The impact of geometry of the satellites on position error is called GeometricDilution of Precision and it is generally translated as proportion of position error to the range error.  The possibility of GeometricDilution of Precision (GDOP) is state how error in the estimations will influence the last state estimation. This can be characterized as
 S. Zirari, P. Canalda, and F. Spies. A Very First GeometricDilution Of Precision Proposal For Wireless Access Mobile Networks. In SPACOMM'09, The First International Conference on Advances in Satellite and Space Communications, Colmar, France, July 2009  H. T. Friis, A note on a simple transmission formula,
The final accuracy of a LPS in the position determination often depends on the system configuration, the sensory technology and the type and difficulty of the coverage area. Related to this, proposed LPSs are typically parametrized by the geometricdilution of precision (GDOP), where the distribution of the distance error between the estimated position and the true position is computed. Another key parameter is the range of coverage, where common values are between 5 meters and 50 meters. In this sense, for large coverage areas, scalability is key to guarantee an average positioning performance, as the positioning estimation degrades with the distance between the transmitters and receiver   .
System precision was demonstrated by injecting six replicate injections of standard solution. Method precision was demonstrated by injecting a set of six separate samples spiked with impurities at specification level. Ruggedness for method was demonstrated by injecting a set of six separate samples at specification level into different chromatographic system by different analyst on different day using different column. Percentage relative standard deviations (%RSD) for peak areas were calculated for system precision. % RSD for Percentage weight by weight of impurities was calculated for method precision and intermediate precision. Chromatogram of method precision for spiked sample was shown in Figure 11 and results for system precision, method precision and intermediate precision were shown in Table 7.
As a conclusion, the ability of T1FST and T2FST to defined uncertainty and complex uncertainty data gives a good impact in geometric modelling field especially in forming perfect curves and surfaces. However, the study of curves and surface defined by using both type-1 and type-2 fuzzy set theory is only just the beginning. For further studies, we will implement fuzzy curves and surface model to illustrate both uncertainty and complex uncertainty data.
Recognizing the need for clarity in this area and the desirability of alternative solutions, this paper presents three additional formulas for approximate calculations of geometric averages and provides simple quantitative explanations for all four formulas. The results of these formulas are compared to historic geometric averages and to each other. The paper shows in particular, that the three other formulas are often superior to the popular one.
In the first block of this experiment, we saw the effect we expected assuming participants were filling in the missing information. In both the Standard and Diagnostic Missing Information conditions, the most likely shops contained a plurality of diagnostic flavors for the missing attribute and D evidence was greatly overestimated. In the Non-diag- nostic Missing Information condition, the flavors of the missing attri- bute for the most likely shop were all non-diagnostic, and there was no dilution effect in this condition. This experiment strengthens the qua- litative evidence for filling-in because it does not require participants to have used the scale correctly: participants overstating their evaluation of each piece of evidence (i.e., shifting their responses in each condition the same amount) could explain the results in Experiments 1-3, but not in this experiment. In addition, this experiment shows a reliable effect of the distribution of evidence in the missing feature on the responses to D stimuli. One alternative explanation is that participants may realize that the missing feature in the Non-diagnostic Missing Information condition is non-informative, and therefore not fill it in, and while we cannot exclude this possibility, it would still implicate filling-in as the source of the dilution effect.
The results of the laboratory tests performed by Kenney and Lau (1985)  confirmed the Equation (9). Therefore, Kenney and Lau (1985)  proposed transforming the grain size distribution curve to F-H diagram. Here F is the mass percentage of grains with diameters less than a diameter d and H is the mass percentage of grains with diameters between d and 4d (Figure 6). A portion F ≤ 0.20 of the grain size distribution has to be investigated for a widely graded soil, whereas a portion F ≤ 0.30 of the grain size distribution is required for a narrowly graded soil. In Kenney and Lau (1985)  H/F ≥ 1.3 was proposed as geometric internal stability cri- terion. In a following publication (Kenney and Lau 1986 ) based on the discussion by Milligan (1986)  and Sherard and Dunnigan (1986) , the less conservative requirement H/F ≥ 1.0 was recommended for use.
Debt dilution has previously been identified as a mechanism which generates excessive leverage and default risk (e.g. Admati, DeMarzo, Hellwig, and Pfleiderer (2013)). 3 The effect of debt dilution on investment has not been systematically studied. Most closely related to our work is the model of debt dilution by DeMarzo and He (2016) which includes an extension with endogenous investment. The authors do not solve for the optimal firm policy under full commitment and therefore do not identify the separate effects of debt dilution and debt overhang on investment. Brunnermeier and Oehmke (2013) show that debt dilution influences the maturity choice even if a firm’s debt level is fixed. In their setup, creditors learn about a firm’s default risk over time. In our
Another possibility of reducing the problem of cash dilution is the investment of cash in other assets. However, this strategy should not be regarded as an optimal solution. With the investment of cash in other assets, the return of a private equity fund is not as strongly diluted as it was, but the other assets are falsifying it. This return falsification leads to higher correlations of the private equity fund of funds. However, most of the time it is exactly these low correlations of private equity with other assets that are an important reason to invest in private equity fund of funds.
in the limits of 1500m and 2000m. A gradual decrease in episode events was also found after 2- day duration except in few cases within the mixing limit of 500m. The higher numbers of events of episodes (181) were recorded in 1 – day duration in the limits of mixing depth of 1500m and 4.0ms -1 wind speed. Most of the occasions in all the durations pertaining to 2ms -1 wind speed limit showed zero values. For both 4 day and 5 day duration, no episode were present both in the mixing limits of 250m and 500m with all the wind speed limits except in 4- day duration with Hl, 500m and Ul, 6ms -1 .It is an important point to note that the highest numbers of episode events are above the mixing depth limit of 1000m which signifies the non severe episodes over the station. However, it should not be disregarded, and care should be taken while discharging the higher pollutant concentrations even in such episodes. During summer season, 30 th May of 2012 bags the worst dilution of one day duration with 394.3 m 2 s -1 in the limiting values of 250m and 4.0ms -1 . In addition to this, the same day and month of 2011 had shown the ventilation value of 443 m 2 s -1 in the limiting values of 250m and 4.0ms -1 . With these two lowest values of episode days occurred, one may infer that a peculiar phenomenon observed during summer season over Visakhapatnam with lower mixing depths leading to the worst stagnant condition. June 1 st , 2011 recorded the second and third worst stagnant conditions occurred with 692.2 m 2 s -1 respectively. It may be due to the stand still condition prevailed after a significant precipitation. The synoptic wind is such situation inhibits the sea breeze condition. These conditions were also verified with the synoptic conditions from Indian Daily Weather Report (IDWR) published by the Indian Meteorological Department.
Dilution steam pH had been increased from 6~7.5 to 7~8 since August 1998. Average pH in year 1999 is more than 8.0. However, the latest Ultrasonic Corrosion Scan on T-260 still detected wall thinning at the repaired portion. This is somehow in contradiction to the assumption made earlier.
In the literature referenced, different kinds of work are cited. Some considered the representation of the workpiece to machine [3-4]. Other works, considered the generation of the tool swept volume [5-7]. The difficulty at this level is related to the kinematics of the 05-axis machine where the tool translates and rotates simultaneously. For a higher precision, other works used the theory of multi-body systems kinematics [8-10].
that the tiles cover (i.e., A is a union of the hexagons). We will cover any holes in A with completely red tiles, and place red tiles all the way along the exterior boundary of A. Let R be the set of these added red tiles and let I be the resulting instance of GEOMETRIC 3-CUT. It is now trivial how to place the fences in I everywhere except in the interior of A.
A simple, precise, accurate and rapid RP-HPLC method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of N-Acetylcysteine and Ambroxol Hydrochloride in tablets dosage form. The method was carried out on C18 column (25cm x4.6 mm x5μm) with a mobile phase consisting of Phosphate buffer solution and Methanol in 70:30 ratio. The flow rate was adjusted to 1.0 ml/minute and detection was carried out at 230nm. The retention time obtained for N-Acetylcysteine and Ambroxol Hydrochloride was 3.38 and 22.23 minutes respectively. The calibration areas were linear in the concentration range of 40-150µg/ml for Ambroxol Hydrochloride and 40-150µg/ml for N-Acetylcysteine. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, ruggedness and solution stability. The proposed method can be used for simultaneous estimation of these two drugs in tablet dosage form.
Diﬀerences in (a) optimal debt contract and (b) optimal capital structure are very sub- stantial. Single creditor debt with opportunistic shareholder behavior being the most threat- ening type of debt for creditors, the optimal leverage is in that case 29 %. This is 63% lower than the optimal leverage with dispersed creditors + optimal guaranteeing which is 80%. Dispersed creditors are vulnerable to dilution threats, but are largely protected from strate- gic default threats. As a precommitment device against excessive shareholder opportunistic behavior, issuing publicly traded debt enhances the borrowing ability of the firm and because creditors are more willing to lend, yields a much higher ex-ante optimal level of borrowing.
make the claim that there is generally a ‘ left shunt ’ in slope estimates from the across-individuals level to the within-individual level (see fig. 3 in Halsey et al., 2019). This observation should be robust because the slope estimate confidence intervals are always larger at the across-individuals level (and hence measurement noise is greater), suggesting that the regression dilution is probably attenuating the size of this left shunt. Finally, the regression dilution in these analyses did not hide the insightful negative correlations found between slope value and mean heart rate per month (see fig. 3 in Halsey et al., 2019), which suggest that species exhibit more energetic constraints during periods when daily energy expenditure is higher.
In the field of hot forging technology, developments of new forming processes are difficult due to the large number of parameters constituting the process. Forming a connecting rod requires several single forming processes resulting in a precision forming operation. During this multi-step process, there is the risk of gap formation. Gaps contain the danger of material flowing into them making the forging useless. The timing of the tool and the force closing the gap influences its formation. If the force is too low, the gap can open again during the forming operation. Other process goals include reducing the number of forging steps, minimizing tool abrasion, reducing the contribution of flash material, and ensuring the stability of the forming process with a minimum of rejects.
The data from rejected runs should be documented but need not be reported; however, the fact that a run was rejected and the reason for failure should be reported. Reported method validation data and the determination of accuracy and precision should include all outliers; however, calculations of accuracy and precision excluding values that are determined as outliers should also be reported. Sample Data Reintegration: An SOP or guideline for sample data reintegration should be established a priori. This SOP or guideline should define the criteria for reintegration and how the reintegration is to be performed. The rationale for the reintegration should be clearly described and documented. Audit trails should be maintained. Original and reintegration data should be reported.
In view of that different navigation satellites in the mixed constellation carry different error characteristics in their own ranging information, we choose the weighted dilu- tion of precision (WDOP) as an evaluation criterion to study the relationship between the internal factors and the positioning precision in the system evolution process. WDOP can assign corresponding weights to the observa- tions according to the ranging errors of each navigation satellite in the case of unequal-precision measurements. It is often used in the evaluation of the system position- ing performance and satellite selection because it is more objective than the general DOP (dilution of precision) [10-12].