Figure 4: Working UML Design and Implementation Solution for Traffic Light
About the Authors
Ilya Lipkin is an elec- tronics engineer at the 309th Software Mainte- nance Group at the Og- den Air Logistics Cen- ter, Hill Air Force Base, Utah. His current research interests include artificial intelligence, human knowledge capture and analysis, neural networks, fuzzy logic, user interface design, software engineering, and cus- tomer relations management. Lipkin has a Bachelor of Science in computer engineering from the University of Toledo, a Master of Science in com- puter engineering from the University of Michigan, and is a doctoral candi- date at the University of Toledo Business School.
For example, in our rental system, the object is a car. As a car moves through the rental system, its many states
produce a complex but illuminating diagram.
For example, it is first added to the fleet. It remains in the state InStock until it is rented. After renting, the car is
Embedded Software (ESW) design is just one, albeit critical, aspect of the more general problem of Embedded System Design (ESD or just ES). ESD is about the implementation of a set of functionalities satisfying a number of constraints ranging from performance to cost, emissions, power consumption and weight. The choice of implementation architecture implies which functionality will be implemented as a hardware component or as software running on a programmable component. In recent years, the functionalities to be implemented in ES have grown in number and complexity so much that the development time is increasingly difficult to predict and to keep in check. The complexity increase coupled with the constantly evolving specifications has forced designers to look at implementations that are intrinsically flexible, i.e., that can be changed rapidly. Since hardware-manufacturing cycles do take time and are expensive, the interest in software-based implementation has risen to previously unseen levels. In software design, little attention has been traditionally paid to hard constraints on reaction speed, memory footprint and power consumption of software. These considerations point to the fact that ESW is really an implementation choice of a functionality that can be indifferently implemented as a hardware component and that we cannot abstract away hard characteristics of software as we have done in the traditional software domain. No wonder then that we are witnessing a crisis in the ES domain for ESW design. This crisis is not likely to be resolved going about business as usual but we need to focus at the root of the problems. Our vision for ESW is to change radically the way in which ESW is developed today by: 1) linking ESW upwards in the abstraction levels to system functionality; 2) linking ESW to the programmable platforms that support it, thus providing the much needed means to verify whether the constraints posed on ES are met. To realize our vision, on one hand we have to develop formal techniques and methods at the abstract level so that verification is started early and with the correct set of tools and methods. On the other hand, we have to think of ESW and hardware architecture in a unified and harmonious way.
to different configuration stages. A systematic approach for distributed system configuration is presented in . In order to ensure distributed system performance, their configuration dependencies must by identified and explored. Since the underlying network topology affects application configuration, the relationship between resource allocation policy and network architecture should be easily explored, thus models used for the representation of distributed system architectures within each stage should be exchangeable. Configuration stages are supported by automated or semi-automated tools [3, 5, 10, 11, 18]. In order to provide exchangeable models, the modeling framework adopted within each stage should be realizable in various software tools. A common model representing distributed systems in all configuration stages will facilitate model exchange and ensure interoperability between software tools supporting each stage. This model must support distributed system representation in a multi-layered fashion and enable description of any kind of application, thus be extendable. It should also be easily realized in various software tools used to automate discrete configuration stages and facilitate the designer to efficiently provide system specifications.
A Rose model is a picture of a system from various perspectives. It includes all of the UML diagrams, actors, use cases, objects, classes, components, and deployment nodes in a system. It describes in great detail what the system will include and how it will work, so developers can use the model as a blueprint for the system being built.
CASE STUDY:TICKET VENDING SYSTEM
A Ticket Vending System(TVM) dispenses tickets to passengers at a railway
station.Passengers use the front panel to specify their Boarding and destination place,details of passengers(number of adults and children) and date of travel.The machine displays the fare for the requested ticket.The passengers then deposits cash in the bin provided and presses ‘accept cash’.The machine checks the cash,if it is more,the balance cash is paid out.And the ticket requested is printed.The system is also used by the operator who might want to knowthe cash held in the machine,the break-up of small change available in the machine,withdraw or deposit cash when need.And the report options also include the detailed report of trasactions,summary report of the number of tickets sold for each destication,opening balance,each collected,cash dispensed and current balance in the machine.
16. Primary purpose of a use case diagram is to understand and document the requirements of an evolving information system.
17. In UML model diagrams, only classes are allowed to have stereotypes, since there is no need for stereotypes for other UML elements such as use cases and
Electronic system complexity is being increased every day: each System on Chip (SoC) may be composed by a mix of processors, DSPs, specialized hardware units, and memories. The growth in complexity does not stop the demand of reduced time to market; thus, the de- sign of complex SoCs is becoming a real challenge. In this context, an efficient product development cycle is of crucial importance. One of the key points for ob- taining this efficiency is being able detecting possible errors as early as possible in the design process. Thus, a methodology for automatically verifying the correct- ness of the system design can help improving the design process efficiency. In fact, being able to find inconsis- tencies in the system model before proceeding to fur- ther design steps allows the designers to save time by avoiding error propagation through the design steps.
Vidya Vihar, Raebareli Road, Lucknow, 226 025 INDIA Email: email@example.com
The present paper deals with the Object Oriented designing through Unified Modeling Language (UML) for a Traveler Management System (TMS). The main aim of this paper is to provide a flexible and faithful environment for traveler, which wants to travel to see the sight scenes, shopping for business meetings, etc. The TMS provides the information to the traveler without losing the time when it needed & the system gives the proper and accurate information to the traveler. The proposed model is based upon the knowledge based system & the complete booking process of a Taxi is defined in this paper and the knowledge model is tested with different data sets. The model also suggests to the traveler that which Taxi will be suitable according as per the budget constraints. In this paper the UML Class, Sequence diagram, Activity diagram & Use Case diagram are also designed for the TMS.
2x8 16 4 4 8
Table IV. Space complexities for Hypercube topology.
Figure 8. Comparison of space complexities.
7. Conclusion and Future Scope of Work From the above work, it is concluded that UML is one of the important modeling languages used for the visual representation of research problem / software design. In this paper, per- formance of three kinds of topologies i.e. 2D Mesh, Torus and Hypercube is considered un- der the distributed environment and it is con- cluded that the Torus topology is the best kind of arrangement of computer system under dis- tributed environment since the space complexity is less as the nodes are increasing in comparison with other topologies. Since the present work is only confined to the static interconnection of the network topologies, this research work can also be extended further, by considering the dynamic arrangement of interconnection of computer network.
4. UML REPRESENTATION OF OOSAD
The Activity Diagram of the existing system is shown in Figure 1. The diagram shows the primary activities in revenue system which are: pay bill, prepare Sales Order, ship products, bill Customer and record cash collected. Each activity consists of several actions, for example the activity of ‘record cash collected’ consists of the actions of A/R Officer to receive remittance advice from Cashier, make Cash Receipt Voucher, record in Cash Receipt Journal, post to Customer Card, deduct the Customer balance and post to General Ledger. Since Customer is not an internal actor in our revenue system, the ‘pay bill’ activity will not be covered in our design. The ‘pay bill’ activity is shown here to represent the flow of the activities in revenue system.
A WS is modeled as a UML class called WebService. The package WSDL represents WSDL elements in a way similar to the proposition of Provost : a web service is defined as a collection of endpoints or ports. A port specifies an address for a binding, thus defining a single communication endpoint. A PortType is an abstract set of operations supported by one or more endpoints. The association class called Binding represents a concrete protocol and data format specification for a particular PortType. The class Message represents an abstract definition of the data being transmitted. A message consists of logical parts, each of which is associated with a definition within some system type.
UC flash code is employed for selling a hex file of project into hardware. During this code foremost we are able to browse a hex file and these hex file is hold on in small controller’s store.
V. WORKING DESCRIPTION
In this system we are including so many features with existing concept. Here we are vestige or track to vehicles using GPRS technology instead of GPRS and GSM. And also if we got the location values we can automatically lock the engine by putting security message to the system. We are including another feature of proposed system that is accident detection. If the vehicle got accident any areas the system will send the location values and information.
Information Security is a necessity for all legal and ethical issues, and it is obligated to protect its clients and employees sensitive information . Information security is needed to protect Random Widget Works from employee errors, criminal activity, disasters, and system failure . Data Integrity and Confidentiality is a major concern with Random Widget Works . Random Widget Works strives to protect the company by putting in safeguards so that errors will be detected and prevented . With an Information Security System, all issues will be dealt with appropriately and modifications will be made on occurrence to make the security system stronger .
Power flow diagram Power production Web site link
PV Array. When sufficient solar energy is available, the diagram indicates power flow from this symbol. When solar energy is insufficient for power production, the symbol dims. When there is no PV Array in the system, the symbol is not shown. Hovering the mouse over the symbol displays the PV array output.
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Project Description or Intent
Our current site was built in 1995 and it shows. It’s our goal with a new plan that we’re putting into place to refine our current processes to make things simpler internally and save up to 50% on the time we spend on widget manufacturing. This has come about due to some new manufacturing techniques, machinery, and materials. Additionally, we are eliminating retail sales of widgets and would like to move sales online in order to make things more efficient and track marketing and processes better.