Methodology: This is analytical cross-sectional study was carried out at renal dialysis unit at Al Gezira hospital for renal diseases in Al Gezirastate from October 2010 – December 2010, the participants were 150 haemodialysis patients and 50 healthy controls, and the test used is latex agglutination test.
This study was conducted in Almanaqil ridge, GeziraState located in south west of GeziraState, Sudan. The ridge is approximately midway between the Blue Nile in the east and White Nile in the west, (latitude 14° 04´ to 14° 29´ N and longitude 33° 97´ to 33° 19´ E). It covers an area of about 220,000 Acers (Fig. 1). The elevation of the area varies between 380 to 470 m above sea level. The soils of the study area were classified, according to the American System of the Soil Classification (Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 2010), into 3 families, namely; Fine loamy, mixed,
state. First, the primary space-time cluster identified in this study is located on the southern tip of the state in an area near a sugar plantation close to the Sennar dam which irrigates the very large Gezira scheme. In addition, almost all the spatial-only clusters observed in each year were either within or intersected the primary space-time cluster in the south of Gezirastate, indicating a highly focal concentration of infections which can be addressed by focused targeting of interventions. Second, while it is difficult to empirically determine the reason for the peaks in infection prevalence in an otherwise declining trend over the study period using the available data, it is inter- esting that these coincided with the period when reports of vector resistance to malathion-deltamethrin emerged and its use was discontinued in 2002; when vector resis- tance to pyrethroid-permethrin had increased to sub- stantial levels in 2006 just before its replacement with bendiocarb in 2007; and in 2008 when the IRS pro- gramme was wound up (Figure 2). Therefore, malaria control in Gezira needs to maintain and scale-up its efforts on prevention of disease among the agricultural population in the Gezira irrigation scheme and those along the southern and central Blue Nile River, expand control efforts to the neighbouring Sennar state where the Sennar dam is located.
This was descriptive cross sectional study carried out between 2016 – 2019 in GeziraState, Sudan. Population of study included both adult male and female patients aged between (20 – 70 years). They referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and clinically suspected to H. pylori infection. The patients had not received antimicrobial agents in the two weeks prior to examination. Antrum biopsy was collected under standard techniques by physician using (Fujunon Model) endoscope at Gezira Center for G.I.T. Endoscopy and Laparoscopic Surgery. Ethical approval of study was taken from Ministry of Health, GeziraState; informed consent was taken from each participants. The samples transported in Eppendorf tube immediately to the laboratory and preserved in - 20 0 C. DNA extraction was performed according to
Abstract:Field dodder (Cuscuta Campestris) is an annual obligate stem parasite that attaches itself to a variety of host plants, and is totally dependent on its host plant for assimilating nutrients and water supply. The economic importance of the parasite is due to the fact that it poses a threat to some vegetable crops grown in GeziraState such as onions, tomatoes, jews mallow, and salad rocketand reduces their yield substantially. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of post-attachment application of 3 herbicides namely glyphosate, goal and stomp in controlling field dodder parasitizing onion, and to determine their impact on crop yield. The experiments were conducted in 2 locations: in the 1 st seasonthe experiment was conducted in a farmer´s field in Alsharafa area, the field was sown in local red onion that was severely infected with field dodder. In the 2 nd season the
Kidney stones are the most common disease of the urinary tract affecting about 10% of the global population. These unwanted mineral aggregates can result in extreme pain and morbidity, and in some cases may lead to high blood pressure and increase the risk for coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus. Kidney stone disease may occur from either derangements of urine biochemistries or anatomic abnormalities of kidneys and urinary tract. Genetic, environmental and dietary factors may also cooperate in the patophysiology of nephrolithiasis. The stones cause severe pain and are also associated with morbidity and kidney damage. There is also no clear understanding on the relative metabolic composition of kidney stones. The purpose of this study was to define the relationship between dietary habits and incidence of stone formation and to perform the chemical analysis of stones to know the pattern of chemical composition of stones in Sudanese subjects. Forty eight renal stone samples were analyzed during the period of January – June, 2015. Those patients were referred to Gezira Hospital for Renal Disease and Surgery (GHRDS), GeziraState, Sudan. The stones were analyzed by semi quantitative method in Gezira Central Laboratory. Kits were used for chemical analysis of stones. Calcium, Phosphate, Oxalate, Uric acid, carbonate and cystine were determined. The results of this study revealed that, male to female ratio was 2:1,Majority of the patients were non-vegetarian 89.5% and many of them 56.2% consumed more salted foods. Water consumption amount revealed that, 45.8% of the patients consumed 1.0 liter of water per day. Frequency of consumption of food stuffs revealed that it varied from weekly to rarely for most of the items from various selected categories. Calcium (%72.8), oxalate (%60.4) and uric acid (%27) were the most common, phosphate (10%), Carbonate (6%) and cystine which found only in (2%) of the study samples. The relative frequency of calcium oxalate stone were about (70.8%) out numbers other types which was compatible with the international literature. While there is relative high percentage of uric stones were about (%29.1) which can be explained by the high animal protein consumption in Sudan together with the hot weather which can be a cause of highly concentrated urine. The study recommends analyzing the kidney stones routinely for both sexes for better understanding of the mechanisms involved in lithogenesis.
Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common communicable diseases worldwide and have always been an important public health problem in the tropics particularly in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections as well as to assess the predisposing factors for the infection in Abugota province, Gezirastate, Sudan. This study was conducted at the Department of Medical parasitology, university of medical sciences and technology. A cross sectional study involving 168 participants (100 female and 68 male) was conducted from January to May 2018. Structured questionnaire were used to identify socio demographic and behavioural factors. Stool specimens were collected from all study participants and examined for intestinal parasites using direct microscopic examination and formol-ether concentration technique. For coccidian parasites modified Ziehl–Neelsen staining was performed. Out of 168, 108 (64.3%) were positive for intestinal parasites. The highest prevalence was seen with Giardia lamblia 55 (50.1%) followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 43 (39.8%), Cryptosporidium species 22 (20.4%), Hymenolepis nana 16 (14.8%), Entrobius vermicularis 2 (1.2%), Schistosoma mansoni 1 (0.6%) and Strongyloides stercolaris respectively. The highest prevalence (36.30%) of parasites was seen in age under 12 years old, p<0.05. There was statistically association for the prevalence of intestinal parasites with educational level, Nails status (p<0.05).
the capital of Gezirastate, Wad Madani, and has access to RVFV diagnostic tests. This could explain why Southern Gezira had more confirmed human RVF cases than other localities. On the contrary, the Managil locality had the highest number of probable cases. The lack of a confirma- tory diagnostic test for the probable cases in Managil could be due to the lack of infrastructure and laboratory expertise at Managil’s rural hospital. In addition, Managil is located in a remote part of Gezira. Therefore, the option to send the samples to the capital of Gezira to analyze them for RVFV was difficult due to rough roads during the rainy season. The challenge to confirm probable RVF cases has been seen for other outbreaks during heavy rains, such as the 2008 RVF outbreak in Madagascar . Better access to proper diagnostic capacity is needed to confront future RVF outbreaks.
the genetic diversity and multiplicity of P. falciparum isolates in relation to disease phenotype based on MSP antigen in GeziraState, Central Sudan. In our study there was no association between MOI and malaria out- come (severe versus uncomplicated) which is consistent with other reports from Sudan , Ghana , Gabon , Gambia  and Madagascar , but our results differ from those reporting higher MOI in severe malaria patients in Uganda  and India  and those report- ing higher MOI in uncomplicated malaria patients in Senegal  and Nigeria . However the methodology used in our study (due to our limited funds) is compara- tively weak because variation in size at MSP loci may be hard to interpret since multiple insertion-deletion muta- tions, recombination events, and/or convergence due to selection could generate alleles that differ at the se- quence level but have the same fragment size or restric- tion fragment length polymorphism pattern and the results should be confirmed by DNA sequencing.
Our study is the first to explore indepth drivers of child marriage from household and community perspectives in Sudan, and offers detailed understanding of under- lying social norms and processes, to inform interven- tion development. Its key strengths include its holistic approach, triangulation across multiple qualitative methods and participants; use of indepth case studies to explore context, triggers and processes that result in the outcome of child marriage; and deep engagement with study communities, enabling ‘participant’ checking. However, this was a small-scale qualitative study which can only be generalised to rural GeziraState. Additional research should aim to further elucidate how drivers are shaped by intersecting social divisions such as geograph- ical location, ethnicity and socioeconomic status to inform interventions. 35 Due to gendered social norms,
Abstract: This survey was conducted in GeziraState to detect the pink root rot disease of onion, caused by Pyrenochaeta terrestris in GeziraState. The study evolved the isolation, identification of the causal agent of determination of the level of the disease incidence. Three locations within GeziraState were selected namely the vicinity of Almusallamih Tayiba, Wad Al ataya and Hamdalnil and located at North, central and south of the State respectively. The results showed that the local variety was found to be highly susceptible to the disease than the exported of the hybrid ones. The highest disease incidence was recorded in Hamdalnil (16.8%) while the lowest disease incidence was recorded at Wad Al ataya(9.23%). Koch’s postulates were performed to prove that the fungus isolated Pyrenochaeta terrestris was the causal agent of the pink root rot on onion plants. The successful isolation of the fungus and the verification of its Pathogenicity test revealed the way for further epidemiological studies of the said disease.
The 2009 study was mainly conducted in Hilat Daoud inhabited by immigrant Tama tribe from West Darfur, Sudan. Those migrants were a pool of agricultural labours for the land owners at the nearby village of Habiba located in Kamleen locality of GeziraState, Sudan.
The introduced cultivar “Texas Early Grano” is widely grown and consumed in the Sudan as a salad crop due to its mild and pleasant taste and low pungency. While seeds of all land races are produced locally, seeds of “Texas Early Grano” have to be imported from western seed companies. Bulbs of “Texas Early Grano” failed to bolt when grown for seed production in the Sudan. The bulbs need to be subjected to low temperatures (vernalization) to initiate seed stalk formation. The vernalization requirements cannot be satisfied due to the mild winter of the Sudan. Therefore, there is an urgent need to look for other methods that can mimic the effect of low temperature for floral induction of “Texas Early Grano”. The present study aims to test the effects of vernalization, Gibberellic acid and their combinations on seed production of “Texas Early Grano” onion cultivar under GeziraState conditions, Sudan.
Abstract- Heavy mineral assemblage of sediments in Almanaqil Ridge, GeziraState, Sudan has been studied, to identify, and if possible, to know their source and transporting agent. Four sediment samples were analyzed for determinations heavy mineral assemblage. The separation of these minerals was carried out using bromoform (specific gravity 2.85). These were followed by slide examination under the petrographic microscope. Heavy minerals grains of soil samples collected from outside the study area (sample 1 and 2) were compared with those inside the study area (sample 6 and 7). The heavy minerals assemblages of Zircon, Tourmaline, Rutile, Silimatate, Andalusite , Garnet, Epidote, and Quartz indicated its derivation from mixed sources of acid igneous rock to medium and high grade metamorphic rocks. The calculated % ZTR (Zircon, Tourmaline, Rutile) values varied between 47.99% to 26.08 % in in the samples from outside the study area compared with values of those inside study area which varied between 12.92% to 17.95 % and the mean ZTR percentage indices was 37.035 % of outside the study area and 15.5% of those inside study area. The three most abundant were Quartz, Garnet and Andalusite with values 50.33 %, 34.2 % and 24.52, respectively. Heavy minerals assemblages in the sediments of study area and that outside the area indicated low Zircon Tourmaline Rutile indices. This index is used as a clue for the identification of the source and as measure of the maturity of the sediments. The low ZTR index might indicate mineralogical immaturity and mineralogical composition. Heavy sand mineralogy revealed that the origin of the sand in the area was the Nubian sandstone.
Abstract: End stage renal disease constitutes a public health problem globally. One of methods of solution of this problem is hemodialysis. To determine factors related to duration of hemodialysis among Sudanese Patients. It was a cross-sectional survey. Fifty Sudanese Patients on regular hemodialysis at Gezira Hospital for Renal Diseases & Surgery, GeziraState, Sudan; were selected. Independent variables were age, gender, marital status, level of education, occupation, presence and types of congenital anomalies of urinary system. Dependent variable was hemodialysis. Investigation was done using structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 21. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Age range was 19 - 70 years. Male gender was predominant (62%) among study population. Generally duration of hemodialysis is higher among male. Sixty six percent of respondents were married. There was no statistical association between marital status and duration of hemodialysis. Thirty eight percent were graduated from secondary school, university, and postgraduate studies. Majority of the rest were either illiterateor graduated from Holly Quran School (Khalwa), or primary school. About 78% of study population either non-employed or from low economical class. There was strong statistical association between occupation and duration of hemodialysis. Rate of congenital anomalies was 12%. There was statistical relationship between both presence and types of congenital anomalies of renal system and duration of hemodialysis among study population. Economically active age group was more affected than others. Duration of hemodialysis was higher among male. Un-married respondents were more vulnerable than married groups. Duration of hemodialysis was longer among respondents with low socioeconomic status and among respondents having congenital anomalies of renal system. Screening for presence of congenital anomalies of renal system among general population may be of great help.
Out of the total hospitals in GeziraState, twenty hospi- tals fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. For health care providers, 158 were selected using the equation for calculating sample size for a finite population. Regarding severe malaria patients a sample size of 370 patients was estimated, assuming 70% of patients with severe malaria are appropriately treated, at 95% confidence level, with a tolerable error of 0.05% and 15% non-response rate. Hospitals were selected from the list of hospital in the state. All hospitals meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. As a result 20 hospitals were selected; among them eight were general, seven specialized (four paediatrics and three obstetrics) and five rural hospitals. These hos- pitals were distributed across all localities in GeziraState. The health care providers were selected using non-prob- ability sampling from those available at these hospitals during the study period till satisfaction of the sample size. Health care providers selected were those responsible for making the decision on patient management, namely doctors at different professional levels. Similarly, for col- lecting data from severe malaria patients; all those admit- ted with sever malaria during the period of study were enrolled, till reached the total number required. Patients were interviewed when they are in a good condition and eligible to respond or otherwise the caregivers respond on behalf of them, as well as reviewing patients’ records.
Abstract: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are of wide spectrum ranging from mild, asymptomatic malformations to severe fatal conditions. To investigate occurrence of congenital anomalies in urinary system. It was a cross-sectional study. Study populations were Sudanese patients with ESRD on regular hemodialysis attending Gezira Hospital for Renal Diseases & Surgery, GeziraState, Sudan. Independent variables were horseshoe kidney, polycystic kidney disease, double ureter or ureteral duplication, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, posterior urethral valves, hypogenesis, agenesis, and kidney position. Dependent variable was hemodialysis. Investigation was done using abdominal ultrasound. Personal data was obtained using a questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 21. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Thirty one (62%) of respondents was male. Minimum age was 19 years while maximum age was 70 years. Maximum affected age group was age group (36-45) years; followed by age groups (46-55) and (56-65) years. Minimum age at which disease was diagnosed was 13 years. Overall prevalence was 12%. Four types of congenital anomalies were encountered and these are: polycystic kidney disease, uretero-pelvic junction obstruction, hypogenesis, and agenesis. Minimum disease duration was 1 year while maximum duration was 16 years. Mean duration was 6.42 years. Gender distribution of these types was as follows: Male (Two cases of polycystic kidney disease, one case of ureteropelvic junction obstruction, and one case of agenesis); female (one case of polycystic kidney disease, and one case of hypogenesis). Duration of disease is higher among male. Conclusion and recommendation: The current study highlighted a significant statistical relationship of the congenital anomalies in the urinary system among respondents and duration of ESRF. Screening for presence of congenital anomalies of renal system among general population of Central State may be of great help.
Objective: To investigate the seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies among hemodialysis (HD) patients in GeziraState, Central Sudan. Design and Methods: Across sectional study was conducted at Gezira Hospital for Renal Diseases and Surgery (GHRDS) in 93 hemodialysis patients. Indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to investigate anti-CMV IgM and IgG. Structured questionnaire was used to gather socio- demographic data. Results: In hemodialysis patients, the positivity for anti-CMV IgM and anti-CMV IgG were found in 45.2% (42/93) and 95.7% (89/93) respectively. The number of hemodialysis patients subjected to blood transfusion and previous surgery were 79 (84.9%) and 42 (45.2%) respectively. The percentage of anti-CMV IgM and anti-CMV IgG were 45.6% and 97.5%; 47.6% and92.9% amonghemodialysis patients received blood transfusions and subjected to previous surgery respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of CMV infection among hemodialysis patients in Gezirastate appears high. Blood transfusion was found to play a major risk factor predisposing to CMV infection.
In Sudan, both the government and civil society frequently use smartphones for data gath- ering. There is, however, very little published research regarding this. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to compare accuracy, completeness, and quality of data collected using smart- phone-based versus paper-based methodologies for the BOLD study in GeziraState, Sudan. We explored whether data collection might be expedited by conducting this work as a one- step process ‘in the field’ (smartphone-based data collection), improving the ability to have timely questionnaire data and be more responsive to the data in real time. In addition, we aim to provide evidence that will assist decision-making with regards to the method of data collec- tion to use in future BOLD surveys in rural Sudan.
Method: This is a prospective case-control study done in Gezirastate central Sudan during the period between June 2011 to December 2013. Seventy cases were diagnosed with PCOS based on 2003 Rotterdam criteria, and 60 women with regular menstrual cycle and without history of hyperandrogenism (HA) were recruited as