The central point of connection and overlap between text-critical and literary-critical practice in relation to compositional material (the mid-way point on the continuum) is the use of this material to clarify and pursue cruxes within the published text which are revealed, explained, or contradicted by knowledge of the shape, structure and development of the poem in the compositional process. This is a vital act, and one in which literary criticism and the study of compo- sitional material are bound together. It is probably the way in which compositional material is most frequently used by literary critics. I want to argue that knowledge and study of the pre-text is an essential element of literary criticism to a far greater degree than has so far been acknowledged. Until recently, for critics working in the period prior to the late twentieth century such a demand would have been unfair, unduly time-consuming, and impractical; requiring consider- able manuscript work in specific locations for relatively little reward. Equally, of course, where no draft material has survived (as in much pre-nineteenth-century literature) then the critic is released from this responsibility. However, where, in the early twenty-first century such material is widely available in good quality scholarly or facsimile editions then it seems to me that there is some responsibility for the critic to make use of it. The key question here is whether the study of such material should be (as it currently is) a rarefied procedure undertaken by those with specialist interests, or whether it should be (as I would like it to be) a fundamental part of the literary-critical act. As we move further from text-critical activity into more purely literary-critical interests, the method increasingly relates to an in-
Research has been extremely involved in improving in the art criticism area. These improvements are reflected in scientific articles. This article purposed to investigate the 214 articles in art criticism to explore their main characteristics. These articles published in the Web of Science database of the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) from the period of 1980 till 20 December 2013. Types of articles were article and review which is included in the study. The three top cited (more than 10 times citations) articles in art criticism were published in 1993 and 1999. The 214 articles mean citation rate was 0.87 (SD 2.38) times. Among the various fields, art (58.87%), arts humanities other topics (28.03%), both art and arts humanities other topics (5.14%), both art and education and educational research (2.33%), both art and history (1.40%), art, arts humanities other topics and literature (1.40%), both art and cultural studies (0.93%), both art and philosophy (0.93%), both art and literature (0.46%), and both arts humanities other topics and cultural studies (0.46%) were the most popular fields of research. The results showed that researches were done in the United States had highest citation which was written in English language.
magazine until his death four decades later, negotiating numerous financial and logistical challenges. While popular genres were a vital part of The Gramophone’s business model, as Simon Frith has observed, Melody Maker (lauched 1926) and Rhythm (launch 1927) were far more influential for British collectors of jazz records. 49 Similarly, as Mark Racz observes in chapter twenty-four of this book, Downbeat and Metronome emerged in the 1930s from the numerous fanzines. Since recordings were the principal means for many of hearing jazz, the limited timespan of the 78rpm disc, as mediated through the observations of critics, came to define the initial understanding of what constituted a genre actually founded on much longer improvisational forms. A generation later, pop and, especially rock, came to be delineated first by the 7-inch single, then by the span of an LP. In the words of Frith, ‘to be a rock critic was to be a record critic’. 50 The advent of rock criticism spawned
environment. For example, previous studies have found that patients’ reports of perceived criticism show medium to large correlations with relatives’ self-reported criticism and observer ratings of relatives’ criticism toward the patient (Chambless & Blake, 2009; Chambless, Bryan, Aiken, Steketee, & Hooley, 1999). Yet, even after observers’ and relatives’ reports are accounted for, considerable unexplained variance in perceived criticism remains with attributions of criticism explaining a portion of this variance. Attributions of criticism refer to the explanations individuals make about the intentions prompting their loved ones’ criticism. Consider a father who tells his daughter that he does not like her friends. When the daughter states that her father’s comments were critical, she is reporting perceived criticism from him. By contrast, when she makes judgments about the motives driving his criticism, she is making attributions. These attributions may be positive (e.g., “My father cares about me and doesn’t want me to get caught up in the wrong crowd”) or negative (“My father doesn’t want me to have fun and is trying to attack my choice of friends”). The types of attributions that an individual makes are theorized to affect the level and type of criticism that this person perceives from his/her relative (Weiner, 1986). For instance, if the daughter in our example makes predominantly negative attributions about her father’s criticism, it is hypothesized that she will be more likely to perceive his criticism as harsh and hurtful.
However, in the past, one of the crucial roles of television studies and television history has been to tell national stories, even if not always consciously. It is much less clear what stories will be told about television and how we should interpret and understand its significance when these constitutive connections between medium and nation are more attenuated and given new contours governed by the commercial availability of some, but not other parts of those histories, to much more individuated audiences. In these new circumstances, historically informed interpretative – and evaluative - cultural criticism, is both easier and more difficult to practice, particularly in a manner which is attentive to, but not seduced by, these new conditions.
and Frankfurt, and is currently employed at the Max Planck Institute in Starnberg. He is an exponent (together with Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, Erich Fromm and Herbert Marcuse) of the Frankfurt School’s dialectic-critical theory (see H Hoefnagels  1976). As a student, Habermas took a critical stance toward his professors who continued their lecturing as though there were no world war, he took exception to Heidegger because he had not repudiated Hitler’s ideas and he did not think that the insights of Marx (and Lukács) could be applied to the post-war situation. As a lecturer he became renowned for the theoretical foundation he provided for the student uprising of the 1960s. Initially he applied Freud’s depth psychology and Searle’s communication theory (see D E Klemm 1981). His later work on “communicative action” (see A Wellmer 1976, in J O’Neill (1976:231-263) focuses on matters such as criticism of the “instrumental reason” of the classical object-subject scheme (see also C Johann Beukes 1996:68-87). Habermas replaced this scheme with a “subject-subject” relationship, so that symmetry could be achieved in the social “communicative action”. Some of his works (English translations where the original German was not available to me) which exercised considerable influence, are Knowledge and human interests (1968), Toward a rational society: Student protest, science, and politics (1968-69), Legitimisation crisis (1973), Communication and the evolution of society (1976), Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns: Handlungrationalität und gesellschaftliche Rationalisierung (2 Bande) (1981),
However, what we call “dialogue” here does not mean the above-mentioned style of criticism, but a spirit of openness and tolerance with “a hundred schools of thought contend”. As a metaphorical criticism spirit with broad connotation, “dialogue” involves every aspect of culture and every link of literature. Accord- ing to the relationship between the subject of dialogue, it includes the network of communication between the author and the author, the author and the reader, the text and the text, and the communication between the text and the reader. According to the morphological characteristics of the dialogue, it can be divided into phenomenal connection, text interpretation, artistic evaluation, theoretical promotion and so on. According to the theme content of the dialogue, it includes literary ontology, creation law theory, text constitution theory, literary apprecia- tion theory and so on. According to the level of dialogue, it has many meanings, such as spreading literary information, enriching the content of works, exploring the law of creation and opening up the space of thought. In short, dialogue is multidimensional, rich in content, difficult to be accurately summed up in one or two sentence. However, behind the connotation of such a beautiful “dialo- gue”, we can still capture a core spirit that runs through all the time. This is the spirit of “harmony and difference” which emphasizes the subjectivity of each other and advocates the difference and equality.
In both studies, we found that relationship length moderated the intention- behavior association for social support but not for criticism. Thus, individuals were similarly likely to carry out their criticism intentions, irrespective of the length of a person’s relationship. Why did results differ for criticism and support? There are at least three possible explanations for these results. First, previous research has demonstrated that tests of moderation have low power unless one has jointly extreme values of both interaction variables (McClelland & Judd, 1993). Although the support intentions measures had good distributions (particularly for Study 1), the criticism intentions measures had restricted range, which probably reduced the power of the criticism interaction test. Alternatively, the differing findings for criticism and support may be explained within the dual-process model framework. According to participants’ own report in the daily diary study, they criticized their partners relatively infrequently in their everyday lives. It is possible then that in the present sample, few if any individuals had formed habits in this domain, and accordingly, criticism was under intentional control throughout the sample.
In each country, I analyze the representations of EU-criticism/EU-critics in the largest daily newspaper: Helsingin Sanomat, Dagens Nyheter and Postimees, respectively. The timeframe for my study is from the year 2000 to 2006. It is common to choose a time period according to some historical events. However, it is difficult to determine an event in the development of EU-criticism that would be relevant in all three countries. Choosing an event from the history of the European Union would not be relevant either, as these affect EU-critical activity and thinking differently in different countries. The study becomes technically more manageable by choosing a relatively recent time period because more of the material can be found in an electronic format, thus reducing the labor intensity of the project undertaken and making it more manageable for a single researcher.
What follows is a Selected Bibliography of Criticism on the Prose Poem. I encourage readers to send bibliographical information along with hard copies of essays that are not listed below. I thank Michel Delville for compiling the first draft of this list.
For over two hundred years, Antarctica and the Southern Ocean have been a source of inspiration for poets, and today the number of pieces in the Antarctic poetry canon numbers in hundreds. Yet despite the significance of this group of texts, there is a dearth of critical literature focusing specifically on Antarctic poetry. This review will analyse criticism from a range of Antarctic literary fields, namely narrative fiction, non-fiction, and poetry, by a number of authors, collating perspectives and opinions on canonical themes and motifs. These will explore notions of Antarctica as: a wide, white expanse and blank slate for writers to attempt their mark; a transformational landscape, one that fundamentaly changes the people who visit it; a place of stark contrasts; a space where heroic era history acts as both narrative and metaphor; and a contemporary, lived environment, where the natural environment and daily goings- on provide inspiration. Using these thematic categories as a framework, a selection of poems by Chris Orsman, Bill Manhire, Bernadette Hall and Owen Marshall will be analysed, and recommendations made for future research in Antarctic poetry.
Henry Krisch has made similar predictions about the development of communist regimes in post-revolutionary situations, pointing out that "the drift of Communist politics is toward a consensual legitimacy based on policies congruent with the situation of the regime and the expectations of the population."6 According to Krisch, to achieve consensus a regime would need to focus on such issues as employment and the economic welfare of the population, including access to consumer goods. As this thesis will show, the Vietnamese Communist Party did put forward policies on these matters in 1979 and subsequently, but implementation of the policies was stymied by ongoing disagreement within the leadership about economic development strategy and resistance in some parts of the bureaucracy to the reforms. The disagreement boiled down to a conflict between two policy positions. One held that the Party should improve its performance by renewing the Party organisation, including through personnel changes, and by maintaining centralised control over the economy. The other held that an improvement in economic performance could come only with greater decentralisation of decision making and the use of material incentives. Both policy positions took as their starting point the need to improve Party performance to restore legitimacy, but they disagreed on the best means of achieving it. A key proposition of this thesis is that the self-criticism and criticism campaign was partly a product of this debate and that the contending groups used it to consolidate their positions. In view of the economic crisis in 1986, the thesis will also explore whether the campaign signalled the beginning of another shift in legitimation mode, this time from the performance-based to the legal-rational mode.
literature now supports the validity of asking patients to rate (using a 1–10 scale) how critical they believe specific members of their families are of them . Perhaps surprisingly given the simplicity and subjective nature of the measure, patients’ ratings of perceived criticism were strongly predictive of how likely depressed patients were to relapse over the subsequent 9 months; those who rated their spouses as more critical were especially likely to relapse during the follow-up period . Perceived criticism ratings have also been shown to predict relapse, time to relapse, and days abstinent in patients with substance abuse problems . In another study, PC ratings obtained prior to treatment significantly predicted having residual symptoms after a behavioral interven- tion for patients with anxiety disorders . The originally reported link between PC and relapse in depression has also been replicated . Most recently, research on perceived criticism has been extended to patients with schizophrenia, and PC has been shown to predict an increase in positive symptoms in those at high risk for the development of psychosis .
Little is known about the quality of socially anxious individuals’ romantic relationships. Because social anxiety is associated with negative perceptual biases toward one’s own interpersonal interactions, research on this topic needs to move beyond self-report. The present research was aimed at better understanding of the romantic relationships of the socially anxious, with a focus on social support and perceived criticism as assessed from multiple perspectives. In Chapter 1, we examined longitudinal associations between social anxiety, social support, and relationship dissolution and compared levels of support behavior between couples high and low in social anxiety during a laboratory-based interaction. Men’s social anxiety and low perceived, but not received, support predicted higher rates of break-up one year later. Although individuals high in social anxiety reported lower levels of support during the interaction task than those low in social anxiety, the two groups did not differ on partner- or observer-rated measures of support. In Chapter 2, we examined associations between social anxiety, perceived and expressed criticism, and reactions to criticism. Social anxiety was unrelated to perceived criticism, but was associated with greater self-reported global expressed criticism of one’s partner. Among women social anxiety was related to being more upset when criticized by a partner. High and low social anxiety couples did not differ in criticism during a laboratory-based problem- solving task, though high social anxiety participants tended to be more upset by criticism. In Chapter 3, we compared levels of perceived and expressed criticism and reactions to criticism among individuals with social anxiety disorder, with other anxiety disorders, and with no psychiatric disorder. Individuals with anxiety disorders showed elevated levels of interaction-specific perceived criticism, expressed criticism, and upset and stress due to criticism relative to normal controls; however, the two anxious groups did not differ on any measures. Upset due to criticism mediated the association between diagnosis and relationship satisfaction. Collectively, results suggest that social anxiety is associated with difficulties even in established romantic relationships and point to perceptions of social support and criticism as fruitful targets for intervention in this population.
PANAS. PC is thought to predict relapse in depression because it provides a measure of ‘‘how much criticism is getting through to the patient’’ within a family context regardless of what the objectively assessed ‘‘reality’’ might be . Some people may live in genuinely critical family environments and their high PC ratings may accurately reflect this. Others, however, may be more sensitive and ‘‘thin skinned’’ feeling criticized in the absence of genuine criticism. People who have predispositions to strong automatic reactions to emotional information (increased amygdala reactivity) or who fail to recruit voluntary executive control in the face of emotion (decreased DLPFC function) might well fall into this category. Having both vulnerabilities could lead to even stronger feelings of being criticized and even higher PC ratings. It is also possible that over time, continued exposure to high levels of family criticism could lead to increased sensitivity to emotion via sensitization or through a more passive pattern of failure to engage regulatory resources (or both) in a manner more akin to learned hopelessness. Future work is clearly needed to identify individual or interpersonal factors that might predispose individuals to one or the other such pattern.
quite so clear that this is his purpose. In the same lectures his also writes: ‘[r]eading must not be passive. The pupil must conspire with the Teachers. It needs Shakspear, it needs Bacon, to read Shakspear and Bacon in the best manner.’ (EL1, 214) The language here is suggestive. Reading must not be ‘passive,’ as such it must be active; creating meaning rather than merely receiving it. This is furthered by the word ‘conspire’, which, as we have seen earlier, connected the poet to the divine creative act. Now, metaphorically, the pupil must ‘breathe with’ the teacher; the reader must ‘breathe with’ the writer. As such reader and writer are drawing on the same ‘inspiration’ at that moment when they draw their reader to the contemplation of their own source. So the reader, through the poet, shares the poet’s connection to the divine. The reader, he continues, ‘should go to the book with the laws of the world in his mind and expecting to find the page but a transcript of what he knows in nature’ (EL1 214-5). This may seem narcissistic, but Emerson’s expectation is that this quest for a mirror is an aspiration, and that books will transform rather than merely repeat any reader’s knowledge of the ‘laws of the world’ and ‘entirely wean him from traditionary judgment.’ (EL1 215) This is because the great literary artefacts are original and must shape the criticism that follows them. Not, of course, because the writer is original, except in so far as he conspires with nature’s own endless originality. As such Emerson’s aim as a critic is to show the reader ‘that the poem was a transcript of Nature as much as a mariner’s chart is of the coast; that there was nothing arbitrary in the choice of words; that the pen of the true poet was guided by laws as rigorous as the pencil of the draughtsman.’ (EL1 215) The role of the critic, then, is not to find the author and display him to the reader. The role of the critic is to discover the author’s source, his inspiration, and thus to breathe the same air by rendering the poet transparent. In this way does the critic, as an exemplary reader, become a creator.
If we ask questions in this manner we are throwing serious doubt on the textual critical endeavour of at least 250 years. And the ultimate question that accompanies these questions is: have we arrived at the death of New Testament textual criticism? If the task of New Testament textual criticism is seen narrowly as the quest to reconstruct the standard “original text” then the answer is a resounding YES. In that sense textual criticism is dead indeed. But if the task of textual criticism is defined in broader terms as “the study of the history of the text” (Delobel 2003:3), and if a concerted effort is made to establish some dialogue between a re-imagined textual criticism and other New Testament fields of research then textual criticism can indeed play a major role in enhancing and complementing and even leading in research where is was previously not considered to be of any consequence.
Historical criticism made exegetes sensitive to the many layers with regard to the traditions about the origins of Christianity, and accordingly, to the discontinuity and continuity between the Jesus of history and the Jesus of faith. Labeling historical Jesus research as the “New Quest” in distinction to the “Old Quest,” was triggered by James Robinson in 1959 (see Robinson 1983). The term “Old Quest” refers to the constructs of Jesus, which are commonly reckoned to have been brought to an end by Albert Schweitzer in 1906. Proponents of the “New Quest” became the pioneers who moved beyond Rudolf Bultmann’s “No Quest.” The term “No Quest” referred to the upshot of skepticism after Albert Schweitzer ( 1913:642), 3 Martin Kähler ( 1969:14), 4 and Rudolf Bultmann ( 1988:8-10). However, both Schweitzer and Bultmann would be misunderstood if they are viewed as scholars who did not search for the Jesus of history. The term “No Quest” is actually a misnomer if it is used to refer to Bultmann’s study of Jesus. In fact, the criteria for authenticity remained more or less the same during the “No Quest” and “New Quest” periods. What was “new” is that a gradual scale of continuity and/or discontinuity between the historical Jesus and the Jesus of faith replaced skepticism (see Porter 2000:36-51).
Ballard’s story produces an imaginative geography constructed by the liminal symbolism of real geographies such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Therefore, historical and social events, both at the local and global levels, form the context of the story. The narrative takes place on Eniwetok, a large coral atollin the Pacific Ocean, which was really used by the United States for nuclear testing during the years between 1948 and 1958.  The island is also textually situated within the nuclear landscape. In a way, Ballard re-invented the current reality to go back to the past the pre-colonial, pre-industrial and pre-war time when environmental morality was not so much corrupted. Ballard’s Eniwetok in the story comes as an imaginative geography, which is rather an interwoven textual or literary space articulated by the events of the real history. His virtual environment of nuclear destruction is a criticism of “the production of a geopolitical peace through nuclear terror”. The camera towers, radio-cabins, geometry of the airstrip, and systematic locations of the blockhouses all refer to the technological surveillance, which stands for a regulated and rationalized disciplinary. It indicates the taming of the wilderness, loss of innocence of the natural environment, and thus human’s lack of environmental morality.
I have no objection to this kind of enjoyment. However, it is a mistake to treat all academic criticism as if its only aim were pleasure. Whatever critics may say about truth or reality, the reason it ultimately makes sense to apply theories of the world to literature must be that literature is about the very same world. If we took the female characters of nineteenth- century novels to be nothing more than constructs, it would be pointless to consider them from a feminist perspective grounded in real gender relations. If critics did not assume facts about race relations in Jamaica after emancipation, the postcolonial reading of Jane Eyre could not get off the ground. And lest we forget, Freud and Jones did not attribute the Oedipus complex to Hamlet just for amusement. Rather, they assumed that Hamlet had the same psychology as the rest of us; they were just wrong about how to explain it. The various critical perspectives we find today in the academy are valuable, not (only) insofar as they make reading more pleasurable, but insofar as they reveal the myriad ways in which works of literature relate to the world. Recognizing this source of value allows us to judge different critical approaches with respect to the truth or epistemic merit of the underlying theories. We should not shy away from this kind of evaluation. 33