The tested leaf extracts also influenced the initial growth of millet seedlings when compared to control treatment. When the average values of seedling length were verified, it was observed that the primary root length was more sen- sitive to the increase of the extract concentrations than the aerial part. When analyzing the mean values of the primary root length of millet seedlings, de- crease from 25% concentration was observed for most of the evaluated treat- ments, independently of the leaves maturation stage (Table 2). For this variable, it is verified that the E. grandis × E. camaldulensis genetic material affected ne- gatively the primary root length.
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The extension of intellectual property rights into the realm of biology has emerged as an increasing focus of controversy in relation to science, 2 biodiversity, 3 agriculture, 4 health, 5 development, 6 human rights 7 and trade. 8 This paper presents the results of a review of international trends in activity for patent protection between 1990-2000 and provisional data to 2004 and 2005 from over 70 national patent offices, four regional patent offices and the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) using the European Patent Office esp@cenet worldwide database. 9 The review employed patent publication counts as an indicator of activity for traditional medicines, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and biotechnology. The research provides insights into the internationalisation of patent activity in multiple areas of biology. The review emphasises the need to combine the further development of quantitative methods with qualitative analysis of the implications of international patent activity in relation to biological and genetic material for science, society and policy.
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Chitosan is a polycation biopolymer material. It has several applications, especially in the biopharmaceutical and biomedical fields. Chitosan was produced from shrimp waste by chemical method involving demineralization, deproteinization and deacetylation. It was characterized by intrinsic viscosity measurement and Fourier Transform Infra-Red in order to determine the average molecular weight and degree of deacetylation of purified Chitosan. Chitosan was modified by grafting process with maleic anhydride, poly(adipic anhydride) and poly(sebacic anhydride) to evaluate their effect on binding to the human genomic DNA. The grafted chitosan derivatives appeared as promising materials to be used as a model for DNA and gene delivery. Grafted chitosan-DNA complexes were determined by gel electrophoresis technique and ultraviolet spectroscopy.
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i. cationic lipids: Hundreds of lipids have been developed for gene transfer. All of them share the common structures of positively charged hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail with linker structure that connects both. The positively charged head group binds with negatively charged phosphate group in nucleic acids and form uniquely compacted structure called lipoplexes. Transfection efficiency depends on overall geometric shape, number of charged group per molecules, nature of lipid anchor and linker bondage. Lipoplexes due to their positive charge electrostatically interact with negatively charged glycoproteins and proteoglycans of cell membrane which may facilitate cellular uptake of nucleic acids. The positively charged lipids surrounding the genetic material help it to protect against intracellular and extracellular nucleases. However the problem lies with surface charge, this reduces the half-life of lipoplexes circulation in blood limiting its utility not beyond vascular endothelial cells. Neutral polymer like polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used as surface shielding to overcome the excessive charge and to prolong the half-life. Though considered to be of low toxicity, lipoplexes become cytotoxic beyond 3:1 ratio of lipid: DNA [6,12,15,20,23-25].
We used Bayesian clustering analyses in the program S TRUC- TURE to recognise two genetic clusters corresponding to the two species, and all individuals either clustered to a very high extent to either of the species cluster (i.e. ‘pure’ species) or showed a mixed ancestry (i.e. hybrids). There was neither any evidence for backcrossed individuals nor introgressed genetic material in the population, suggesting that the hybrids are either infertile or their progeny inviable. We cannot of course exclude very low levels of backcrossing and old introgression events in the study populations (cf. ), which still may be an important factor as a source of new genetic and phenotypic variability [3,42]. Nevertheless, there seem to be little potential adaptive significance of introgression in these Acrocephalus warblers.
In contrast to Clery’s (2001) study and with non-controlled temperature and humidity (a general rule for sexual crimes), 16 Y-STR loci were tested in our study, using a proportion of semen way below the average amount present in a normal human ejaculation, to test the possibility of detection of genetic material even in small amounts of semen. We highlight the fact that seven different decomposition time points (48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 h) were used, with successful amplification of up to 15 of the 16 tested loci. Clearly, one of the main reasons for these satisfactory results, in comparison to those of Clery (2001), is the fact that the techniques and reagents have improved in recent years. For example, the amplification capacity of the kits currently used in laboratories for forensic DNA has improved and the capillary electrophoresis equipment has become more efficient. In addition, there are differences between the extractions techniques used in each of the studies Clery (2001) made an extraction only with Chelex.
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This was a cross sectional study performed on on 331 patients admitted to the Children's Educational and Treatment Hospital of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Tabriz, Iran) and Medical Genetic Laboratory (Tabriz, Iran) from March 2001 to February 2015. This study was done on Azeri Turks who are one the largest ethnic groups in Iran , and Tabriz is the second biggest city in Iran. Data was acquired from medical records by censes method.
vocation of a posthuman can also come to fruition. In his words, “This is the lesson of both psychoanalysis and the Jewish-Christian tradition: the specific human vocation does not rely on the development of man's inherent potentials (on the awakening of the dormant spiritual forces OR of some genetic program); it is triggered by an external traumatic encounter, by the encounter of the Other's desire in its impenetrability (ZNS).” In short, the fate of the posthuman relies on a calling that is beyond his capacity and is only triggered by the trauma that jolts him to surpass the gaps in between. If, in the end, posthumanism can grant humanity the ideal by which it can achieve not only its great heights but for some cause that warrants the maximum expectancy of a human’s trajectory as a whole, then that would not bear much of a problem. The only antinomy here is again the sets of paradoxes waiting between the lines, inscribed along the vestiges of human embodiment and perception. It is not inherent, nay part of an
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The species natural occurrence areas have suffered accelerated reduction in the last decade, mainly in the northeastern coastal region, due to real estate activity expansion and deforestation. As a consequence, various collections and germplasm banks have been implemented and maintained by teaching and research institutions in order to conserve these genetic resources. There are nine mangaba germplasm banks distributed among Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporations - Embrapa (4); State Agricultural Research Corporation of Paraíba - Emepa (1); Federal University of Lavras - UFAL (1); Federal University of Goiás - UFG (1), and State University of Goiás - UEG (1). The Mangaba GeneBank (BGMangaba) belongs to Embrapa Coastal Tablelands; it is accredited by the Ministry of the Environment, and it is a reliable custodian of this specie’s genetic patrimony (Soares et al., 2018). Knowledge of the genetic diversity preserved in this germplasm assists in conservation strategies and provides key information for breeding programs.
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The theoretical framework for the genetic study of adaptation was developed by Fisher (1930) in his geometric model. In this model, natural selection pushes organisms towards an optimum by means of a high number of small adaptive steps. Wright (1932; 1982) introduced the notion of an adaptive landscape, with several adaptive peaks of varying heights separated by adaptive valleys. Crossing an adaptive valley to a neighbouring peak is a difficult process, since it has to be done against the constraints imposed by natural selection. Two situations will lead to evolution within an adaptive landscape. Firstly, if conditions change, the population will tend to move in conjunction with the movement o f the peak it occupies. Secondly, if the species is subdivided into small isolated local populations, drift may overwhelm selection pressure and adaptive valleys can be crossed by some populations. Gene flow
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Genetic engineering , traditional breeding approaches , in vitro breeding techniques (somaclonal variation) and conventional mutation technologies  have been used to improve yield, oil quality and disease-, salt- and pest-resistance of the sunflower crop. TILLING (Target- ing Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) is a reverse genetic technique that is suitable for most plants . In a TILLING project, the chemical mutagenic treatment providing an easy and cost-effective way to saturate a genome is coupled with a PCR-based mutation detec- tion. By using alkylating agents such as ethylmethanesul- fonate (EMS) that cause random point mutations at high density, an allelic series of missense mutations can be discovered by TILLING; short insertion/deletions (INDELs) are reported to be detected by this technology too . Thus, with only a small population, multiple alleles of a specific gene may be obtained regardless of the gene size . Gene regions are targeted for muta- tion discovery, using PCR and standard SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) discovery methods. The suc- cess of the TILLING approach relies on the construc- tion of high quality DNA mutant libraries, in which DNA sampling and preparation are the most critical steps. An accurate evaluation of the genetic uniformity both of seed stock used for the mutagenic treatment and of the mutagenized material is extremely important. As reported by Wu et al. , genotyping plant material by means of microsatellite markers (SSR) can be an effi- cient tool to verify the uniformity and purity of the seed stock used in a TILLING project.
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Unwed fathers thus must meet two separate requirements in or- der to have a constitutional parental right. First, they must have a genetic link to the child in question. Second, they must create a rela- tionship with the child, investing labor into their parental status. There are obvious tangible consequences to this regime. Unwed fa- thers are put at a disadvantage as compared to unwed mothers and married parents for the span of time when the unwed father has not yet been able to build a relationship with his child. This could either be because the child is too young, the child has not yet been born, or the father has been unable to contact his child due to actions of the mother. The Supreme Court has not yet spoken to the problems that Laura Oren labels “advanced Lehr line-drawing,” 226 except to the ex-
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material (Natarajan et al., 1988; Naidu and Satyanarayana, 1991; Sharma et al., 1996, Raje and Rao, 2001 and Abbas et.al. 2010). During 2011, maximum, 19 genotypes were grouped in the cluster I followed by cluster II and VI with two genotypes, whereas remaining cluster had one genotype each. While during 2012 the 35 genotypes could be grouped into twelve clusters. The maximum number of genotype 19 were found in cluster II followed by cluster III and IV with 3 genotype each, cluster I was having two genotypes and remaining cluster had one genotype each. Distribution of genotypes into different clusters, suggested the presence of substantial genetic divergence among the genotypes and indicated that this material may serve as good source for selecting the diverse parents for hybridization programme aimed at isolating desirable recombinants for seed yield as well as other characters (Raje and Rao, 2001).
Cases not remitting with this strategy may benefit from splenectomyor other immunomodulatory drugs. Splenectomy is an alternative therapeutic option forpatients with AIHA who require high maintenance prednisolone doses or who have multiple and frequent relapses. Splenectomy removes a major portion of both the phagocytic reticuloendothelial system and the autoantibody-producing B cells. Splenectomy is sometimes considered for children with chronic AIHA, although it should be avoided in young infants because of the high risk of sepsis and mortality. In our case, because of the age he was not considered as a candidate for this procedure but it had been considered as an option in the future if the remission would not be achieved. Azathioprine which works by decreasing the production of white blood cells by interfering with the production of the cell’s genetic material, and DNA, stops the cells from dividing and multiplying, which in our case had been the next option to control hemolysis but as a result of reoccurrence of hemolytic episodes after any kind of infection and dependency on blood transfusion despite of combination multidrug treatment there had been no choice except to use a next more potent immunomodulatory drug. Rituximab or the anti- CD20 antibody which is a chimeric, human, IgG1/κ monoclonal antibody (MoAb) specific for the CD20 antigen, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes. This antibody has induced rapid in vivo depletion of both normal B lymphocytes and lymphoma B cells (10). This drug has been used in therapy-refractory AIHA, mostly in children and in a small number (<30) of adults (2-4). The outcome is unpredictable, varying from ineffective to a high response rate (10). In our case, there had been a good response even after the first dose and there had been a rise in hemoglobin. A few days later an infection episode hemolysis accelerated and CMV count rose up. In order to contain the CMV infection foscarnate had been added to the therapeutic regimen and there had been a good containment of CMV infection and negative CMV - Ag ever since but evaluation of immunologic workup had been ordered and probable
Different specifications of aluminum foil and electrolytic paper generally width and width are different, even if the specifications of raw materials are consistent, the general length and width of the production of different manufacturers are different. The material of the material is usually cut to match order. For different orders of its product specifications and the number of orders, there will be cutting width and cutting the number of differences. In general, the calculation of the width of each coil and the number of cookies that are assigned to each one is a lot of manpower, and there are often waste products. Based on this, the problem to be solved is to let the system optimize the volume of the known coil, the width of the cutting and the corresponding number of cookies as the input parameters, and optimize the algorithm to reduce the waste generation and the remaining cutting count to obtain the optimal cutting plan.
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Molecular characterization of genotypes using SSR markers: A total of 30 SSR primer pairs were used for the estimation of genetic diversity among 13 parental lines (five male sterile line and eight restorer lines). Out of which only 26 primers were found to be polymorphic (Table 4). Total numbers of alleles amplified by 26 polymorphic primers were 51 with an average of 1.96 alleles per locus. The polymorphic banding pattern of locus is presented in Fig 2. These results were closer to those of Darvishzadeh et al (2010). As sunflower is a highly cross pollinated crop therefore, a high number of alleles per locus could be a result of the natural out-crossing among the parental material and also due to having a broad genetic base. The number of amplified products varied from two (ORS 58, ORS 488, HA 1604) to three (ORS718 and ORS423). The results depicted that total polymorphism was 75.19% and it ranged from 25% to 100%. The discrimination power of each SSR markers was estimated by PIC. PIC values (expected heterozygosity) for polymorphic primers ranged from 0.07 (ORS718) to 0.89 (ORS1265). The average value of polymorphic information content (PIC) for all the 26 polymorphic was 0.47. The PIC values estimate the discriminatory power of a marker and is defined as the probability that given marker genotypes of an affected parent’s offspring will permit the deduction of the parent genotype at the marker locus (Botstein et al 1980). This average PIC value was slightly lesser than that reported by Gedil (1999) and Yu et al (2002) with a PIC score of 0.49 and 0.55 respectively for polymorphic SSR markers in sunflower.
Identifiable tissue presents a different series of challenges. Should this be anonymized (de-identified) as soon as the immediate uses for which it was collected have been completed? This material was first collected with consent for specific purposes. On this basis, anonymization can be justified if the initial consent included agreement to later ano- nymization in order to undertake research. Straightforward as this sounds, it is anything other than straightforward. This is because the nature of any future research may be unclear or unknown, while it could be used for commercial purposes, or there may emerge cogent grounds for wishing to link it back to the donor from whom it was derived. A form of broad consent may cover these possible uses, but the implications of giving broad consent need to be explained to the prospective donor. Only in this way will the autonomy of that individual be respected.
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Impact on growth. The heritability of both height and diameter at four years in our trial were the highest yet reported in E. globulus and are nearly double the average values reported in a review of genetic parameter estimates in this species by Lopez et al. (2002). This was no doubt due to the good expression of genetic variation for disease resistance in our trial, coupled with the strong, deleterious impact of the disease on growth. Productivity was clearly adversely affected by the severity of Mycosphaerella disease at both the genetic and phenotypic level. The phenotypic regressions showed that for every percentage increase in foliage loss due to disease in the year of the epidemic there was a 1.22cm loss of potential height gain at four years. This means that a phenotypic decrease in disease severity score of 10% would result in a 3.1% increase in growth. However, in other cases, this effect of disease on growth may be even greater. Carnegie and Ades (2002) have reported that in a fungicide trial, less than 10% of leaf area damage caused by Mycosphaerella decreased height increment by up to 13% over 17 months of E. globulus. A likely explanation for the differences between the two studies was the use of fungicides to exclude disease while in our trial no tree completely escaped the disease. At the genetic level, the relationship between growth and disease severity was even stronger, clearly indicating that selection for improved disease resistance will indirectly result in improved growth on sites affected by Mycosphaerella. From another perspective, selection of trees with high breeding value for growth on sites exposed to high disease incidence should indirectly increase disease resistance in the population. Indeed, as growth is one of the key selection traits in E. globulus, it is likely that breeding programs in Australia have already selected indirectly for disease resistance, since some of the breeding trials have been exposed to the disease. Exploiting disease resistance. There is clearly a large amount of genetic variation in the E. globulus gene pool for resistance to Mycosphaerella leaf disease. Given a good disease outbreak this genetic variation can be strongly expressed allowing effective selection of resistant genotypes. Exploitation of this variation can take place in the breeding or deployment stage. Exploitation at the deployment stage is probably a favored option, as not all of the plantation estate has a high disease risk. In this case, we recommend progeny testing deployment populations (from seed orchard, control or mass pollinated families, or clones) on disease prone sites to allow ranking for disease resistance and later age growth in the presence of disease.
The above discussion showed wide variation between clusters. The discrimination of genotypes into discrete clusters suggested presence of high degree of genetic diversity in the material evaluated. Presence of substantial genetic diversity among the parental material screened in the present study indicated that this material may serve as good source for selecting the diverse parents for hybridization programme aimed at isolating desirable segregants for seed yield and other important characters. Grain iron content was 1098 times ranks first and contributes 51 per cent of total genetic divergence. It is important to establish an breeding programme for biofortification for grain iron content which is helpful for the peoples in tribal areas where they eat this crop as major food crop particularly in Melghat region of Maharashtra state (India), south India particularly Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.
Conservation of genetic diversity of various forest tree species is conducted through programes employing in situ and ex situ methods. Conservation of native species by the in situ method is based upon a status quo concept of protection of natural conditions in local habitats with optimal allelic gene frequency having been attained, en- suring survival and reproduction in a given environment. Furthermore, this means that the local populations and certain species of forest trees show best resistance and adaptability to stressful environmental conditions, as well as to pests and diseases. Studies conducted on conservation of genetic diversity include necessary knowledge of the minimum viable population (MVP) which is necessary for the population’s relatively safe survival in terms of genetic, demographic, environmental and other factors (Geburek & Turok, 2005). In terms of size and type of a distribution range of a species (continuous and discontinuous distribution, genetic drift, etc.), it is necessary to determine the number of subpopulations and individuals that will successfully represent, incorporate and preserve the complete variability of a particular species (Eriksson et al., 2013). Conservation by the in situ method (Table 1) is used for the populations protected as special objects of biological and environmental diversity, as well as for natural forest stands that are excluded from regular management (e.g. seed stands).
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