ages. Fairytales are beginning to recognize the change in societal values, being evolved and morphed to mirror the current society and their present day values. The roles of women are already changing in today’s culture. Disney fairytales films namely The Little Mermaid and Beauty and the Beast portray females in a more positive light. They possess more freedom to make choices and more changes in their lives as they pursue their highly articulated dreams. Thus Disney has recently developed tales such as Mulan, where there is a female heroine challenging the prejudices her country currently has. In her Chinese culture women are not permitted to join the army and fight alongside the men. Nevertheless, she does, and in the end is given many accolades for her accomplishments. Her grandfather praises her bravery and is even proud of her disobedience. Such a drastic change in the structure of fairytales shows how culture can change for the better. Hence, society must make an effort to accept the change of societal values and reflect these changes in its modern works of art. In doing so the traditional presentation of the female gender as exhibited in Fairytales may be interpreted from new angles.
Here a question rises, does fairytales provides children such imaginations which are a shelter and an escape from the bitter realities of the world for the time being? The researchers believe this is not the case. If the purpose of the fairytales is only to create an atmosphere of escape from the bitter realities of the real world and to put children under the umbrella of fantasy, then why to drag children in the unrealistic environment of the remote past only? These traditional fairytales and the characters of these fairytales contribute little in the grooming of the children. These tales are unable to pull children on the progressive track and instead of modernity, keep their minds and fertile thoughts in Stone Age. The question is then, why don’t we change and present children the incredible and fantastic aspects of the future? Why cannot we sharpen the imaginative powers of the children? An escape would be there but a creative, modern, innovative, technical, latest and scientific one. This concept would be a lubricant to push the children a step ahead. The children should not be taken in by the specious reasoning of the fairytales. We should try to develop their minds proactively. Importantly, instead of creating a terror, fright and phobia in the minds of young readers by introducing the fairytales creatures, such creatures can be introduced which are human friendly, moderate and attractive for the better future prospects of children. Moral and mental corruption through gender difference is an integral part of these typical fairytales by showing female gender inferior to male gender in all respects.
Storytelling as a method of sharing fairytales is an art where the presentation and performance of the story are as important as the content (Ali, 2009). Traditional fairytales often juxtaposed a sweet, melodic element with messages that were sharp, blunt and dangerous (Zipes, 1994). They told stories about local people, rivers and mountains, thieves and heroes; some were murder bal- lads and unhappy love stories and some were full of violence, while others were full of compassion (Tatar, 1992). Gentle brutality, the eternal fight between good and evil, the right to marry, issues of gender, wealth, scarcity and magic were intertwined in these tales; hence, power distributions in fairytales, between boys and girls, men and women, represented a sometimes unbalanced, local- ised and stereotypical view of the world (Warner, 1994). Most importantly, fairytales, and their modern derivative stories, are recognized as important in socializing childhoods (Levorato, 2003), through the performance of the stories in relation to the local social context (Canton, 1994).
A CIP catalog record for this book is available from the British Library.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Ziolkowski, Jan M., 1956–
Fairytales from before fairytales : the medieval Latin past of wonderful lies / Jan M. Ziolkowski.
The survey article on the Estonian folktale tradition in Enzyklopädie des Märchens refers to the Coal Porridge tale type when dealing with the Seto material, highlighting it as a particular example not classifiable as any other known tale type (Masing 1984: 483). Proceeding from several characteristics we have nevertheless classified both types as fairytales (tales of magic) in the Estonian typology. Coal Porridge was placed close to Hansel and Gretel (ATU 327A) due to its resemblance to the well-known tale of the escaping brother and sister. This is why type number 327 is followed by the first hith- erto unused alphabet character in the type index, Ee 327H*. In a similar manner, the Up the Beanstalk tale type has been placed close to the Jack and the Beanstalk tale type (ATU 328A according to the international type index) the uniting factor being a poor boy who climbs a beanstalk into the sky.
Mainly in the Setu region there is known a story “The Sun’s Son-in-Law” belonging to the tale type The Man Persecuted Because of his Beautiful Wife (aTU 465, previously aT 465C): the man serves as a farmhand from St. george’s day to St. george’s day and is given a bull as his pay. While he is in church, lighting a candle in honour of the saint, wolves kill his bull. Next he becomes a herdsman, from St. Nicholas’ day to St. Nicho- las’ day. The horse that he gets as his pay is again killed by wolves. Then he goes to see god to seek for justice and beats up St. george and St. Nicholas as punishment. There is a clear connection between the saint’s feast day and the domestic animals protected by him. partly, “The Sun’s Son-in-Law” can be classified under religious tales, as its es- sential characters are Christian saints and god.
of signification by which we make sense of the past […]. History cannot be written without ideological and institutional analysis, including analysis of the act of writing itself» (Hutcheon 1988: 88; 91). With her stories Carter challenges a common trait of historical narration and the fairy tale, which «tend to suppress grammatical reference to the discursive situation of the utterance (producer, receiver, context, intent) in their attempt to narrate past events in such a way that the events seem to narrate themselves» (92-93), even if they do so in different ways. History, indeed, derives its authorita- tiveness from the assumption that those facts which account for themselves have most certainly happened in the real world whereas fairytales reach the same goal in that the events they account for are outside of plausibility, and belong to the fictional – therefore altogether unreal – realm of magic. The consequences of the de-contextualisation of the production and reception of both narratives on these grounds, however, bypass the fact that they are situated discourses imbued with political purposes and implications, which are unmasked by Carter through the description of the settings of her fairytales. Since the writer is well aware that «both history and fiction are cul- tural sign systems, ideological constructions whose ideology includes their appearance of being autonomous and self-contained» (112), she decides to turn «“Events”, which have no meaning in themselves» into «facts», which are instead signified» (122). Far from leading to extreme relativism, which is the consequence of postmodernism most feared by engaged feminists, the outcome of Carter self-reflexive fiction is rather disturbance and challenge of taken-for-granted narratives, which does not mean that they are made obsolete, but rather rethought and confronted with alternative possibilities. 1.4. Who’s speaking/looking? Unreliable narrators and disruptive focalization
However, for the purpose of this study, I focused on the familiar fairy godmother. In general, when fairy godmothers are introduced in a story, they nearly always act as supernatural benefactors. Historically it is believed that the godmother character is derived from the common Three Fates character. Nevertheless, the difference between them is that while godmothers are benevolent, the fairies can be evil or helpful, just as we saw previously with Sleeping Beauty (Tatar 2002). Ultimately, the fairy godmother provides Cinderella with the necessary objects so that she can attend the ball and meet the prince. Without this help, Cinderella would undoubtedly been unable to move past her destitute situation.
This paper does not mean to serve as an admonition against copyright law, nor offer the impression that literary purism is the definitive solution to preserving artistic integrity. Rather, this paper means to serve as an insight to the reader of the inevitable evolution of culture, and recognize the increasing institutionalization of cultural representation. I am conducting this research in an effort to emphasize how changes in copyright law can and will affect contemporary culture by virtue of the public domain and the implications of works that exist in said domain. I will do this by demonstrating that changes have already infiltrated our culture, and have the propensity to continue to do so. By proxy, cultural images shift with the times, keeping with societal norms, values, advances in technology and evolving language. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate these changes through the perspective of copyright law, specifically in the realm of how these changes are reflected through the modifications of fairytales.
The other popular fairy tale it is similar to is The Goat and Her Three Kids. This is a Romanian literary fairy tale that was written several decades after the brothers Grimm passed away. Instead of seven, there are three kids. The oldest is hardheaded and outspoken and is the first to die, the youngest is quiet and obedient and is spared. There was some squabbling in YouTube comments over which is the “true” version of the fairy tale and while the Grimm tale does predate it I’m not even sure that can provide a satisfactory answer. Most fairytales have bits and pieces scattered back so far and so wide that finding an original anything is often literally impossible. Wolves or other monsters eating children or stones or even being turned into stone are common motifs, as are kids of various species and ages being warned against wolves and their tricks, and parents attempting to protect their young with knowledge and songs and wisdom and wile. These all are to be found in every culture in one form or another. It is an overarching theme of familial protection and instinct, protect the young ones from death that we all share regardless of era or language. It is in everyone’s fairytales if you look enough.
Engaging emotions and imagination as readers immerse in plot character, and theme, literature enlightens worldview and val- ues in addition to language aspects. In the 1700s and 1800s, fairytales evolved as instructional stories, inculcating honor and integrity in children (Haulman, 2012). In The Young Misses’ Magazine, published in 1759, a French governess working in England compiled a collection of fairytales published in France in the 1750s with the express purpose of training children and teenagers in morality and virtue. In the early 1800s, attempting to keep German culture intact from one generation to the next, the Brothers Grimm designed their collection of fairytales in Children’s and Household Tales to reinforce values and virtues among German youth. The personalities in fairytales stand in stark contrast to each other as either virtuous or evil. Readers and audiences naturally identify with the virtuous characters and learn life values as heroes are hailed and culprits vilified. As characters try, try again, the tales show the power of persever- ance, the difference between right and wrong, the importance of hard work, honesty and sacrifice, and respect for higher pow- ers. Crucial to social control, fairytales do more than entertain. They serve as a moral compass for audiences and point the way to lifelong values for civilized, successful life (Lepin, 2009).
Structural, contextual, narrative and gender analyses are made use of in the interpretations of the four retellings in order to understand whether these retellings have been affected from the societal changes. Ideologies of a culture are established with the forming of myths and these two become inseparable in this meaning-making process. It became clear in the thesis that “within each period the structure of the myth corresponds to the conceptual needs of social and self understanding required by the dominant social institutions of that period” (Wright, 1975: 14). These myths affect the individual although she/he is unaware of the underlying cultural content and that makes binary oppositions universal. These analyses of different retellings from various time periods depicted that the structure, which is defined as unchanging by such theorists as Vladimir Propp, is not a closed one and that it can be deconstructed and reshaped.