Gender Dysphoria In Children

Top PDF Gender Dysphoria In Children:

Intense/obsessional interests in children with gender dysphoria: a cross-validation study using the Teacher’s Report Form

Intense/obsessional interests in children with gender dysphoria: a cross-validation study using the Teacher’s Report Form

From Skagerberg et al. [23] and other systematic stud- ies of GD samples (noted earlier), it is clear that there are many children with GD who would not be diagnosed with an ASD or would even be in the clinical range on dimensional measures of ASD traits, as, for example, on the SRS. Recognition of this variability is consistent with the principle of equifinality [43]. ASD or ASD traits, including the presence of intense and restricted interests, may lead to gender dysphoria, but for those GD children without ASD or ASD traits the presence of intense and restricted interests may be caused by other underly- ing processes. This would, of course, be consistent with multifactorial models of gender dysphoria, in which the relative contribution of risk factors will vary in their rela- tive weight from one child to the next [44]. Along similar lines, it should also be noted that there are now several studies which document an elevation in ASD traits, as measured by the SRS, in children referred for a variety of clinical problems [45–49], not just in children referred for GD, which clearly points to a pattern of non-specificity.
Show more

8 Read more

Consecutive lynestrenol and cross-sex hormone treatment in biological female adolescents with gender dysphoria: a retrospective analysis

Consecutive lynestrenol and cross-sex hormone treatment in biological female adolescents with gender dysphoria: a retrospective analysis

Because GD will persist after puberty in only a minor- ity of the children presenting with GD, medical treat- ment, i.e., puberty suppression is best started after the first physical signs of puberty [4, 6]. At the onset of pu- berty, the reaction of the adolescent to the first bodily changes, under the form of increasing aversion of their biological sex which will enhance GD, often provides additional diagnostic evidence [7]. If GD persists, the child will be eligible for medical treatment aimed at sup- pressing puberty and/or attenuating its physical symp- toms [5, 8], a decision which is to be made by an experienced multidisciplinary team. However, delaying puberty is controversial. The general consensus now- adays tends to be that the advantages of reducing psy- chological burden, giving more time to explore gender identity and decreasing the need for (and extent of ) later sex reassignment surgery [4] outweigh the disadvantages. Arguments against puberty suppression include that the gender identity of adolescents is still developing during puberty and suppression of endogenous sex hormones may interfere with normal growth, bone maturation, and brain development. However, with the initiation of cross-sex hormones, these effects are believed to be (mostly) reversible [9].
Show more

11 Read more

An Exploration of The Body Image Scale In Young People: A Comparison Of Persons With Features Of Gender Dysphoria And Control Samples

An Exploration of The Body Image Scale In Young People: A Comparison Of Persons With Features Of Gender Dysphoria And Control Samples

disorders are elevated in 14-18 year old girls in comparison to all other social groups (Ransley, 1999), including body dysmorphic disorder, self-harming (Muehlenkamp & Brausch, 2012), poor self esteem and body loathing (Grogan, 1999). Feminist authors, amongst others, have proposed that the socio-cultural burden on women, to achieve an unrealistically slim ideal precedes body dissatisfaction (Bordo, 1993; Thompson et al., 1999), eating disorders (Levine & Piran, 2004), and cosmetic surgery (Sarwer & Crerand, 2004). Murnens‟ (2011) research indicated that body image was noticeably gendered in children from eight years of age, and this remains stable across the lifespan (Tiggemann, 2004). Most studies find that sociocultural pressures on appearance are greater for woman than for men (e.g. Fernandez &
Show more

192 Read more

Gender dysphoria in adolescence: current perspectives

Gender dysphoria in adolescence: current perspectives

the research literature concerning gender variation among children focuses on gender “atypical” behavior and deviation from “normative patterns”, thus viewing gender in a binary way instead of as a wider spectrum of (healthy) identities, personalities and behaviors among children. This is surely relevant for adolescents as well. These authors also requested a shift in research paradigms away from the study of outcomes of sexuality and gender identity and the child/adolescent in isolation toward outcomes of adjustment and the child/ado- lescent in contexts that affect adjustment. Along with further discussions of the best treatment interventions, it is relevant to attempt to contribute to societal attitudes that enable children and adolescents with gender variance to express themselves and successfully complete the developmental tasks common to all, independent of gender.
Show more

11 Read more

Gender Dysphoria and Body Integrity Identity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

Gender Dysphoria and Body Integrity Identity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

Usually the gender assigned at birth is that one correspond- ing to the chromosomal information, but many exceptions hap- pens considering only genetic data (Kandhelwal et al., 2010). The reason why this criteria is still very used is because these two parameters (chromosomes-gender) are practically always correlated in an animal (Ngun et al., 2011). Recently, Australi- an and after them German legislation, which went into effect on Friday November 1 st in 2013, were enacted in order to give parents and children more time before making life-changing sex reassignment decisions in cases of intersex genital characteris- tics at birth. This will happen in German legislation having a third option (blank for gender designation box in babies whose gender is not clear at birth) only of their birth certificates, not other legal registries such as passports, being possible to change this blank designation later on to male or female or can be left blank indefinitely (Stafford, 2013).
Show more

6 Read more

Long-term Puberty Suppression for a Nonbinary Teenager

Long-term Puberty Suppression for a Nonbinary Teenager

Referrals of transgender and gender- diverse (TGD) children and adolescents to gender clinics worldwide have grown dramatically in the past decade as societal awareness of gender diversity has increased and relevant clinical services have become available. 1,2 At the same time, it has become apparent that many TGD young people have a gender identity that does not conform to the binary categories of male or female; that is, they have a nonbinary gender identity. 3–5 Some nonbinary individuals are most comfortable with an androgynous gender expression. For those who have yet to fully progress through puberty, puberty suppression with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) can support an androgynous appearance. Although such treatment is shown to ameliorate the gender dysphoria and serious mental health issues commonly seen in TGD young people, long-term use of puberty-suppressing medications also carries physical health risks and raises
Show more

8 Read more

Examining rural maternal gender attitudes over time: Will she belong to another family, anyway?

Examining rural maternal gender attitudes over time: Will she belong to another family, anyway?

Vol 28 (2) 2018 6 a multi-stage cluster design, with random selection at each level, from county, township to village. At the final stage, 20 children were sampled from each of the 100 selected villages, using the complete list of all children who were 9-12 years old in the village. The first wave of data was collected in year 2000, then 3 subsequent waves through 2009. There are also linkable secondary samples of sample children’s mothers and their homeroom teachers. This study uses mostly data collected in 2000 and 2004 from the child, mother, and homeroom teacher questionnaires. The educational attainment is from 2009 sample child, now youth, questionnaire. Considering that our main goal is to investigate the impact of changes in maternal gender attitude on children’s later educational attainment, we limit our analytical sample to those who were enrolled in school in wave 2 (2004) and participated in the 2009 survey. When the first wave of data was collected in 2000, almost all the sample children were in school. In wave 2 (2004), about 16% of the original sample had dropped out of school. After eliminating missing in all measures, 1530 cases are included in our analyses. Figure 1 presents the geographic location of the GSCF research site.
Show more

22 Read more

Towards Gender Equality: a Comparative Analysis of Gender Attitudes in Africa

Towards Gender Equality: a Comparative Analysis of Gender Attitudes in Africa

On other hand, another group of modernization theorists, posit a structural explanation to the changes in gender atti- tudes in modern societies (Wilensky 2002; Davis 1984; Goode 1968; Inkeles 1980; Levy 1969). They argue that due to a con- tinuous process of industrialization, “rich democracies” have come to share many similarities which has resulted in a “con- vergence” among these societies. The continuous process of industrialization result in occupational structure changes, that is, the shift from demand for unskilled manual workers to skilled workers. This shift, coupled with the low economic benefits of having children, has provided incentives and in- creased women’s participation in the labour market. The modern labour market requires higher education for employ- ment, thereby, increasing the educational levels and labour force participation of women. Therefore, this change in gen- der relations (women and men both working and studying alongside) influence their attitudes towards gender equality to becoming more liberal (Wilensky 2002).
Show more

33 Read more

Gender dysphoria in adolescents: the need for a shared assessment protocol and proposal of the AGIR protocol

Gender dysphoria in adolescents: the need for a shared assessment protocol and proposal of the AGIR protocol

According to the Dutch Protocol, assessment of a gender variant adolescent requires psycho-diagnostic evaluation that includes general development, functioning in the dif- ferent life areas and assessment of associated psychopa- thologies. Moreover, it is important to explore how the parents have raised the child, family history, family func- tioning and cultural and religious values. Specific assess- ment of GD should clarify whether the adolescent fulfils DSM diagnostic criteria for GD, excluding reactive forms or other differential diagnoses, excluding associated psy- chopathologies, and identify potentially predisposing and maintaining factors. It is also useful to reconstruct the onset of atypical gender behaviour, along with its char- acteristics and pervasiveness of expression in different life contexts. The methodology includes interviews with the adolescent and parents together with psychometric tests. During interviews with parents, one should as- sess the concordance of parental expectations and treat- ment objectives, as well as the opinions of both parents about their child’s eventual psychosexual outcome, e.g. a future homo- or bi-sexual orientation. In the diagnostic phase, furthermore, the adolescent has to be accurately informed about the short and long-term consequences, and also regarding the limits of hormonal and surgical treatment to circumvent unrealistic expectations. The as- sessment also evaluates psychological and/or social risk factors that could possibly interfere (e.g. social phobia) with a good outcome of the intervention and that, if pres- ent, should be treated, sometimes even before the GD  1 .
Show more

7 Read more

Effect of oral motor stimulation on drooling among children with cerebral palsy at selected centres in Coimbatore

Effect of oral motor stimulation on drooling among children with cerebral palsy at selected centres in Coimbatore

study. Oral motor exercises may be implemented into the child’s therapy program for various reasons, whether it is to increase muscle tone or strength, stability, movement, or to increase overall awareness for feeding and speech production. Often times, these types of activities are recommended to build the child’s awareness of his mouth and how his tongue, teeth, lips, and jaw work together to produce speech sounds and words. Children can be easily stressed or defensive when a hand or object is presented to their lips or mouth, especially when demands are placed on them to participate in something that is uncomfortable or difficult for them, such as oral motor activities. The drooling was assessed by using Drooling Quotient and therapy was given for six months. Result showed that, there was a statistically significant decrease in the rate of salivary flow in post treatment period when compared with pre treatment observations.
Show more

104 Read more

Is there a gender difference in antidiuretic response to desmopressin in children?

Is there a gender difference in antidiuretic response to desmopressin in children?

Women with nocturia are more sensitive to desmo- pressin, a synthetic arginine vasopressin (AVP) ana- logue, with significant antidiuretic responses to des- mopressin orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) 25 μg, compared with men who require 58 μg to achieve similar responses. In children the current desmopres- sin dose recommendation to treat primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) is the same for boys and girls. This post hoc analysis of data from a randomised, double- blind single-dose study of 84 children with PNE aged 6 - 12 years explored gender differences in sensitivity to desmopressin in children. Following water loading to suppress endogenous AVP, placebo or desmopres- sin 30, 60, 120, 240, 360 or 480 μg was administered when urinary production reached >0.13 mL/min/kg. The endpoints of urinary osmolality and duration of urinary-concentrating action (DOA) (above three thres- holds: 125, 200 and 400 mOsm/kg) were analysed to compare efficacy in boys and girls, in each treatment group. The DOA and urinary osmolality were similar in both genders in the desmopressin 120 - 480 µg groups. Boys receiving desmopressin ODT 30 - 60 µg tended to increased urinary osmolality and experi- enced 1 - 2 hours longer DOA than girls. The same pattern of higher values in boys compared with girls was seen for all measures of urinary osmolality. Con- clusion: In a limited sample of pre-pubertal children the antidiuretic response to desmopressin was largely similar between genders, in contrast to findings in adults.
Show more

7 Read more

Mothers and fathers of children with epilepsy: gender differences in post-traumatic stress symptoms and correlations with mood spectrum symptoms

Mothers and fathers of children with epilepsy: gender differences in post-traumatic stress symptoms and correlations with mood spectrum symptoms

Objectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate post-traumatic symptoms among 134 parents of children with a diagnosis of epilepsy, followed at the outpatient neurologic unit of Department of Pediatrics in Santa Chiara Hospital in Pisa, as well as gender differences. The second aim of this study was to estimate the impact of lifetime mood spectrum on post-traumatic stress symptoms in the same study sample after fulfillment of the Trauma and Loss Spectrum- Self Report (TALS-SR) and the Mood Spectrum-Self Report (MOODS-SR) lifetime version. Results: Results showed 10.4% and 37.3% of PTSD full and partial, respectively. Demographic characteristics and clinical features of the study sample did not show any impact on stress symptomatology. Mothers presented higher rates at all Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 PTSD symptoms’ clusters except avoidance. Nevertheless, note- worthy correlations between post-traumatic symptomatology and mood spectrum symptoms detected with the self-report tools, emerged only in the subgroup of the fathers.
Show more

9 Read more

Psychiatric symptoms in glioma patients: from diagnosis to management

Psychiatric symptoms in glioma patients: from diagnosis to management

Furthermore, shock and disbelief, anger and despair, dysphoria and anxiety, or intrusive thoughts about the disease may be prominent.41 Often, these emotional reactions are transient in [r]

8 Read more

Gender representation in Filipino storybooks for children

Gender representation in Filipino storybooks for children

Learning materials produced and consumed in the Philippines are no exception to these phenomenon. Java and Parcon (2016) recently assessed gender role depiction in textbooks commonly used in first grade schools in the Philippines. Their analysis ran based on Kabira and Masinjila‘s (1997 in Java & Parcon, 2016) three-point gender role framework which looked into productive, reproductive and community roles. According to findings, traditional gender roles pervaded in various content. Males gravitate towards so-called productive and community roles whereas females are oriented towards the reproductive. Males are subjected to a diverse range of roles which emphasized heavy labor, while females remain represented as docile. This is parallel to findings by Quezada-Reyes (2000) who argued that patriarchal attitudes are still quite noticeable in historiography based on an analysis of select Philippine secondary school history books. It was added that women are barely mentioned in these books except as national leaders who took over after their husbands were assassinated. Men are also predominantly depicted as the defenders, while women are rendered as the defended.
Show more

9 Read more

Examining the validity and reliability of the Activities Specific Balance Confidence Scale 6 (ABC 6) in a diverse group of older adults

Examining the validity and reliability of the Activities Specific Balance Confidence Scale 6 (ABC 6) in a diverse group of older adults

Though my research questions did not specifically ask about the gender of authors and illustrators of picture books or page/illustration numbers, my results may help contribute to the dialogue around children‟s books. Similar to other studies, female authors outnumbered males overall and over time, whereas male illustrators outnumbered company and female illustrators. One hypothesis I can submit about the discrepancy in the number of male and female authors could be the “feminization of childhood.” Simplistically stated, Jenson (2005) explained that a change in family composition (i.e. divorce, single parenthood, separation) limits the father‟s involvement in the daily life of the child‟s. Thus, “children are increasingly left to mothers alone, which is an indication of a marginalization of childhood in society” (Jenson 2005). Furthermore, the responsibility of childrearing falls within mothers‟ domain and therefore is responsible for positive childhood outcomes (Jenson 1998). Considering women tend to be responsible for the socialization of their children and books are used as a socialization tool, it makes sense that women writers represent a majority of children‟s books‟ authors. Another explanation is that this feminization of childhood could also contribute to pay discrepancies. Authors of children‟s books are not paid nearly as well as authors of adult books (The Society of Children‟s Book Writers and Illustrators Illinois Chapter 2010). This follows pay trends that men make more money than women.
Show more

171 Read more

Art Blended Research and Children’s Gender Identity Making

Art Blended Research and Children’s Gender Identity Making

Exploring children’s gender making as an informal learning-by-doing activity, children will learn socially constructed rules about gender while being in the world with Others. As with learning the meaning of traffic signs, the value of money or how to behave in school and play with their peers-or similar to learning a new game. Games such as board games, card games or online games have their own sets of conventional rules. To play the game effectively players need a shared knowledge about the game. There are rules about what to do or not to do, about how to win or how to loose. For example, the game of Ludo could be played in any way, but if the game shall make any sense to the players, there are commonly agreed rules about what the red, blue, yellow and green areas on the board means. It is also agreed about what the dice are for, how each player shall use their tokens and when it is allowed to push other players or not. Similarly, when children make their gender, they have to engage with the rules and find ways of playing the gender game right. Children will learn which sphere, space and position that belong to them as boys or girls. They will learn about the dichotomy and the differences. They will learn about their gendered worth, responsibilities, qualities and capacities. And they will learn where they belong in the gender order Connell (1987) or what happens if they violate any of the paragraphs in what Hirdman (1988) calls the gender contract. To play or not to play gender right, to act, walk and talk as a boy or a girl, to make gender correct, becomes a matter of being included or not in social relations.
Show more

18 Read more

GENDER-SPECIFIC DESIRES OF TODAY’S PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

GENDER-SPECIFIC DESIRES OF TODAY’S PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

as asserted at the time by p.y. galperin, “every good psychology begins with child psychology”. therefore, it is not accidental that for many decades now the national psy- chology does not lose interest in the process of personality development in childhood, which in recent years has adopted a new – gender based point of view towards consider- ing many traditional problems [4; 5; 7; 8; 10 etc.]. However, despite availability of a suffi- ciently large number of studies, there are still some “white spots” in modern psychology which may include among others the issue of desires, and, in particular, their gender specif- ics in relation to childhood.
Show more

5 Read more

<p>May gender influence the quality of life in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes?</p>

<p>May gender influence the quality of life in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes?</p>

described as health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is more and more commonly viewed as an important health index in children with chronic diseases. 6,7 It is assumed that in case of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes HRQOL improvement plays an equally important role in preventing complications as appropriate metabolic control. Therefore, the main aim of treatment should involve not only achieving normoglycemia but also the best possible HRQOL. 3,8 According to numerous authors, a correlation is present between various factors and HRQOL in children and adoles- cents with type 1 diabetes. Notably, numerous studies showed HRQOL reduction in girls compared to boys. 1,4,7,9 – 11 Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess HRQOL and identify factors by which it may be affected, with parti- cular emphasis on gender, in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
Show more

9 Read more

Trends in Tuberculosis Epidemiology among Children in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Trends in Tuberculosis Epidemiology among Children in the Democratic Republic of Congo

The observations by district showed a decreased number of smear-positive PTB cases in Katanga; however, the number of smear-negative PTB and EPTB cases increased. This trend indicated fewer cases of bacteriologically confirmed TB and more clinically diagnosed cases, which could likely be explained by the conflict between tribes in this district that occurred in the last years of the study. In the Bandundu district, a conti- nuous increase in the rate of new smear-positive PTB cases in children was observed. The intervention of several partners in this district’s various health programs could have contributed to the improvement observed in the rate of detection. Partner support has had a major impact on disease control in the DRC, particularly in conflict zones such as the east districts, where war has raged for several years.
Show more

15 Read more

Changes in the relationship between self-reference and emotional valence as a function of dysphoria

Changes in the relationship between self-reference and emotional valence as a function of dysphoria

Several studies support the lack of an emotional association with self-identity in the context of dysphoria and depression. Kuiper and Derry (1982) found that recall within the self-referent condition, compared with the other-referent condition, was increased across both positive and negative stimuli. More recently, in a study of dysphorics, Smallwood (2004) utilized a word fragment task to examine self-reference and ambiguity. He found that dysphoric individuals used self-referent items to complete a word fragment task independently of the emotional tone of the stimuli. Finally, a study by Timbremont and Braet (2004) found that never depressed and remitted depressed children endorsed more positive adjectives as self-related, whereas currently depressed children endorsed equal numbers of positive and negative traits. These findings, and those of the present study, indicate that the context of self- reference (‘does this word describe me?’) automatically activates the self-schema, and that emotional processing within this context is altered in dysphoria. More generally, these findings may indicate that dysphoria is associated specifically with changes in the sense of self, rather than with changes in all aspects of emotional processing. Dysphoric individuals may not define their self-identity through emotion in the same way as non-dysphorics.
Show more

10 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...