Dramis, f., umer Mohammed, Calderon, g., mitiKu Haile. (2003). Holocene climatephases from buried soils in Tigray (northern Ethiopia): Comparison with lake level fluctuations in the main Ethiopian Rift. Quaternary Research: pp. 274-283.  EEPCO, GilgelGibeIII HPP Project (2007) ì RCC- Dam Alternative 3 power house on the left River Bank. Studio Pietrangeli ñ Salini Construction.
As a main challenge, however, many technologies to exploit renewable energy sources especially in developing countries are technically immature (Ringel 2004). Application of and activities relating to such technologies in developing countries like Ethiopia are still scattered and modest with a number of stumbling blocks inhibiting the exploitation of renewable resources. The initial costs to develop hydropower, wind energy, solar and geothermal are particularly expensive and force decision makers to give priority based on the construction costs. For example, Ethiopia‟s Ashegoda wind farm in the northern part of the country is under construction with a price tag of 210 million Euros to produce 120 MW of electric power. On the other hand GilgelGibe-III hydropower project will cost 1.48 billion Euros to produce 1870 MW of electricity. This example illustrates the relative economic advantage of hydropower versus wind energy development. Hydropower tends to be one of the main energy sources given priority in energy development planning of many African countries, including Ethiopia, Uganda, and Ghana among others (Karekezi, et al 2003). In addition to higher amount of energy production from large-scale hydroelectric projects, large reservoirs can be used for different purposes including irrigation, fish production and tourism.
Digital elevation model (DEM) of 30m by 30m was used for watershed delineation and characterization with outlet near the GilgelGibeIII dam. Stream channels were defined as DEM cells having at least a 500 hectare contributing area. The contributing area resulted in 61 sub- basins being delineated. Information reviewing from the literature supported with ground truth collection through focus group discussion and informal discussions were held to support and verify primary data’s for the analysis. Finally, Arc GIS 9.3 software was used to analyse morphometric parameter and prioritize the watershed. In morphometric analysis both linear and shape parameters were used for the sub basin prioritizations. Stream Order (u), Stream Number (Nu), Stream Length (Lu), Mean Stream Length (Lsm), Drainage Texture (Dt), Length of Overland Flow(Lg), Bifurcation Ratio (Rb), Drainage Density (Dd) and Stream Frequency (Fs)were used in this study for linear parameters. Whereas Form factor (Ff), Circulatory ratio (Rc), Elongation ratio (Re) and compactness coefficient (Cc) were used for shape parameters. For prioritization of sub-basins, the highest value of linear parameters was rated as rank 1, second highest value was rated as rank 2 and so on, and the least value was rated last in rank. Similarly, the lowest value of shape parameters was rated as rank 1, next lower value was rated as rank 2 and so on and the highest value was rated last in rank. Finally, the ranking of the micro watersheds has been determined by assigning the highest priority based on highest value in case of linear parameters and lowest value in case of shape parameters (Nooka Ratnam et al., 2005).
The reactions between the various transition metal ions and lanthanide(III) with urea at room temperature, have been studied extensively [1-8] and many metal-urea complexes have been isolated and characterized. Obviously, it is clear that urea may coordinate either via its oxygen or its nitrogen atoms, depending on the type of metal ion [9-10]. Studies on the nature of the reaction of urea with metal ions at high temperature are rare in the literature, and the available investigations [11-15] show an interesting feature, the reaction products depend not only on the type of metal ion but also on the metal salt used in the reaction. Lanthanide(III) carbonates generally are precipitated from solutions containing lanthanide ions by addition of alkali carbonates or bicarbonates. In the presence of alkali metal ions double salts that may be represented as M 2 (CO 3 )·K 2 CO 3 ·nH 2 O are often formed. This is undesirable if pure
Abstract. Understanding catchment hydrological processes is essential for water resources management, in particular in data scarce regions. The Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into Lake Tana, source of the Blue Nile) is under- going intensive plans for water management, which is part of larger development plans in the Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia. To obtain a better understanding of the water balance dynam- ics and runoff generation mechanisms and to evaluate model transferability, catchment modeling has been conducted us- ing the conceptual hydrological model HBV. Accordingly, the catchment of the Gilgel Abay has been divided into two gauged sub-catchments (Upper Gilgel Abay and Koga) and the un-gauged part of the catchment. All available data sets were tested for stationarity, consistency and homogeneity and the data limitations (quality and quantity) are discussed. Manual calibration of the daily models for three differ- ent catchment representations, i.e. (i) lumped, (ii) lumped with multiple vegetation zones, and (iii) semi-distributed with multiple vegetation and elevation zones, showed good to satisfactory model performances with Nash-Sutcliffe ef- ficiencies R eff > 0.75 and > 0.6 for the Upper Gilgel Abay
This study assessed the magnitude of glycemic control and factors affecting glycemic control among type 2 dia- betic patients at Shanan Gibe Hospital, Southwest Ethio- pia. The mean fasting blood glucose was 130.3 ± 30.7 mg/ dL. We found that the majority of patients had poor gly- cemic control. Adherences to regular follow up schedule and diabetes treatment for 5–10 years were predictors of glycemic control.
Received 9 June 2010; Revised 4 September 2010; Accepted 6 November 2010 Abstract: The metal-ligand and proton-ligand stability constant of Ce(III), Dy(III), Gd(III),Yb(III) and Pr(III) metals with substituted heterocyclic drug (Rifampicin) were determined at various ionic strength by pH metric titration. NaClO 4 was used to maintain ionic strength of solution. The results obtained were extrapolated to the zero ionic strength using an equation with one individual parameter. The thermodynamic stability constant of the complexes were also calculated. The formation of complexes has been studied by Job’s method. The results obtained were of stability constants by pH metric method is confirmed by Job’s method. .
stored in the subsurface of forested areas. As a consequence of deforestation and land degradation processes soil perme- ability often decreases and causes that infiltration rates and recharge fluxes decrease. Therefore by deforestation less amounts of rainwater are stored in the unsaturated zone dur- ing periods of rain. This consequently results in quicker runoff responses were flow rates increase and we presume that this partly causes the increase of the high flow index in the Upper Gilgel Abbay. As stated in the Introduction sec- tion, water erosion processes have frequently been observed in agricultural areas during field visits over the past 6 years. We note that lower water storage causes that less soil water is available for evapotranspiration processes during inter-event periods and dry periods and therefore causes that the unsat- urated zone may deplete quicker. Reduced water storage, however, also causes recharge fluxes to decrease and conse- quently result in lower base flows. This is particularly ob- servable during the dry season as indicated by the low flow index in the Upper Gilgel Abbay. We note that effects of evapotranspiration processes are somewhat uncertain in this study. In the Gilgel Abbay reforestation mostly has been by eucalypt trees that commonly cause higher actual evapotran- spiration than agricultural land as partly caused by larger un- saturated zone storage and larger plant transpiration. There- fore reforested areas cause larger actual evapotranspiration losses as compared to agricultural land with often less wa- ter storage volumes available to generate catchment runoff. This particularly is observable during the dry season when stream flow is by base flow processes. For accurate assess- ments on evapotranspiration fluxes a remote sensing based approach could be applied where the energy balance is solved (see Muthuwatta et al., 2010).
Background: Intestinal parasites are either helminths or protozoan that inhabit in gastrointestinal tract. The prevalence and severity of intestinal parasites are high in developing countries where health and sanitary facilities are under development. The parasitic infections mainly affect physical, mental development and nutritional status of young children by transmitting through feco-oral route and penetration of skin.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and its predisposing factors among pediatric patients in Shenen Gibe Hospital, Jimma zone south west Ethiopia Method: A cross-sectional study was employed from April to May, 2014 among pediatric patients at Shenen Gibe Hospital. A socio- demographic data was collected by predesigned questionnaires and microscopic results of intestinal parasites were collected by direct wet mount. Stool specimens were examined microscopically for the presence of parasite eggs, larva, cyst and trophozoite using direct saline thin smear methodResult: out of the total 371 study participants; 123(33.1%) had one or more intestinal parasitic infections. Seven species of intestinal parasite was identified in this study. The most prevalent intestinal parasite was Giardia lamblia (42.3%) followed by Ascaris
occurrence of some competing trematodes may be used as a biological control of snail-borne diseases [11, 12]. The prevalence and intensity of trematode infections are affected by various biological, physical and behavioural factors . Habitat use and defecating habits are the main determinants of trematode infections in mud-snail populations inhabiting salt marsh ponds in Iceland . In spite of the fact that the documentation of snail spe- cies and their larval trematode fauna help in our under- standing of snail-borne diseases and location of potential transmission sites, studies on larval trematode infections and factors attributed to it in freshwater snails in Ethiopia are limited. Therefore, this study aims to deter- mine the distribution of freshwater snail intermediate hosts and cercarial infection rates in Omo-Gibe River Basin, where several hydroelectric dams and irrigation canals have been constructed on the main river and tributaries which create favorable habitat for the occur- rence and abundance of snail intermediate hosts.
There are eleven woredas which are found in Hadiya zone, from these worads Gibe woreda were selected as the study area randomly. Multi stage sampling techniques was used to select sample households. First by using stratified sampling technique 24 kebles of gibe woreda were categorized into 3 strata. The stratum was based on agro ecology (dega, w/dega and kola). Second from each agro ecological zone two kebles were selected through simple random sampling technique. From the total 24 kebeles of gibe woreda 6 kebeles were
and international declarations and policy guidelines. The 2001 Nassau Declaration and the 2007 Decla- ration of Port of Spain reinforced the Millennium Declaration aimed at reducing poverty by 2015. The CCH Phase III is charged with the responsibility to invest in the health of the people of the region to en- sure the highest attainable socioeconomic achieve- ment, reduce inequities in health, and mobilise tra- ditional and non-traditional actors in tackling health challenges and building sustainable health systems. • The mandate of CCHIII 2010-2015 will address
A manual polarograph is used to record polarograms, using a saturated calomel electrode as the reference electrode. All the chemicals used were of analytical reagent grade. Tyrosine were used as complexing agents. Potassium nitrate was used as a supporting electrolyte to maintain the ionic strength at 0.1 M. The temperature was maintained constant at 300 ± 1 K and 310 ± 1 K. The capillary with the following characteristics m = 1.96 mg/ s, t = 4.10 sec. per drop (in open circuit) and h = 40 cm, was used. Solution of As(III) and Sb(III) contains concentration of 5 × 10 -4 M. The experimental
The most cited causes of land cover change in many lit- eratures are population increase. However, the relation- ship between population and land cover change is debat- able issue. Some such as  argues that increase in population has positive effect on resource available. However,  on the other hand finds in Ethiopian high- lands that population pressure lead to land degradation. Similarly, studies in different parts of Ethiopia have shown that population pressure has been found to have negative effect on scrublands, riparian vegetation and forests [12,18]. In Gilgel Abbay watershed districts population for the last 25 years has been growing very rapidly. It has doubled itself in less than 20 years. Age proportion of young population under 15 was 48.3%.
As part of Basel III, the BCBS introduced liquidity standards to the capital requirements that have historically been the cornerstone of the Basel regime. This decision is very clearly a product of the nature of the financial crisis of 2007-09, which was a crisis not only of inadequate bank capital, but also of inadequate bank liquidity. As the BCBS has noted, “[d]uring the ‘liquidity phase’ of the financial crisis that began in 2007, many banks—despite adequate capital levels—still experienced difficulties because they did not manage their liquidity in a prudent manner” (Bank for International Settlements 2013b, 1).
are the same as those of the reaction products, the products obtained were identified as hydrated La(III), Y(III), Ce(III) and Sm(III) carbonates. The degree of hydration of lanthanide carbonates depends on the conditions that are employed for drying the precipitated carbonate. The IR assignments agree quite well with those generally known for ionic carbonates, M 2 (CO 3 ) 3 . Previous studies [11-15] indicate that the nature of the reaction product obtained from the
The study has offered models for estimating above ground biomass of selected four acacia species, which are one of the most common woody plants in Omo gibe woodland in Southwest Ethiopia. Many researches have been done in Ethiopia on carbon sequestration but the capability use of site- specific model is low and use pantropic allometric model. This is result uncertainty and variation of the biomass estimation. Therefore, these models would contribute to significantly improve the accurate estimate of biomass and carbon sequestration of tree in Omo Gibe woodland. Moreover, it is also crucial for monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) component of REDD+ that provide reliable information of forest carbon stock so as obtain finical rewards for the amount of carbon sequestrated under any possible trading system that may be established. In addition, the model development procedures provide an ideal opportunity for further model development work southwest forest of Ethiopia and elsewhere.