Testing the replicability of personality factors in vastly different populations contributes to insight into the basic and universal structure of personality. The present study provides a relevant step in testing whether the GFP reflects a universal personality construct. We consider the label “social effectiveness” as a description of the GFP particularly useful. Previously, it has been sug- gested that the GFP may reflect “good” versus “bad” personality (Rushton & Irwing, 2011), but from an evolutionary point of view, it may be better to describe the GFP in terms of the effective- ness by which one attains social goals. Individuals who have a good sense of what is socially valued in their society and who can behave in such a way that others think of them as friendly, sociable, and reliable may have some advantages that affect many life domains, such as friend- ships, romantic relationships, and the attainment of status (e.g., leadership, type of occupation). It may not be difficult to conceive that this would apply to all human societies, ranging from the most developed complex ones, to those that more closely resemble the way humans have lived throughout most of their history (e.g., the Tsimane). As with the generalfactor of human intelli- gence, however, having a genetically based species-typical architecture for a trait does not imply having equal levels of that trait (Winegard, Winegard, & Boutwell, 2017). Human biodiversity, as individual and group adaptations to different natural and social environments, is, thus, pre- served in the face of the structural constraints of typical human species–wide traits, of which the GFP may possible be one.
facet ‘enthusiasm’ may relate to both extraversion and agreeableness, thus leading to a correlation between those dimensions. Subsequently, it has been argued that higher-order factors above, for instance, the level of the Big Five, would disappear when one controls for such blended facets.
Blended-facet models overlap with general-factor models in the sense that they both acknowledge that personality traits truly correlate. The difference between them, however, lies in how one chooses to model these correlations statistically. The citation of Jensen (1998) mentioned above also applies here because even if several equivalent statistical solutions are possible, some make better theoretical sense than others. Regarding this, based on the empirical evidence we would favor a solution in which a generalfactor rather than lower-order facets cause mid-level personality traits to correlate.
domain, namely psychopathology, is the so-called p factor. Caspi et al. (2014) and Hengartner et al. (2014) published studies advocating a
hierarchical structure of psychopathological traits, including a generalfactor at the apex. Conceptually, this p fac- tor of psychopathological
personality appears to occupy the negative pole of the GFP as had been previously proposed by Rushton and Irwing (2011) .
All in all, in our view, GFP research has yielded signiﬁcant new insights into the structure of personality, the possible evolutionary origin of individual differences in personality, and how general mechanisms or tendencies towards social effectiveness (e.g., EI) may ﬁt within personalityfactor space. The notion of the GFP has the potential to yield new and testable hypotheses that are not im- mediately obvious from the perspective of other theoretical frame- works. Despite that certain theoretical aspects of the construct may be currently unclear or require further empirical scrutiny, we believe there are sufﬁcient indications that the GFP is a substantive know- what-to-do-in-social- situations factor that relates to how one can deal with social demands and thus improve the odds of achieving subjectively important life goals.
internalizing, characterized by anxiety and mood symptoms; externalizing, characterized by antisocial behavior and conduct problems in both children and adults (Cosgrove et al., 2011; Krueger 1999). This structure remains stable over the time, and between age and gender groups, when employing clinical vs. community samples, and when using symptom scales, symptom counts of psychiatric diagnostic categories or categorical diagnoses (Mezquita et al., 2015). In addition, a growing body of contemporary research suggests that the psychopathology structure could be better accounted for by a bifactor model, in which a common generalfactor, called the p factor, emerges with externalizing and internalizing factors (Caspi et al., 2014; Carragher et al., 2015; Lahey et al., 2012; Murray et al., 2016; Tackett et al., 2013).
The parameters in the remaining four twin samples were clearly not identical, but the differences appeared to lie largely in the path values. That is, the samples differed in the paths from the genes and shared and unshared envi- ronments to the general factors rather than in the relations between the latter. This might partly reflect differences in the tests used, although differences for similar tests are no- table — for example, Openness is related positively to the generalpersonalityfactor in Great Britain, negatively in Croatia, and close to zero in the Netherlands. In a U.S. adult sample, generalpersonality factors derived individu- ally from seven different personality inventories had sub- stantial loadings on a common generalfactor (ranging from 0.53 to 0.81; Loehlin, 2012). These inventories included the NEO and the CPI used in the present study, although not the JEPQ. An eighth inventory, the HEXACO, had near- zero loadings on the common factor. This exception sug- gests that the common generalfactor was not simply a result of evaluative bias, or the like, which should apply equally to the HEXACO, but a matter of substance. The added Modesty/Humility dimension of the HEXACO apparently combined with Agreeableness to swing the first factor of this inventory away from the rest — with either of these two dimensions removed, the generalfactor of the HEXACO aligned with the others, with loadings of 0.62 or 0.67 on the common factor (Loehlin, 2012).
Seventy of the 698 subjects (13 NDO, 47 DO, 10 HC) had missing items on the TCI-105 (1–9 items), but none of the participants missed four or more questions from one scale.
Personality and personality disorder: Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI; Cloninger et al., 1993 ) was used as the main personality question- naire in the study. The TCI is a self-report, yes-or-no type questionnaire, designed to quantify individual differences on four temperament and three character dimen- sions. A validated Dutch translation of the TCI is available, including a shortened version (TCI-105), in which the original 240 items are reduced to 105 items with 15 items per scale. With the TCI-105, all seven dimensions of the TCI are measured: Novelty Seeking (NS), Harm Avoidance (HA), Reward Dependence (RD), Persistence (P), Self-Directedness (SD), Cooperativeness (C) and Self-Transcendence (ST).
Serotonergic dysregulation has been implied in both chemi- cal and behavioral addictions (Blanco, Orensanz-Munoz, Blanco-Jerez & Saiz-Ruiz, 1996), as well as activity in the brain reward system, the mesolimbic pathway from the ven- tral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens (Grant, Potenza, Weinstein & Gorelick, 2010). Additionally, similar genetic vulnerabilities for developing chemical as well as behavioral addictions have been suggested (Comings, 1998). Studies have also indicated that similar psychological and pharmacological treatment approaches are effective for both chemical and behavioral addictions (Grant et al., 2010). Another factor that may contribute to both chemical and behavioral addictions is personality (Grant et al., 2010). One of the most influential personality theories is the five-factor model of personality which differentiates between five main dimensions: (1) Neuroticism (e.g., being nervous and anxi- ety prone), (2) Extroversion (e.g., being talkative and outgo- ing), (3) Openness to experience (being imaginative and in- tellectually oriented), (4) Agreeableness (e.g., being sympa- thetic and warm) and (5) Conscientiousness (e.g., being or- ganized and prompt) (Wiggins, 1996). The traits of the five-factor model have been validated across several cul- tures (McCrae, Costa, del Pilar, Rolland & Parker, 1998). According to Buss (1991) the five-factor model reflects in- dividual differences which are strongly related to solving so- cial adaptive problems in an evolutionary context. For ex- ample: (i) Who will burden me with their problems and fail to cope well with adversity (Neuroticism)? (ii) Who will gain high status in the social hierarchy (Extroversion)? (iii) Who are able to provide good advice (Openness)? (iv) Who will be a good cooperator and reciprocator (Agreeableness)? And (v) Who will work industriously and dependably (Con- scientiousness)? Previous studies have shown that alcohol use disorders are positively associated with Neuroticism and negatively associated with Agreeableness and Conscien- tiousness (Martin & Sher, 1994). In another study it was shown that patients suffering from any substance use disor- der were characterized by higher scores on Neuroticism and Openness, and lower scores on Extroversion, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness compared to patients suffering from other mental disorders (Trull & Sher, 1994).
While the afore mentioned research sheds light on singular personality traits that are associated with BN, it does not present a comprehensive picture of the personality profile associated with bulimic symptomology. First, these studies take a categorical approach to BN rather than the dimensional approach that is suggested by the spectrum theory of eating disorder. Furthermore, nearly all of the studies cited above took a piecemeal approach to examining personality by only looking at one particular trait. Since some personality traits are correlated with one another (McAdams, 2001), the piecemeal approach is weak because it does not account for the interrelationships of traits, which may lead to flawed conclusions about the importance of a particular trait. A more comprehensive approach to personality trait assessment is needed to explore the relationship between personality and bulimic symptomology.
Wrensen and Biderman (2005) defined the ability to fake the Big Five personality dimensions as a method factor from a structural equation model. Faking ability was positively related to cognitive ability, emotional intelligence, and integrity and was negatively related to social desirability. It was not related to any of the Big Five dimensions after controlling for cognitive ability. This result, when compared with the results of Biderman and Nguyen (2009) suggests that in different contexts the nature of the method factor shifts. Although the above studies are certainly encouraging, only a small subset of the literature has investigated whether using factor analytic methods yield measures of faking. The factor analytic methods has the potential to be useful in the assessment of personality, and thus, the goal of this study was to replicate previous studies, adding to that body of evidence, and providing further evidence for this method of controlling for faking.
The five-factor model of personality has obtained a central position in contemporary personality trait theory. The impact of group personality profiles have been examined in several fields, including occupational psychology and mental health. Merely describing the personality charac- teristics of individuals with opioid dependence is not enough. We need to know more about how personality traits influence prognosis. It could also be useful to model treatment programmes using knowledge of the group's typical personality profile, and evaluating the effective- ness of such programmes compared to standard treat- ment.
One explanation to the different findings might be cultural differences. Another explanation might be related to different years of data collection. The conflicting findings reported in this paper might reflect how internet evolves over time. The data for the Korean national-wide study was collected in 2012, while the data for the present study was collected in 2014 and 2015. The two stu- dies also differed in several methodological aspects (e.g. population frame, inclu- sion criteria, internet functions, personality inventory). However, when it comes to Neuroticism we do not think that the different findings completely can be ex- plained through methodological issues. Both studied controlled for gender and age and both studies used a 10-items personality inventory. We suggest further research in order to understand the relationship between the use of multiple in- ternet functions and personality traits, especially related to Neuroticism.
The last set of models in table 4 are OLS regressions where network node indices of the friend- ship network are regressed on independent variables. We report standardized beta coe fficients and bootstrapped standard errors. The first set of node level indices are the centrality measures degree, closeness, betweenness (Freeman 1979), and eigenvector centrality (Bonacich 1972). Centrality measures capture the relative position of an individual within the network. Degree- based measures focus on the level of communication activity, while betweenness captures stress control and the capacity to interrupt communication. Closeness refers to the freedom from such control in measuring how close /far apart an individual is from everybody else in the network. Eigenvector centrality reflects the fact that individuals might profit from well connected friends; it is the positive multiple of the sum of adjacent centralities recursively solved for the entire network. The second set of two indices are in essence densities of the ego-networks. Network constraint measures the extent to which ego is invested in people who are invested in other of ego’s alters. It is typically applied in valued networks, but well suited for our setting as well. Burt et al. (1998) used this indicator to show that individuals with “entrepreneurial personali- ties” avoid redundant investment. Transitivity, last but not least, measures the probability that an individual’s neighbors are connected; it’s sometimes also called the clustering coefficient. Local clustering coe fficients for each node were computed, measuring the ratio of triangles connected to the vertex and the triples centered on the vertex. See Wasserman & Faust (1994) for detailed graph theoretic definitions. We will not discuss the centrality and clustering models in detail. The aim of the analysis is to show that an external source of variation like personality will be associated with a wide array of node indices, given it is in strong relation with the degree of a node. All models use the same independent variables. Apart from the five personality scores, we include gender, age in years, and a set of 8 dummies for cohort-groups (entry cohorts by year) with the freshmen as the reference category. Estimates for the cohorts are omitted in the tables. The cohort dummies exhibit always the same pattern: a parabolic influence with a maximum at the end of the undergraduate study time.
negatively associated with normative commitment. Extrovert employees are more emotionally involved because of their energetic and social behavior and they are more influenced by extrinsic rewards, this notion leads to the proposition that this type of employees would score high on continuance commitment. (McCrae, 1992; Watson & Clark, 1997; Lucas et al., 2000). Studies showed that employees with agreeableness trait of personality keep a good relationship with other employees and they show high normative commitment (Judge et al., 2002; Tobin et al., 2000). It is found that neuroticism employeesusuaaly show nervousness, lack of confidence and many other negative emotions from this scholars concluded that they will have positive relationship with continuance commitment; however, they will have insignificant relationship with normative and affective commitment (Watson & Clark, 1984).From the above discussion we came up with six hypothesis for this study
Such extrovert and agreeable people have more friends and pass more time in friendly groups, so they have more motivations to have close relations which give them more optimistic view towards life and as a result better general health. Conscientious people are, too, motivated to fin- ish their task efficiently which increases their chance to get more rewards and confirmations. Such a condition first brings a sense of respect and integrity for them and then gives them better general health. Personality trait of openness to experience showed no correlation to general health. The reason might be that openness to experience has a positive correlation with creativity and divergent thinking, which acts as a double-edged sword to give ei- ther satisfaction or dissatisfaction to the person.
(Marshael et al., 2012) Davidson et al (2008) observed that pornographic offenders spend a substantial amount of time on the Internet for non-offending purpose. Their general addiction to Internet seems to tie into their need to view child pornography (Pratarelli & Browne, 2002; Prat and Jonas, 2012).While the viewing of child pornography for sexual gratification would most likely be a topic of discussion in a sex offender treatment program, the program might not consider treating them for addiction or obsessive compulsive traits, which could impact their chance of rehabilitation. The United Kingdom recently developed a treatment program known as the Internet Sex Offender Treatment program (i-SOTP) (Middleton, 2008). This program addresses not only the sexual component to their actions but also their compulsivity, online relationships and collecting behaviors. (Middleton, 2008) While there have been a few treatment programs that have been suggested, there is little to no evaluations on the effectiveness of these programs. (Quayle, Vaughan & Taylor, 2006) The difference of pornographic offenders demonstrates that they need their own specific treatment program and that further understanding of pornographic offender is necessary to develop these treatment and preventative programs. (Burke, Sowerbutts, Blundell & Sherry, 2002)
Although the issue of measurement has now been mostly resolved by the development of the 20-item Toronto Alexityhmia Scale (TAS-20; Bagby et al, 1994), only a few studies have investigated the relationship between alexithymia and basic dimensions of personality. Most of these studies start from the three- or five-factor model of personality. Studies using the three-factor model of personality using of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire show moderate positive correlations with neuroticism, low correlations with psychoticism, and moderate negative associations with extraversion (Mayer, DiPaolo, & Salovey, 1990; Taylor et al., 1997). Studies using the five-factor model of personality using of the NEO Five Factor Inventory or the NEO Personality Inventory Revised show that substantial amounts of variance in the alexithymia score can be explained by three personality dimensions: low extraversion, low openness to experience and high neuroticism (Bagby et al., 1994; Wise, Mann, & Shay, 1992; Luminet, Bagby, Taylor,& Parker, 1999; Espina, A., 2003; Muller, Gucht, Fontaine, & Fischler, 2004; Buhner, & Ellgring, 2004; Zimmerman et al, 2005; Elfhag, K., Lundh, L. G., 2007; Zimmerman, Genoud, & Reicherts, 2007;
results highlight the previously suggested idea of females and males differing when it comes to measures of personality and offending (Jolliffe, 2013).
Aggressive behavior and personality traits were used to examine the relationship between criminal behavior among individuals and their psychological traits. This research was performed by Kamaluddin et al. (2015), and utilized an archival research methodology to go through previously published research articles meeting the criteria. Kamaluddin et al. (2015) emphasized that psychological traits should not be considered to be the cause of criminal behavior, but instead suggested there be another linkage between the traits and crime. The results of their research supported the concept of a link being among the four psychological traits of personality traits, low self-control, aggression behavior, and cognitive distortion (Kamaluddin et al., 2015). Kamaluddin et al. (2015) indicated a need to identify these linkages for prevention, intervention, and rehabilitation of criminal behavior among individuals utilizing the known link between the traits and crime.
Given the correlations between perceived parenting and ad- justment, personality traits and adjustment, and perceived par- enting and personality, it appears that the strongest correlations are between students’ self-reported personality traits and ad- justment. College administrators might choose to screen in- coming freshmen to identify those students who are at greatest risk for poor adjustment to college. After identification the students who may be at the greatest risk (those who have high levels of Neuroticism and low levels of Extraversion, Agree- ableness, and Conscientiousness), administrators may consider providing preventative assistance to the identified students. For example, it may be important to ensure that students who are identified as “at risk” have meetings scheduled with school advisors/counselors throughout the first semester of college. Identified students may also benefit from attending seminars that focus on appropriate ways to cope with difficult times in their classes as well as tips for maintaining organization and keeping up with classes. Such assistance could facilitate reten- tion and prevent students from withdrawing from college.
In an academic setting, a student classified as a social type in a social academic environment is a clear case of perfect fit. Such a student is provided with the opportunities to engage in social activities, use their social skills/competences, to perform services he/she values, to see him/her as understanding and helpful and to exhibit personality traits of generosity, friendliness and sociability. In turn, the social environment reinforces the self- image the social person brings to the environment and rewards him/her for social values and social personality traits such as generosity, friendliness, and sociability. On the other side of the coin, social students in a social academic environment are able to avoid the activities they dislike and demand for competences they lack. The context and structure of incongruent interactions can be explained in the same way Holland . For instance a conventional type in an artistic environment will find oppositions or incongruities. A conventional person likes structured activities while an artistic environment provides an unstructured environment. The competences possessed are concerned with numbers, things or machines, while the artistic environment looks at the world unconventionally. A conventional person prefers order while the artistic environment is disorderly and impulsive. Put together the negative interactions will result in gross dissatisfaction, ineffective coping behavior and probably leaving the environment.
This study, like every research has some limitations. While the students from University of Tehran were only included in the current study, result should be generalized with cautious. Preparing and standardization of sensation seeking instrument based on the cultural characteristics of Iran are suggested.
It seems possible that gender differences in some factors alleviated in older adulthood due to shifting role demands (Guttman, 1987; Sinnot & Shifren, 2001); so one important question is whether gender differences in personality traits are replicable in older ages and life span. According to what mentioned, we suggest a longitudinal study with using NEO_PI_R (240-item) for a deeper investigation in life span, especially in factors of extraversion, openness and conscientiousness which has inconsistencies in results from short form questionnaire (60-item) in previous researches.