that Thai learners prefer. The objectives of the present study are to identify language **learning** styles and strategies used by first year university students in Thailand, and to examine **gender** **differences** in those two variables.

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The chief inference made in the present study is that gender differences in mathematics anxiety for student teachers are associated with experience during high school to a significant [r]

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Language learners have to learn sufficient quantity of words to communicate by using the target language, but **learning** vocabulary is not easy at all. It is essential that learners motivate themselves and pay a lot of attention to the words. This can be done by comparing cultural **differences** in a context or using the words in sentences, the meanings of which reveal different application of cultural values. For culture is what shapes our behaviour in life, they represent the way we are. So that utterances, statements, sentences which have something to do with our culture or foreign cultures are very likely to attract our attention and motivate us. In fact, by speaking about cultural **differences**, we give life to vocabulary in class settings. Students are able to learn the meanings of words by actually living them. So that it is not only **learning** some words but also dealing with different understandings and applications of life as well. These **differences** can be acted out, discussed, written, or drawn. In any case, students find themselves in an atmosphere where **learning** is not dull and boring, but pleasant and enjoyable.

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substituting value and getting result , this is the traditional way of explaining .Some school still follow these methods but in 21 st century **mathematics** classroom we can teach the same concept diagrammatically as follows:

Earlier research comparing cooperative and competitive **teaching** has not in- cluded the type of manipulation check for **teaching** fidelity that was included in this study. Results for this manipulation check suggest that in general, participants perceived the two **teaching** conditions to be as intended. Using the Classroom Life Instrument (Johnson et al., 1983), analyses revealed that the amount of cooperation perceived in the cooperative condition was significant- ly higher than that perceived in the competitive condition. There was also a significant **gender** difference, with women perceiving more cooperation than men in both conditions. This **gender** difference was also manifested in com- plaints from some participants in the cooperative condition such as, “What? Can’t I work alone?” and “Oh great. I hate group stuff!” All these negative reactions came from male students. In contrast, no complaints were heard from female participants. Although no positive comments were received from the men in the cooperative condition, women’s comments reflected their positive approval: “Oh good, do you want to be partners?” and “I like this!” These findings are consistent with research by Beer and Darkenwald (1989), who

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This latter point is developed by Eagle 1978 1n an article called "Self-Appraisal 1n the Learning of t-1a.thematics" in which she argues for the assessment of pi~ces of work to be done b[r]

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make meaning or creating a concept of **mathematics** is in one's mother language. We think, there is a lack of ability and lack of understanding because students' languages are different in school and home context. The ‘official' **mathematics** is socially and culturally neutral in the context of Nepal. There is increasing awareness of language and its impacts on **mathematics** **learning** (Orton 1996). The language forms and strategies used in **mathematics** **teaching** differently favor some social groups over others. We realized that language is one of the major cause of marginalization because our teachers support some students while it may disadvantage other students through the choice of language used in the classroom. Some students might be excluded from the classroom practice due to language as a barrier. Hence, there exists a social class of students that has the poor participation and less engagement in the classroom (Scada 1992) due to the difference of school language being different from home language. The discrimination of **teaching** and classroom practice becomes the problem of **teaching** and **learning** **mathematics**. Studies have shown consistently that one's social backgrounds are profoundly influential in determining whether or not anyone is likely to perform in **mathematics** well (Lamb 1997). In this sense, we feel that the social background affect **mathematics** **learning**. Nepal is a multilingual and multi-ethnic country. The different social groups such as Gurung, Newar, Tamang, Mushahar, Yadav, Chaudhari, Rai, and Limbu (to name a few) have different languages. Altogether, there are about 125 active spoken languages in Nepal (UNESCO 2015). In our classroom, there is diversity in speaken languages of different students. The teacher may have his or her own language that is distinct from the medium of instruction in the class. He or she teaches **mathematics** with own techniques using a different language (Nepali or English) which neither belongs to him or her nor some students socially. That method of **teaching** may not fit diverse situations while observing from the social aspect. Nepal promised to provide quality education by addressing the issue of linguistic diversity. The Dakar Framework of Action (DFA 2000) a motivated Nepal to intervene in the education policy to bring some reform to ensure the rights of diverse ethnic groups to get education in their own language.

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effective changes to the **learning** process (Mastropieri et al., 1991; Seo & Bryant, 2009; Kulik, 1994). On the other hand, (Li & Ma, 2010) in their review found statistically significant positive effects of computer-technologies on **mathematics** achievements and larger effects on interventions for children with special needs compared to the effects on general education students (Li & Ma, 2010). Similarly, Jitendra and colleagues also carried out a meta-analysis including interventions for students with mathematical dif- ficulties and **learning** difficulties in secondary school (Jitendra et al., 2018). This study reported that computer-based modules were more effective as compared with regu- lar classroom instruction, but did not provide an additional advantage as compared to other instructional approaches (e.g. visual not-computerized modules). Noticeably, all these findings emerged from evaluations of special needs students presenting highly heterogeneous difficulties, including for instance students with low-IQ, various types of **learning**, physical, and emotional disabilities, ADHD, blindness, etc., besides those with specific mathematical difficulties. However, children with **learning** disabilities in general and with mathematical difficulties in particular, show different **learning** pro- files. Indeed, developmental dyscalculia - one of the core school academic disabilities - may develop in children with normal IQ and in the absence of difficulties in other domains, skills or abilities (Butterworth, 2019). Focusing on interventions targeting children with specific difficulties in the domain of numbers may thus provide some important insights for effective interventions to these children.

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A major disadvantage of interviews in social research is that unlike observation, the data is based on what participants say rather than what they actually do. These things may differ for a number of reasons. Interviewer attributes such as age, **gender**, socio- economic status or ethnicity may influence responses (Bryman, 2001). Denscombe (2010) suggests interviewees may supply answers they feel tally with the researcher’s expectations or tailor their responses to please the researcher. Interviewer effects can be minimised by being aware of the types of questions asked, maintaining a neutral stance and attempting to remain non-committal to responses given. This does present issues for the interviewer as nods and ‘yes?’ are commonly used both conversationally and as prompts in interviews. Probing when conducting an interview can be ‘highly problematic for researchers’ (Bryman, 2001, p.118). Probes may be required when participants do not understand questions, provide insufficient or ambiguous detail for coding or for more detail on an open-ended question. When probing however,

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I certify that an Examination Committee has met on 7th July 2006 to conduct the final examination of Latifah Binti Md Ariffin on her Master of Science thesis entitled "Integrating MAPLET[r]

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Our discussion in the previous section highlights the importance of taking **mathematics** as a human activity, ensuring it is meaningful to students, and developing students’ mathematical thinking about ideas, rather than simply absorbing a set of static and disconnected know- ledge and skills. We call for a shift in **teaching** **mathematics** based on Platonic conceptions to ap- proaches based on more of Aristotelian conceptions. In essence, Plato emphasized ideal forms of mathematical objects, perhaps inaccessible through people’s sense making efforts. As a result, learners lack ownership of the ideal forms of mathematical objects, because math- ematical objects cannot and should not be created by human reasoning. In contrast, Aristotle emphasized that mathematical objects are developed through logic rea- soning and empirical realization. In other words, math- ematical objects exist only when they can be sensed and verified by people's efforts. This differs from Plato’s pas- sive perspective, highlights human ownership of mathem- atical ideas and encourages people to make **mathematics** make sense, termed as making sense by McCallum (2018). Aristotelian conceptions view **mathematics** as objects that learners can actively develop and structure as mathematic- ally meaningful, which is more in line with what research mathematicians do. McCallum (2018) argued that both sense-making and making-sense stances are needed for a complete view of **mathematics** and **learning**, recognizing that not attending to both stances carries risks. “Just as it is a risk of the sense-making stance that the **mathematics** gets ignored, it is a risk of the making-sense stance that the sense-maker gets ignored.” (McCallum 2018).

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the first case of knowing **mathematics** in a qualitatively different way is expressed in mt6: knowing that the order in the tripartite relationship between the three numbers of a “multiplication number family” is arbitrary and can be changed. part of knowing **mathematics** is knowing its conventions and part of ‘doing **mathematics**’ is using those convention. it is actually a characteristic of **mathematics** as an academic discipline to use conventions to the extreme in order to shorten the way in which ideas are expressed, as anyone who has ever opened an academic **mathematics** textbook can attest to. at the school level, the convention of order of operation is a prime example for the disciplinary approach to conventions. “undoing” the convention of writing “2” and “3” together in 2×3=6 by allowing the three numbers to be written in any order – together with an “understanding” of how the numbers are to be combined – is an example of the “unpacked” knowing that ball and bass (2002) suggest is a characteristic for knowing **mathematics** for **teaching** purposes as distinct from knowing **mathematics** for other purposes. it is not part of knowing **mathematics** for other purposes than for **teaching** others to understand mathematical concepts to “undo” mathematical conventions and explore what **mathematics** could look like without such conventions. mt6 illustrates also an example of mathematical understanding that is distinct from the **mathematics** teachers want their students to know. While students work with “undone” conventions in the game the teachers have described, “undoing the convention” is not part of what students are to learn. rather they engage with such “undoing” for **learning** purposes (and thus **teaching** purposes). first, they learn about the meaning of a mathematical convention by experiencing that and how it can be changed. second, it is through the “undoing of the convention” that they engage more deeply with number relationships as they are defined through their multiplicative relationship; seeing the numbers 2, 12, 6 in any order should trigger in students their “multiplicative relationship”: two and six multiply to 12. again, the “undoing the convention” itself is not part of what students are to learn.

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