Gender Differences in Mathematics Teaching And Learning

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Gender Differences, Learning Styles, and Participation in Higher Mathematics

Gender Differences, Learning Styles, and Participation in Higher Mathematics

theme. The theme of teacher experience was comprised of the codes in the categories for instruction and application, both of which reflect the students’ experiences with learning through the framework of their past teachers. From the students’ perspectives, how they learned was directly related to how they were taught. The student learning experience was impacted by the methods used in their math instruction. From the students’ perspective, the teaching itself was a critical component of how they experienced their math learning. Student perceptions of math and their learning experience were directly linked to the teacher they had in the past. Respectively, the most commonly repeated statements were reflective of overall positive self-efficacy in math. All eight participants, females and males, offered statements that were coded in the category of achievement efficacy. The participants had a very positive perspective on their achievements in math and their abilities to perform in this subject. There were six out of the eight participants, three females and three males, who deemed their past experiences with their math teachers as having had an impact on both their performance and their math choices. Some of the experiences were positive and some negative, but the past experiences still played a role in their decisions regarding math course taking choices. Based on past experiences of students and feelings related to their performance and instruction in math, the students demonstrated this influence as having a strong impact on their current math perspectives and choices. I found this to be the case almost equally among males and females across interviewees and almost equally represented across the two major themes. Quantified in Table 11 is the frequency with which female and male participants
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Instructional Aids and Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Cross River State: Implications for Teaching Mathematics

Instructional Aids and Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Cross River State: Implications for Teaching Mathematics

Primary school educations are basically at the concrete operational level. By their nature, they need a large number and variety of educational or instructional resources to interact with. Teaching and learning involves a dynamic interaction of human and material resources. Children at the primary school level like to explore, experiment, create and interact intensively with the environment. For a lesson to be meaningful, children would therefore require copious use of instructional resources so as to provide them with enabling environment to learn mathematics (Meremikwu, 2008).
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Algebra Tiles Manipulative and Gender Differences in Learning and Achievement in Mathematics: A Case of Sunyani West Municipality

Algebra Tiles Manipulative and Gender Differences in Learning and Achievement in Mathematics: A Case of Sunyani West Municipality

1.1 Statement of the Problem The issue of gender differences in mathematics performance by various researchers (Beller & Gafni, 1996; Eshun, 2000; Hedges & Nowell; Randhawa, as cited in Alkateeb, 2001) has raised a major concern in the teaching and learning of mathematics. To this effect, many researchers have investigated into several areas such as teachers characteristics and female students achievement (Awuah, Eshun & Sokpe, 2011); gender differences in attitude and mathematics performance (Eshun, 2000) and various recommendation in suggesting innovative ways of teaching mathematics are made through such works to improve upon classroom practice as well as improving females performance in mathematics. However, many studies have shown that instruction that makes use of instructional materials or manipulatives have positive influence on student’s performance (Sowell, 1989; Kurumeh, Chiawa & Ibrahim, 2010). Heddens (1997) defines manipulative as “any material or object from the real world that learners move around to show mathematical concepts” (p. 47). He adds that the use of manipulatives help in understanding the basic concepts in learning mathematics. The uses of such materials provide the teacher or instructor with multiple ways of presenting basic mathematical concepts to learners. Larbi (2011) opines that mathematical lessons should involve multiple instructional techniques. When several different instructional techniques are used in a lesson, it enables students with different learning style to develop mathematical understanding through at least one of the techniques used.
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GENDER DIFFERENCES IN TEACHERS' BELIEFS AND PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN'S ACHIEVEMENT IN MATHEMATICS

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN TEACHERS' BELIEFS AND PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN'S ACHIEVEMENT IN MATHEMATICS

primary teachers may pursue different goal orientations in their teaching, and through their instructional practices they signal to students that the point of school work is to learn and progress, or to perform better. several studies provide evidence that students adopt the goal orientation emphasized through teacher’s use of instructional strategies, and the importance of students’ perceptions of the learning environment is underlined. to date, the knowledge about teachers’ beliefs and instructional practices in mathematics at the lowest primary grade levels is limited. in addition, studies focusing on differences in the learning environment created by male and female teachers through their use of teaching strategies are sparse. however, research findings show that female teachers tend to be more student-centred and supportive of students than male teachers. in the present study female teachers report somewhat higher levels of mastery goal structure for students and mastery approaches to instruction, while male teachers report a somewhat higher level of performance approaches to instruction. positive relationships were also found between students’ math performance and female teachers’ mastery orientation, mastery approaches to instruction and teaching efficacy, respectively. these relations are somewhat stronger for girls than for boys. for the male teachers the relationships between the teacher constructs and student math performance are clearly different. the relatively small sample of male teachers constitutes a serious limitation for the interpretation of these findings. the gender differences that were registered may, however, serve as an interesting starting point for further research. in future studies qualitative research methods should be included, and female and male teachers’ interaction with female and male students should be explored more closely.
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Gender Differences in the Language of Mathematics in Secondary Schools

Gender Differences in the Language of Mathematics in Secondary Schools

There is no significant difference between boys and girls in the understanding of the language of mathematics. This results suggests that, during the teaching and learning process, mathematics teachers should teach the language of mathematics the same way other spoken languages are taught. This approach would enable students to construct meaning internally, understanding what is asked, develops a correct plan in order to solve a problem and carrying out the plan. Therefore, deliberate efforts should be made to teach from simple language of mathematics to complex language of mathematics as an objective. Testing of the students’ understanding of the language of mathematics should start earlier in different schools, districts, and regional levels. When setting assignments, teachers should emphasize increasing students’ awareness and comprehension of mathematical concepts. Adopting these assessment techniques will allow mathematics teachers to direct students’ thinking towards the understanding of the language of mathematics.
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Students' perception on teaching and learning mathematics in english

Students' perception on teaching and learning mathematics in english

A survey was conducted in several secondary schools in rural area of one district in Johor to gather information regarding students’ perception on teaching and learning mathematics in English. The instrument used for this study was a set of questionnaire that comprised of two parts. Part one elicited information on the students’ background. Part two of the questionnaire comprised sixteen items regarding students perception on teaching and learning science and mathematic in English. The questionnaire was administered to 279 form one and two students of several secondary schools. The respondents were given 40 minutes to complete the questionnaire. The data were analyzed statistically by using SPSSPC software program. The statistical analyses used are frequency, percentage, reliability index and correlation coefficient. The reliability index (Cronbach α) of the study for all the 279 respondents was 0.70. For the qualitative analysis, written responses of the students were analysed by listing the problems encountered by each students in his explanation.
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A new perspective on gender differences in student self-perceptions of ability in mathematics

A new perspective on gender differences in student self-perceptions of ability in mathematics

performance in math (Pajares, 1996; Seegers & Boekaerets, 1996; William, 1994; Zimmerman & Martinez Pons, 1990). Seegers and Boekaerets (1996) reported that even after controlling for achievement in mathematics, eighth-grade boys express stronger judgments of their mathematics capability than do eighth-grade girls. In addition, female students have lower self-efficacy than do male students about their prospects to succeed in mathematics-related careers (Hackett, 1985; Hackett & Betz, 1989). Research in self- efficacy beliefs suggests that gender differences emerge in the middle school years (Wigfield & Eccles, 1995). These age-related gender differences in self-efficacy beliefs have been attributed to increased concerns about conforming to gender-role stereotypes, which typically coincide with the entry into adolescence (Wigfield et al., 1996).
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Investigating gender differences in mathematics and science: Results from the 2011 Trends in Mathematics and Science Survey

Investigating gender differences in mathematics and science: Results from the 2011 Trends in Mathematics and Science Survey

The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM)-related fields remains a concern for educators and the scientific community. Gender differences in mathematics and science achievement play a role, in conjunction with attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs. We report results from the 2011 Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), a large international assessment of eighth grade students’ achievement, attitudes and beliefs among 45 participating nations (N = 261,738). Small to medium sized gender differences were found for most individual nations (from d = -.60 to +.31 in mathematics achievement, and d = -.60 to +.26 for science achievement), although the direction varied and there were no global gender differences overall. Such a pattern cross-culturally is incompatible with the notion of immutable gender differences. Additionally, there were different patterns between OECD and non- OECD nations, with girls scoring higher than boys in mathematics and science achievement across non-OECD nations. An association was found between gender differences in science achievement and national levels of gender equality, providing support for the gender segregation hypothesis. Furthermore, the performance of boys was more variable than that of girls in most nations, consistent with the greater male variability hypothesis. Boys reported more favorable attitudes towards mathematics and science and girls reported lower self-efficacy beliefs. While the gender gap in STEM achievement may be closing, there are still large sections of the world where differences remain.
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GENDER DIFFERENCES IN LANGUAGE LEARNING STYLE AND LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN LANGUAGE LEARNING STYLE AND LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES

As for learning strategies, various learners’ factors have been identified as factors related to language learning strategies, including language being learned, level of language learning, proficiency, degree of metacognitive awareness, gender, affective variables such as attitudes, motivation, and language learning goals, specific personality traits, overall personality type, learning style, career orientation or field of specialization, national origin, aptitude, language teaching methods, task requirements, and type of strategy training (Oxford & Nyikos, 1989). In terms of gender and language learning strategies, Kamarul et al. (2009) show that females report using language learning strategies more often than males and there are significant differences between genders in the use of affective and metaphysic strategies. Females tend to use them more often than males. According to the aforementioned issue, it can be seen that gender is one of the factors that can influence both language learning styles and strategies. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the gender differences in language learning styles and language strategies that Thai learners prefer. The objectives of the present study are to identify language learning styles and strategies used by first year university students in Thailand, and to examine gender differences in those two variables.
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Gender Differences in Mathematics Anxiety Among Preservice Teachers and Perceptions of Their Elementary and Secondary School Experience with Mathematics

Gender Differences in Mathematics Anxiety Among Preservice Teachers and Perceptions of Their Elementary and Secondary School Experience with Mathematics

The chief inference made in the present study is that gender differences in mathematics anxiety for student teachers are associated with experience during high school to a significant [r]

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Enjoyable Vocabulary Teaching and Learning with Cultural Differences

Enjoyable Vocabulary Teaching and Learning with Cultural Differences

Language learners have to learn sufficient quantity of words to communicate by using the target language, but learning vocabulary is not easy at all. It is essential that learners motivate themselves and pay a lot of attention to the words. This can be done by comparing cultural differences in a context or using the words in sentences, the meanings of which reveal different application of cultural values. For culture is what shapes our behaviour in life, they represent the way we are. So that utterances, statements, sentences which have something to do with our culture or foreign cultures are very likely to attract our attention and motivate us. In fact, by speaking about cultural differences, we give life to vocabulary in class settings. Students are able to learn the meanings of words by actually living them. So that it is not only learning some words but also dealing with different understandings and applications of life as well. These differences can be acted out, discussed, written, or drawn. In any case, students find themselves in an atmosphere where learning is not dull and boring, but pleasant and enjoyable.
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The Twenty-First Century Mathematics Classroomandimpact of Technology in Teaching and Learning Mathematics

The Twenty-First Century Mathematics Classroomandimpact of Technology in Teaching and Learning Mathematics

substituting value and getting result , this is the traditional way of explaining .Some school still follow these methods but in 21 st century mathematics classroom we can teach the same concept diagrammatically as follows:

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Gender Differences in Cooperative Learning with University Students

Gender Differences in Cooperative Learning with University Students

Earlier research comparing cooperative and competitive teaching has not in- cluded the type of manipulation check for teaching fidelity that was included in this study. Results for this manipulation check suggest that in general, participants perceived the two teaching conditions to be as intended. Using the Classroom Life Instrument (Johnson et al., 1983), analyses revealed that the amount of cooperation perceived in the cooperative condition was significant- ly higher than that perceived in the competitive condition. There was also a significant gender difference, with women perceiving more cooperation than men in both conditions. This gender difference was also manifested in com- plaints from some participants in the cooperative condition such as, “What? Can’t I work alone?” and “Oh great. I hate group stuff!” All these negative reactions came from male students. In contrast, no complaints were heard from female participants. Although no positive comments were received from the men in the cooperative condition, women’s comments reflected their positive approval: “Oh good, do you want to be partners?” and “I like this!” These findings are consistent with research by Beer and Darkenwald (1989), who
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Cognitive affective interaction in the teaching and learning of mathematics

Cognitive affective interaction in the teaching and learning of mathematics

This latter point is developed by Eagle 1978 1n an article called "Self-Appraisal 1n the Learning of t-1a.thematics" in which she argues for the assessment of pi~ces of work to be done b[r]

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Teaching and Learning Issues in Mathematics in the Context of Nepal

Teaching and Learning Issues in Mathematics in the Context of Nepal

make meaning or creating a concept of mathematics is in one's mother language. We think, there is a lack of ability and lack of understanding because students' languages are different in school and home context. The ‘official' mathematics is socially and culturally neutral in the context of Nepal. There is increasing awareness of language and its impacts on mathematics learning (Orton 1996). The language forms and strategies used in mathematics teaching differently favor some social groups over others. We realized that language is one of the major cause of marginalization because our teachers support some students while it may disadvantage other students through the choice of language used in the classroom. Some students might be excluded from the classroom practice due to language as a barrier. Hence, there exists a social class of students that has the poor participation and less engagement in the classroom (Scada 1992) due to the difference of school language being different from home language. The discrimination of teaching and classroom practice becomes the problem of teaching and learning mathematics. Studies have shown consistently that one's social backgrounds are profoundly influential in determining whether or not anyone is likely to perform in mathematics well (Lamb 1997). In this sense, we feel that the social background affect mathematics learning. Nepal is a multilingual and multi-ethnic country. The different social groups such as Gurung, Newar, Tamang, Mushahar, Yadav, Chaudhari, Rai, and Limbu (to name a few) have different languages. Altogether, there are about 125 active spoken languages in Nepal (UNESCO 2015). In our classroom, there is diversity in speaken languages of different students. The teacher may have his or her own language that is distinct from the medium of instruction in the class. He or she teaches mathematics with own techniques using a different language (Nepali or English) which neither belongs to him or her nor some students socially. That method of teaching may not fit diverse situations while observing from the social aspect. Nepal promised to provide quality education by addressing the issue of linguistic diversity. The Dakar Framework of Action (DFA 2000) a motivated Nepal to intervene in the education policy to bring some reform to ensure the rights of diverse ethnic groups to get education in their own language.
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Holistic ICT environments for effective mathematics teaching and learning

Holistic ICT environments for effective mathematics teaching and learning

effective changes to the learning process (Mastropieri et al., 1991; Seo & Bryant, 2009; Kulik, 1994). On the other hand, (Li & Ma, 2010) in their review found statistically significant positive effects of computer-technologies on mathematics achievements and larger effects on interventions for children with special needs compared to the effects on general education students (Li & Ma, 2010). Similarly, Jitendra and colleagues also carried out a meta-analysis including interventions for students with mathematical dif- ficulties and learning difficulties in secondary school (Jitendra et al., 2018). This study reported that computer-based modules were more effective as compared with regu- lar classroom instruction, but did not provide an additional advantage as compared to other instructional approaches (e.g. visual not-computerized modules). Noticeably, all these findings emerged from evaluations of special needs students presenting highly heterogeneous difficulties, including for instance students with low-IQ, various types of learning, physical, and emotional disabilities, ADHD, blindness, etc., besides those with specific mathematical difficulties. However, children with learning disabilities in general and with mathematical difficulties in particular, show different learning pro- files. Indeed, developmental dyscalculia - one of the core school academic disabilities - may develop in children with normal IQ and in the absence of difficulties in other domains, skills or abilities (Butterworth, 2019). Focusing on interventions targeting children with specific difficulties in the domain of numbers may thus provide some important insights for effective interventions to these children.
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Experiences of teaching and learning mathematics in setted and mixed settings

Experiences of teaching and learning mathematics in setted and mixed settings

A major disadvantage of interviews in social research is that unlike observation, the data is based on what participants say rather than what they actually do. These things may differ for a number of reasons. Interviewer attributes such as age, gender, socio- economic status or ethnicity may influence responses (Bryman, 2001). Denscombe (2010) suggests interviewees may supply answers they feel tally with the researcher’s expectations or tailor their responses to please the researcher. Interviewer effects can be minimised by being aware of the types of questions asked, maintaining a neutral stance and attempting to remain non-committal to responses given. This does present issues for the interviewer as nods and ‘yes?’ are commonly used both conversationally and as prompts in interviews. Probing when conducting an interview can be ‘highly problematic for researchers’ (Bryman, 2001, p.118). Probes may be required when participants do not understand questions, provide insufficient or ambiguous detail for coding or for more detail on an open-ended question. When probing however,
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Integrating maple in the teaching and learning of mathematics for business and economics

Integrating maple in the teaching and learning of mathematics for business and economics

I certify that an Examination Committee has met on 7th July 2006 to conduct the final examination of Latifah Binti Md Ariffin on her Master of Science thesis entitled "Integrating MAPLET[r]

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Problematizing teaching and learning mathematics as “given” in STEM education

Problematizing teaching and learning mathematics as “given” in STEM education

Our discussion in the previous section highlights the importance of taking mathematics as a human activity, ensuring it is meaningful to students, and developing students’ mathematical thinking about ideas, rather than simply absorbing a set of static and disconnected know- ledge and skills. We call for a shift in teaching mathematics based on Platonic conceptions to ap- proaches based on more of Aristotelian conceptions. In essence, Plato emphasized ideal forms of mathematical objects, perhaps inaccessible through people’s sense making efforts. As a result, learners lack ownership of the ideal forms of mathematical objects, because math- ematical objects cannot and should not be created by human reasoning. In contrast, Aristotle emphasized that mathematical objects are developed through logic rea- soning and empirical realization. In other words, math- ematical objects exist only when they can be sensed and verified by people's efforts. This differs from Plato’s pas- sive perspective, highlights human ownership of mathem- atical ideas and encourages people to make mathematics make sense, termed as making sense by McCallum (2018). Aristotelian conceptions view mathematics as objects that learners can actively develop and structure as mathematic- ally meaningful, which is more in line with what research mathematicians do. McCallum (2018) argued that both sense-making and making-sense stances are needed for a complete view of mathematics and learning, recognizing that not attending to both stances carries risks. “Just as it is a risk of the sense-making stance that the mathematics gets ignored, it is a risk of the making-sense stance that the sense-maker gets ignored.” (McCallum 2018).
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KNOWING MATHEMATICS-FOR-TEACHING: THE CASE OF PLANNING LEARNING ACTIVITIES

KNOWING MATHEMATICS-FOR-TEACHING: THE CASE OF PLANNING LEARNING ACTIVITIES

the first case of knowing mathematics in a qualitatively different way is expressed in mt6: knowing that the order in the tripartite relationship between the three numbers of a “multiplication number family” is arbitrary and can be changed. part of knowing mathematics is knowing its conventions and part of ‘doing mathematics’ is using those convention. it is actually a characteristic of mathematics as an academic discipline to use conventions to the extreme in order to shorten the way in which ideas are expressed, as anyone who has ever opened an academic mathematics textbook can attest to. at the school level, the convention of order of operation is a prime example for the disciplinary approach to conventions. “undoing” the convention of writing “2” and “3” together in 2×3=6 by allowing the three numbers to be written in any order – together with an “understanding” of how the numbers are to be combined – is an example of the “unpacked” knowing that ball and bass (2002) suggest is a characteristic for knowing mathematics for teaching purposes as distinct from knowing mathematics for other purposes. it is not part of knowing mathematics for other purposes than for teaching others to understand mathematical concepts to “undo” mathematical conventions and explore what mathematics could look like without such conventions. mt6 illustrates also an example of mathematical understanding that is distinct from the mathematics teachers want their students to know. While students work with “undone” conventions in the game the teachers have described, “undoing the convention” is not part of what students are to learn. rather they engage with such “undoing” for learning purposes (and thus teaching purposes). first, they learn about the meaning of a mathematical convention by experiencing that and how it can be changed. second, it is through the “undoing of the convention” that they engage more deeply with number relationships as they are defined through their multiplicative relationship; seeing the numbers 2, 12, 6 in any order should trigger in students their “multiplicative relationship”: two and six multiply to 12. again, the “undoing the convention” itself is not part of what students are to learn.
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