Before they begin to review the pedagogical research on girls and physical education, Flintoff and Scraton remind us that there is a considerable historical literature on this topic and indeed that women played a significant leadership role in the development of physical education in the UK and elsewhere since at least the end of the nineteenth century. The ‘female tradition’, as Fletcher (1984) dubbed it, was always controversial since girls’ and women’s participation in organised forms of physical activity such as gymnastics and some sports challenged deep- seated social mores about masculinity and femininity. This overview of historical studies also reminds us that the issues surrounding girls and physical education have a long history in education systems amounting to over a century and a half in some countries. This point is important for our argument about the same old story because it has over time become deeply ingrained in the collective consciousness of populations, including the institutions that
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DOI: 10.4236/ape.2019.94016 225 Advances in Physical Education School is an important institution for PA promotion, as the vast majority of youths attend school. Thus, physical education (PE), as a structured school ac- tivity, has great potential in terms of public-health reach (Scruggs, 2007). There have been calls for schools to expand their efforts to increase PA-related oppor- tunities to obtain higher levels of PA in adolescents, particularly adolescent girls. Even if school PE lessons are well organized and PA levels during these lessons are adequate, PE lessons do not exert a sufficient influence over adolescents’ PA and health (Fairclough & Stratton, 2005). MVPA is performed most often during leisure time, while school sports contribute only marginally to MVPA (Pfitzner et al., 2013). In Finland, a great deal of effort has been set into activating school days, for example, the Finnish Schools on the Move (Haapala et al., 2017). In ad- dition to school PE, to reach adequate levels of PA, children and young people need to participate in PA during the school day and/or during after-school hours and/or in the before-school period. A possible way of promoting PA among youths is to assign PE homework (Gabbei & Hamrick, 2001; Williams & Han- non, 2013; Kääpä et al., 2017). Homework assignments could be designed to practise activities learned earlier at school; to be effective, the practicing should take place during after-school hours. Physical homework provides an opportu- nity for students to apply and practice the skills learnt in PE lessons (Gabbei & Hamrick, 2001; Williams & Hannon, 2013). According to Kääpä et al. (2017), students can find PE homework enjoyable and beneficial. For example, students enjoyed PE homework that included practicing with family member. In addi- tion, it has been found that Finnish students enjoy participating in planning PE homework (Kääpä et al., 2017). The Finnish National Core Curriculum allows and even encourages the use of leisure time to practice skills learnt during les- sons (Finnish National Core Curriculum, 2014). PE homework assignments can be implemented in nearby sporting environments or facilities. Becoming famili- ar with the physical environment and facilities while undertaking PE homework helps to make PA part of one’s lifestyle (Williams & Hannon, 2013; Smith & Claxton, 2003).
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The engagement of adolescent girls in physical activity (PA) is a persistent challenge. School-based PA programs have often met with little success due the lack of linkages between school and community PA settings. The Triple G program aimed to improve PA levels of secondary school girls (12–15y) in regional Victoria, Australia. The program included a school-based physical education (PE) component that uniquely incorporated student-centred teaching and behavioural skill development. The school component was conceptually and practically linked to a community component that emphasised appropriate structures for participation. The program was informed by ethnographic fieldwork to understand the contextual factors that impact on girls’ participation in PA. A collaborative intervention design was undertaken to align with PE curriculum and coaching and
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29 from feelings of inferiority in comparison to others physical competence and the number opportunities for public displays of performance in comparison to the traditional approach was reduced (Casey & Jones, 2011; Fisette, 2011; Garrett, 2004; Hills, 2007). Thirdly, the camerawoman was the person within a learning team who was responsible for filming, and consequently she had time to think about how she wanted to be filmed or how she wanted to be ‘watched’ when she engaged with both the social and cognitive domains, but also with the physical domain of learning (Valentine & Holloway, 2002). Finally, at the beginning of this paper we discussed young people’s increasing engagement with technology in the digital age of the 21 st century (Casey, 2011; Fernandez-Balboa, 2003; Francombe, 2010; Valentine & Holloway, 2002). Comparable to digital games the girls were engaged with creating a virtual representation of their physical education experiences – they played an important role in the teams’ decisions on their performances in front of the camera and how they wanted their team to look (be organised) when performing. Although what we have discussed here is based mainly on anecdotal evidence, an inherent theme within all of these assumptions is our suggestion that the girls’ later engagement with physical learning was a result of the inclusion of social and cognitive learning to their lessons through the Cooperative Learning Model. Yet this engagement didn’t occur until they had represented their physical education
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It‘s the first time I‘ve seen any purpose to PE. Sad but true…it‘s not nothing like before…It‘s more about trying to help us be smart active and confident to use stuff like gyms around where we live. Basically it‘s helping us be active more than once a week in class, we‘re helping ourselves be active actually, and PE [used not to] do that and it‘s also more about us and our lives, and that‘s first, but that‘s just not the case for PE that‘s in most school stuff. (quoted in Enright and O‘Sullivan 2010a, 259-260) Collectively, the activist research studies show that inquiry-based education centred in action is a third critical element of working with adolescent girls in physical education (e.g., Enright and O‘Sullivan 2012; Fisette and Walton 2011; Oliver and Hamzeh 2010). Inquiry, in and of itself, challenges the status quo of physical education because it requires fundamental questions to be asked about how physical education is practiced. Further, ―inquiry changes relationships between students and teachers, as well as the way we view knowledge, who has that knowledge and how that knowledge must be used‖ (Oliver and Oesterreich et al. 2013, 3). In activist studies, teachers engaged girls in inquiry in order to help them better understand what facilitates and hinders their engagement in school physical education or physical activity outside of school as well as how they are learning to think and feel about their bodies. Teachers worked with girls in order to challenge and transform the barriers they identified and assisted them to develop strategies to increase their physical activity participation in ways that are meaningful to them.
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participating in two 6-session units in PE classes – a sport unit (tennis or football) and a recreational unit. Up to three of the PE classes in each unit were delivered in a collaborative manner by PE teachers with the relevant community fitness instructors, and tennis and football coaches, and were linked to a community component that was designed to address previously reported barriers to PA participation. As previously outlined  “barriers such as skill level, competence, financial costs and teach- ing/coaching approaches were identified through eth- nographic fieldwork and informed the design of the program [22-24]” (p. 3). The socio-ecological model  was the overarching theoretical framework that guided the development of the intervention to help address the wide range of factors which impact upon an individual’s behaviour and is commonly applied to PA interventions [26,27]. The socio-ecological model was underpinned by self-management strategies based upon Social-Cognitive Theory (SCT) to encourage adolescent girls to be inde- pendently active  and a capacity-building framework  to build the capacity of the teachers and coaches to deliver the program within the schools and community, respectively. Specific capacity building strategies in- cluded professional development to introduce the key principles of the planned curriculum and teaching ap- proach. The curriculum and teaching approach drew on the principles of Game Sense  and productive peda- gogies  in curriculum development, which is further described in Casey et al. . Game Sense was adopted as the pedagogical approach for each of the sports units (tennis and football) to focus on the tactical dimensions of the game, rather than skill performance , and is the approach commonly adopted in community sports club coaching environments. Productive pedagogies include the dimensions of intellectual quality, connect- edness, supportive classroom environment, and working with, and valuing, difference. These were incorporated in classroom practices through teaching and learning cues outlined in the lesson plans .
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Fitness test profiles in children aged 8-12 years old in Granada (Spain). J. Hum. Sport Exerc. Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 135-145, 2011. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of physical education in body composition and health-related fitness among boys and girls aged 8 to 12 years old in Granada (Spain) in a longitudinal, randomized study of 5 months. 106 children (49 boys and 57 girls) between 8 and 12 years old completed the study. They were healthy students of the public schools and no history of formal exercise training. Subjects were tested (body composition and health-related fitness, measured by EUROFIT) at baseline and at week 20. After 5 months of study, girls showed more fat mass than boys (p<0.05) and boys was more height than girls (p<0.05). Health-related fitness showed differences by gender only in slalom (boys vs. girls (p<0.05)). The results of body composition and health-related fitness revealed that the physical activity at school is not sufficient to support an ideal level of health-related fitness. Key words: BODY COMPOSITION, PHYSICAL FITNESS, HEALTH, EUROFIT, CHILDHOOD.
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This indicates that, although the issue of gender parity has been internationally recognized that both boys and girls must have equal chance of participation, it has remained a worldwide phenomenon particularly in the developing countries. UNICEF (2000:6) states that all the effort and concern of the Jomtien conference the fact remains that access to school was still blocked for many children especially girls. The issue of Girl-Child Education in Nigeria has received a lot of attention by the various governments, donor agencies, non-governmental organizations and scholars. “Realizing the fact that, when both girls and boys have access to education, the nation is laying a solid foundation for progress and sustainable development, the country has been committed to many policies and programmes to achieve gender equality in schools”. (Rufa’i 2000). Rufa’i further stated that:
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One of the recommendations of National Policy on Education (1986) by the Government of India is to promote empowerment of women through the agency of education and it is considered to be a land mark in the approach to women‟s education of illiterate. The National Literacy Mission is another positive step towards eradication of illiteracy in the age group of 15- 35 years. Women‟ education has assumed special significance in the context of India‟s planned development, as it is incorporated in every Five-year plans as the major programme for the development of women. Universalization of elementary education, enrolment and retention of girls in the schools, promotion of balwadies and crutches, raising number of schools and colleges of arts , science, and professional for girls, politechniques, girls hostels, multipurpose institutions and adult education programmes are some of the steps being taken by both central and state governments in India to boost-up women‟s education.
Indian education system is a biggest system in the world, where primary, middle, secondary, higher secondary and college plays a vital role in sharpening the personality of individual. As India ranks second in its population among all countries and also being under developing, still it is a home for largest illiterates. The only weapon which can remove this dark spot is education. Thus education is a stepping stone in once life which transforms illiterates to literates. In this pertain one must not neglect the importance of educating a girl child. As girls’ education is very important for the country to fully develop. Ignoring and keeping a girl illiterate means we are creating an ignorant and illiterate future generation. An attempt has been made to expose how Nation can find its progress by educating girls’. The main objectives of the study are to highlight barriers and advantages of girl child education. Further suggestions have been made as to how girls’ education helps in sustainable development and the implementation.
According to the 1998 Census literacy rate in Pakistan is 45% with males comprising 56.5% and females 32.6%. At the urban area's literacy rate is 64.70%, while in rural areas it is 34.40%. Only 20.80% females in rural areas are literate in Pakistan. According to a UNESCO report on Literacy Trends and Statistics (2002), “A comparison between the urban and rural population of Pakistan and between males and females reveals that the rural literacy rate (34.4%) is less than that, urban (64.70%) and female literacy rate (32.6%) is less than male (56.5%).” The low female literacy rate especially in the rural areas creates many problems for the females themselves as well as for the society. Being half of the population of the country, women cannot play their effective role in national development due to low literacy level. While talking about low literacy rate Ghafoor (1994) says, “In most of the villages of Pakistan female literacy rate is low, in spite of the fact that Government has taken several measures and suggested much for the improvement of literacy rate in the villages. Education is necessary for both male and female children without any discrimination.”
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In this study we found benefits in muscle strength in both boys and girls. When evaluating lean body mass (muscle mass), we found benefits only in the arms in the girls. A large muscle mass may improve muscle strength [36,40-43]. However, the gain in muscle strength in chil- dren may also be explained by neural adaptations such as complex influences in neuromuscular interaction in the motor unit and increased coordination of agonists and antagonists [7,14,17,42,44]. In other words, a child could gain muscle strength without increasing muscle mass. In our study the reason for increased muscle strength, as measured in the lower extremities with no increased lean body mass, ought to depend on motor unit activation, coordination, recruitment, and/or firing frequency [2,14,44].
ine whether these factors are associated with dietary intakes. The pathologic processes leading to cardio- vascular disease and diabetes have been shown to begin in childhood (Steinberger & Daniels 2003). With regard to breast cancer, diet 20 years previous to the diagnosis of breast cancer is thought to be influential, and the impact of diet on risk may be most important during breast development (Dunn 1994; Colditz & Frazier 1995; Stoll 1998; Russo et al . 2001). Many cul- tural and social influences have been studied with respect to their impact on dietary intakes, but less well studied are the influences of family and personal fac- tors that are possibly related to the development of food selection and eating patterns. These factors include the degree of involvement between girls and their mothers or other parents (Foreyt & Goodrick 1993), the girls’ emotionality and use of food to reg- ulate emotions (Israel et al . 1994), their general atti- tudes about health, eating and body image (Thelen et al . 1992), and self-perceptions of their competence. Girls in the Untied States still have lower than recommend intakes of fruits and vegetables, higher than recommended intakes of fat and a very low intake of whole grains (Cook & Friday 2004). Con- cerns regarding poor dietary quality are especially evident in African American children. Overall fat intake in US school-aged children decreased from 1989–1991 to 1994–1996 in the CSFII (Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals); however, the percentage of white children consuming less than 30% of energy from fat increased from 13% to 29%, and the percentage of African American children con- suming less than 30% of energy from fat decreased from 10% to 7% during this time. Similar trends are evident in fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes, although they are not quite as disparate, with FV intake in white children increasing from 3.6 to 4.1 servings per day and FV intake decreasing in African American children from 4.0 to 3.9 servings per day from 1989– 1991 to 1994–1996 (Gleason & Suitor 2001).
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The conflict between feminism and multicul- turalism has its origin in the perception that the members of ethnic groups have identical and homogeneous interests, while the gender dimension of that group is ignored. Okin (1998, 1999) has several critical reflections concerning the special rights for minority women, highlighting the fact that special rights for minority groups – group rights – should not destabilize women’s rights. Okin criti- cizes the notion of special rights for minority groups because it overlooks the implications of the minority women. Spinner-Halev (2001) observes that special rights for minority groups appear at an abstract level as being fair and convenient, but on the practical level these rights in the end give rights mainly to the leaders of the groups. When patriarchal societies are taken into consideration, the leaders will be men with a traditional view on the world and the collective rights can be used to oppress the women. The claims of leaders of traditional Roma communities would generally affect the situation of Roma women. Claiming the right of the community to keep the children (mostly the girls) out of school – even when school is mandatory – would affect the rights of the children to education and their future as individuals. Claiming that a special group should allow early marriages would again affect the rights of the children and would have a dramatic impact on the girls’ lives, limiting their possibilities of choosing their own way in life. According to a Roma NGO report, “Are the Rights of the Child Negotiable? The Case of Early Marriages within Roma Communities in Romania” (Biţu& Morteanu, 2006): “most of the times early marriages impose especially on girls not to benefit of fundamental rights such as the freedom to choose, the freedom of expression, the right to a harmonious physical and mental development, to educational and vocational training, etc.”
Abstract: Physical Education bears an ancient heritage. Its sources emerge from the idea of man, its varieties mirror the evolving financial, modern, strict and social condition of a people, and its motivations show the prevailing thoughts of the time and the spot. A portion of the early wellsprings of physical instruction are old. Physical wellness is the limit of an individual to work relentlessly and easily when a circumstance emerges. Physical wellness makes you feel rationally more honed, physically agreeable and more with your body and better ready to adapt to the requests that consistently life makes upon you. Expanded physical wellness improves wellbeing as well as improves your presentation at work. In this paper, the creator has talked about the significance of physical instruction and diversion throughout everyday life.
Adolescence is known to be a period of increased risk for the development of unhealthy behaviours such as physical inactivity (Currie et al., 2011). Low physical activity (PA) levels are especially noted in girls, who typically engage in less PA than boys throughout the teenage years (Whitehead and Biddle 2008). In Scotland, evidence suggests there is a significant decline in PA among adolescent girls, with only 41% of 13−15 year olds achieving the current recommendations, compared with 56% of 11−12 year olds (Scottish Executive, 2011). In addition, a proportion of girls are not engaging with school PE classes (Niven et al., 2014; Kirby et al., 2012). In order to understand more about how and why this decline exists, a sample of 20 ‘disengaged’ 12−13-year-old girls (second year of secondary school) were recruited from four case study schools in Scotland. This study aims to explore the interaction between the social and physical environment, and how these affect disengaged girls’ experiences and engagement in PE. Girls were categorised as ‘disengaged’ from PE if they did not participate regularly and reported negative emotions about the subject. Girls took part in in-depth interviews to explore their experiences and engagement in PE. The theoretical framework is based on Welks (1999) Youth Physical Activity Promotion model (YPAP), a socio-ecological approach which conceptualises the influential correlates of PA as: individual-level predisposing and enabling factors, including personal attributes and environmental variables and reinforcing (social) factors. This model was applied within a Scottish education context to understand the importance of each component and also the interaction between these and the influence that one may have on another. The results indicate that although the type of activity offered in PE is important, it appears that perceptions of competence and the social environment these were delivered in, such as single-sex classes, had more of an influence on girls’ engagement in PE. For this group of Scottish adolescent girls, the wider psychosocial environment in which PE takes place may have a greater impact on levels of enjoyment and participation than the PA itself.
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A significant difference was found in the nutri- tional status among boys in relation to the con- sumption of first breakfast. In this study, 82.1% of boys with normal BMI and 73.1% of those with overweight and obesity consumed first breakfast every day (OR=0.593; P<0.05). Among girls, 58.3% with normal BMI and 47.9% who were overweight and obese reported consuming lunch with OR being 0.656 (P<0.05; Table 2). Irregularity in meals was found to be the highest among girls with overweight and obesity (29.9%) compared to eutrophic girls (20.3%). We did not find similar correlation among boys (Table 2). The patterns of physical activity based on sports and training scheduled for physical education (PE) classes at school and after-school outdoor activities are shown in Table 3.
school students in high schools and colleges, we conducted an analysis of the various works related to our research theme to show the originality of our survey subject. In this context, we used the non-probabilistic method with the maintenance tool in data collection. Sixty-four (64) survey subjects were selected in eight (08) institutions at four classes per school with two students per class including one girl and one boy. Thus, we were able to show that a high rate of girls in the department of Ouémé are 50% investigated, whose parenting or family education asks not to stay with boys for the practice of PSE. This rate thus presented is contrary to that observed in the department of Collines with 68.75% of subjects surveyed. This observation allows us to say that our hypothesis, according to which, the relative participation and the reticence of the young girls to the physical and mixed sport practice are explained by the influence of the socio-cultural, historical and religious factors which underlie tend education in the rational environment, is verified.
Despite progress in eliminating educational and social disparity between men and women during the last century, gender equality remains an elusive goal particularly in the developing world. (Bobbitt-Zeher, 2007). In many countries of the world, women and girls have less access to education, an important predictor of well-being. (ibid).Globally, despite a net increase in enrollments, a gender gap persists in education attainment. In many countries, educating girls is widely perceived as of less value than educating boys (UN, 2010).While the role of education may generally be applauded, it is also true that women and girls, the world over, have generally been disadvantaged in their bid to access educational opportunities. (ibid).Two thirds of the illiterate populations in the world are women and girls; over 63 million girls around the world are out of school, and 47% of the out of school girls are never expected to enroll as compared to 35% of boys. UNESCO, 2016 in Somani, (2017). UNESCO, 2003 in Akinbi and Akinbi, (2015) records that literacy rate for Nigerian girls and women stood at 47%, while male were 53%, yet female form the larger population. Educating girls is pivotal to development, a famous African proverb apprises us, “If you educate a man, you educate an individual, but if you educate a woman, you educate a family (nation)” Suen, 2013 in Somani 2017. Similar observations are made by Simbine et al., (2015) that girls all over the world, have suffered from sex engendered denial and discrimination in most aspects of national development. Arguably, one of the most serious kinds of this denials and discrimination has been that of access to education as a basic human right. Indeed, there exist wide disparities in girl-child access to educational opportunities in the world today (UNESCO, 2014). Over 130 million children in the world are not in school and two thirds of these children are girls, with close to 45 million more girls than boys not receiving primary education (Johannes, 2010). Accordingly, girls and women, continue to occupy lower social and economic status in society as compared to their male counterparts. In fact, social and cultural traditions, attitudes and beliefs have continued to exert pressure on women and the
Four schools from four different local authorities in Scotland were selected in order to explore disengaged girls’ experiences in the PE environment. The research also employed a multiple case embedded design which consists of multiple cases with multiple units of analysis (Borg & Gall, 1989). Yin (2009) suggests multiple embedded case study designs are more powerful, with a stronger effect compared to a single case study. Each school was a case in itself in terms of local authority, geographic setting, activity level, socio-economic profile, levels of participation, school environment and school ethos. Within each school, each participating ‘disengaged’ girl was also a single case. It is important to note that although each school is a case study (each has a different geographic location, socio-economic status, ethos etc.), there is no presumption that all disengaged girls within the same school will have similar experiences (Mitchell et al., 2013). It is important to recognise that adolescent girls are not a homogeneous population and one of the advantages of using single participants as distinct/unique cases is to illustrate the differences in perspectives and experiences that the individual girl might have, even within the same school. Recognising and understanding this diversity will help to inform future initiatives which aim to increase PA in adolescent girls.
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