A design process of Web-GIS was tested by  for Iran during the development of a rudimentary road information system. Their development cycle took eight major activities starting with the requirement analysis and ending with on- going use and maintenance of the Web GIS system. They followed the procedural Waterfall SDLC model. The steps involved in the Waterfall model employed for the Iranian road information system included, determination of system requirements, conceptual design, hardware and software survey, database design and construction, acquisition of GIS hardware and software, web GIS system integration, application development, and finally, web GIS use and maintenance. According to  the Waterfall model wins when it comes to its simplicity, however it has the shortcomings of not being practical for large projects as it takes too long and places no emphasis on critical matters such as, testing and user involvement during the development process. RAD-based methodology for GISdevelopment focused on the interoperability of the application with web database applications, and varied innovations such as, a georeferenced abstraction, using SQL column data types to specify the user interface without warranting the need for a script . It followed the principles of code minimization, and shares authentication of existing web applications, and the ease of use of graphic editing functionalities. Nonetheless, the approach is a very broad approach to web-GISdevelopment. In addition, the order of precedence in which to apply the framework is not clearly defined .
In this paper we reported our observations and experience with current 3D GIS developments. The major 3D progress is observed in the area of data presentation. All traditional GIS vendors provide extended tools for 3D navigation, animation and exploration. However, many of these systems still are lacking full 3D geometry. OpenGIS specifications seem to have been adopted rapidly by DBMS, CAD, and GIS developers. In this order of thoughts, the understanding for GIS is changing. Instead of a monolith, desktop, individual system, GIS is becoming an integration of strong database management (ensuring data consistency and user control) and powerful editing and visualisation environments (inheriting advanced computer graphics achievements). At present, only the first step is made, i.e. the implementations focus mostly on the geometry. 2D topological representations and operations are intensively in the process of implementation. The third dimension with respect to topological issues is still in the hands of the researchers.
Development of an internet-based GIS for supplier selection of raw material in batik industry is presented in this paper. The spatial modelling offered by GIS is directly applicable to understanding the location of each supplier and, and its relationship to cost of delivery.SDLC methodology is used as a tool for GISdevelopment. Thus, architecture of information systems of the proposed GIS is described in the form of Use-Case Diagram, Context Diagram, and DFD; whereas, database design is described in the form of ERD. Alpha test and beta test are conducted in order to verify that the proposed GIS satisfies the specified requirements. The result of alpha testing with black-box testing indicates that all functions contained in the GIS for supplier selection of raw material in batik industry have been running properly, in accordance with the design. The result of beta testing was summarized as follows: (i) the proposed GIS has a good user interface and easy to understand; (ii) users can easily follow the instruction, i.e. login to the system, search data in the system; (iii) the system was capable of generating information required by the users, i.e. type of raw material provided by suppliers, as well as their location as shown in the map.
2. OGC compliant aspect – Standardization in GIS is very important for the interoperability. The purpose of the OGC compliance module to be chosen is to permit any user to take advantage of the standards that OGC has created. This important aspect should be able to provide a research direction that follows the OGC’s abstract and implementation specifications. The key to all of this is “interoperability”, that is the ability for different kinds of software to successfully interact with one another. An applicable example is to build a GeoSpatial web, similar in scope to the World Wide Web, where anyone just needs a Web Server, such as Apache or IIS, and then others can start interacting with their information. The advantage over high interoperability is that data exchange effort become less and ensure same data format could be accessed easily to any user. One of the best things the OGC has done is define a standard specification for data type and spatial operations. And beyond that OGC have made every effort to be as easy as possible to set up a standards compliant module, with no additional configuration needed to meet the open standards for GISdevelopment.
Abstract: With GIS gaining its foot as a decision support system, its use is gaining relevance, but high cost of commercial GIS software hinders the growth. On the other hand the Free/Open Source Software (FOSS) has opened up a gateway for many budget restricted institutions & users to venture into GISdevelopment. This research paper assesses the possibility of using Open Source GIS (OS GIS) based software’s to create a low cost GIS project and to publish the same over internet using free Web GIS software’s and services available. The project has been carried out to create a Tourist Information System model using OS GIS. It is found that OS GIS software like QGIS can provide practically all the GIS tools required for the GIS application like Tourist Information System. Mapserver and Google Map API can be used for web based GIS and query
Malaysian planning methodology has changed over the years as emphasis has shifted from producing plan, which described a state of affairs expected of some future date, to one which acknowledged the continuous and cyclical nature of planning. Thus planning should be based on the identification of needs and goals, the formulation and evaluation of alternative courses of action and monitoring of adopted programmes. Using examples from current Geographical Information Systems (GIS) implementation projects, this paper will discuss GISdevelopment and application for planning and monitoring of development in one of the Malaysian states, Negeri Sembilan. The development include a well-integrated and comprehensive database which is part of the important elements that could determine the ultimate success of GIS application in plan making. A distinctive feature of the Negeri Sembilan GIS (GIS9) that was developed for this purpose is that it is capable of operating on two distinct levels of planning – the state and district level. It is used to assist decision-making, taking into account among other things, the current scenarios of the proposed development, physical constraint and future impacts. The monitoring system that has been developed for both the state and district levels make it possible to evaluate the success of plan implementation. While the adopted data sharing framework is seen as a strong basis for extension of GISdevelopment as well as integration and coordination in all state and local agencies involved in ensuring the success of the implementation of state development plan. The implementation of GIS9 has also contributed to raising recognition of the importance of vertical integration of the developed and maintained datasets at regional and local levels. This paper will discuss the approach and overall strategies employed in the preparation of GIS9 database and development plans monitoring system for the Negeri Sembilan State.
Beyond this convergence of GIS and VRML or solid modelling, we can also embrace techniques which are currently browser oriented in order to solve planning and design problems. By taking our digital geographical data and placing it within a multi-user world we can, again, help planners plan and designers design. If an accurate, realistic context can be set the design/ planning process can become more digital and also more democratic in terms of its ability to be digitally distributed (over the WWW or via a Planning department’s Intranet). The web browser facilitates what we have been discussing in that it can enable GIS, VRML, Multi-user worlds when these applications are brought together we are presented with the ability to interact with objects and information in a more interactive manner than if the applications were in isolation. This holistic approach may result in an object-oriented database being created within a given urban environment, which populates the virtual space with both structures (plus or minus building textures) and attribute information. Avatars can then be introduced, as in the Virtual Design Arenas discussed in Section 2.5. Information could be obtained by ‘touching’ building polygons or by crossing into various land parcels where the data is served through a web hotlink or from an underlying data store. Whilst true virtual cities are really still in an embryonic stage, the ability to simulate urban interaction within a
Development planning and assessment require an effective approach to achieve the desired goals and objectives, evaluate alternative as well as control development programs that are in line with the current and future prospects. The advent of information technology encouraged the integration of planning assessment and GIS approach for sustainable development. GIS technology has long been applied in planning activities which essentially include plans formulation as well as development control. The Manual for preparing the various levels of plan has provided that all plans use GIS technology in plan formulation. This paper sets out the information requirement and GIS functionalities, which are relevant to various plans especially the regional plan for Lembah Klang region. The dynamic nature of planning and monitoring of development in Klang Valley, the fastest growing region in Peninsular Malaysia, apparently requires a ‘tool’ for continuous evaluation and analysis of the current environment as well as the capacity for future development. As such, a new concept of evaluation model named Integrated Land use Assessment (ILA) was introduced within the prior developed “Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) for Klang Valley Region” (AGISwlk). The introduction of ILA as an integrated land use planning approach that exploits the GIS analysis capabilities, supported by the use of planning support systems is seen as a good mechanism for monitoring urban development. The ILA model developed is implemented through incorporation with the use of the What if? PSS which is a scenario-based, policy-oriented planning support system that uses increasingly available GIS data. Apart from that, a user interface is also developed to ease the access and preparation of data from the AGISwlk database to run the ILA model and generate alternative scenarios. This paper will discuss the approach, developed model and underlying concept of ILA and emphasise on the case study concerning the use of ILA model for generating alternative development scenarios in Klang Valley. To conclude, several issues raised in the study will be discussed.
In a Geographic Information System (GIS), the transformation of geographical data (e.g. actual locations and physical characteristics of objects on the Earth surface) into geographic information dealt with complex series of process and procedures. In hydrologic modelling, streamflow is one of the main physical geographic apprearance within nature of hydrologic cycle. Rapid population growth, constructions, urbanization, and industrialization have increased impervious area causing hazardous impact towards rate of stormwater infiltrated into soil. Thus the overland flow in a post-development area becomes greater than the pre-development area. Within GIS, all stream networks, surface structures and its properties must be assigned and preserved with coordinate systems and map projections respectively known as georeferencing. Hence, any GIS based hydrologic applications need careful understanding in terms of map projections, coordinate systems and its transformations, scales and grid resolutions while entering spatial data. At present, there is still no unifying evidence available that provides a coherent and satisfactory explaination for the integration of the core GIS based saturation excess mechanisms into the streamflow generating process. Concepts of georeferencing need to be applied while performing GIS based saturation mechanism and to sustain the existing spatial properties of soil and land use. This study aims to visualize the effects of georeferencing system towards determine areas and total overland flow volume generated from Saturation Excess Overland Flow (SEOF) process using topographic wetness index (TWI) and antecedent soil-moisture conditions (AMC). Both factors are analysed by focusing on spatial object preservation techniques of conformal based Rectified Skew Orthomophic (RSO) and equidistance based Cassini-Soldner projections. This study is carried out at Sungai Pinang basin, located in North East coast of Penang Island, Malaysia. The areas and discharge from SEOF areas are determined and compared based on the map scale of 1 : 25 000. Digital layers of Sungai Pinang basin are constructed using Autodesk Map 2004 software, while Digital Elevation Models (DEM) construction and SEOF are determined using Spatial Analyst extension within ArcView GIS software. Local authorities could find the results are useful to evaluate the effectiveness of flood management control, sustainability for long-term development purposes, stream restoration, rehabilitation and relocation of construction projects.
The process of using GIS for urban planning will revolutionize urban land development, which is known to rely on the pen and paper method or obsolete data collection method. It can be concluded that GIS services are very important in mapping and evaluating crucial data that can really contribute to the development of any location. It would be prudent if any public organization were to take note of the immense scope GIS offers and are requested to devise programs that increase the net worth of their city.
Urban planning activities will continue to look for ways to hasten processing and transparency in all scope of work. In Kuala Lumpur, the need for faster and open planning approval process requires extensive and up to date data management. The City Hall may continue to integrate GIS as the core of the database system. Cooperation among various departments within City Hall can help reduce the development cost and time required to implement successful GIS. However, there is still a need to educate and change of thinking among planning staffs. In time, GIS database will soon be overwhelmed with the size of in-house data. Be it spatial or attribute, both need dedicated management approach in handling them. Data sharing must always be considered and encouraged given the interdependence of various departments within and beyond the City Hall. Without which, it will not achieve its main objective to create an efficient and transparent service to the public and GIS will remain as part of exhibition materials and tools for map production only.
The green city theory is centered on the historical ideals on how a city should function ecologically and environmentally. Going green must be a key part of city development plans, agendas. In this modern century where urbanization and industrialization have rapidly been consuming the green cover of the precious earth planet, resulting into severe adverse environmental impacts and fatal health problems. Green technology play an important role in enhancing urban environmental conditions and present a promising source of growth. But the main challenge in front of decision maker is to explore a technology that “steer urbanization from its current, unsustainable path towards healthy, greener cities that ensure food and nutrition security, decent work and income, and a clean environment for all their citizens.”
The applications in this section range from those narrowly focused on siting aquaculture to meet the specific needs of the organism and culture system to those in which satisfying aquaculture requirements as well as accommodating other uses plays a prominent role in zoning. The application of GIS for coastal aquaculture site selection was evaluated by Ross, Mendoza and Beveridge (1993) in a small (20 ha) bay in Scotland using salmonid cage culture as the example. They analyzed bathymetry, currents, and exposure in terms of predicted wave height. Water quality parameters, including dissolved oxygen, temperature and salinity also were considered, but the former two were not limiting at the site and not further analyzed. The point data were interpolated in various ways. A scoring system was used within each factor, but no formal weighing system among factors was applied. The total area suitable for cage culture was 1.26 ha in one portion of the bay. In comparison with the GIS results, a panel of experts suggested suitable locations in several places in the bay. The GIS results and expert opinions were broadly comparable. The authors point out a number of sources of error including inaccuracy of data, the choice of production functions (i.e., factors) selected as well as their temporal and spatial variability, the analytical approach adopted, and the restrictions imposed on the spatial model utilized. Finally, regarding the analytical approach, they show how the order of analysis of factors produces different results and thereby affects decision-making.
This study aims to build prediction model to predict the remaining life of heritage buildings in the future. Through develop a three dimensional (3D) virtual model of El-Shenawy Palace and to integrate this model into Geo-Information Neural System. InPhotogrammetric application, 3D model building started with the acquisition of the sufficient image data and was completed by constructing graphical data to produce more realistic and detailed environment of heritage building. After that, GIS is used as a good management tool for spatial data. It is used to prepare, organize, display and visualize spatial data, graphic and non-graphic data related to a heritage building were collected to integrate and update information about created 3D model and GIS infrastructure was built depending on database design. While ANN is used to build the prediction model using collected data by GIS. By this way GIS will become more intelligent as including modeling and simulation capabilities. This coupling can be used for many applications for the purposes of improved decision-making.
Web GIS technology enables the addition of several GIS functionality which also involve the integration of data from disparate sources that are been found on a wide range of computer application that are located within a network. Several types of architectures can be used in the development of web–based GIS application (Adnan et al, 2010). They include (i) 2-tier architectures and (ii) 3-tier architecture. The 2-tier architecture help preserve the user’s interface and vital functional part of the web application on the first tier and transfers the database and the functions that aid in data storage on the second tier while 3-tier architecture have both their interface and data storage functions dispersed differently on different tiers such that changes effected don’t affect the entire web environment.
The establishment of the database includes a series of process such as attributes data inputting, data selecting, data inputting. The system is related to various data types and format. In detail, the inputted data are categorized by ex- tensively data sources: including remote sensing images, scanned image data, data in Excel and other text format. The spatial database is stored as points, po- lylines, and polygons. The information of the decision making level is deter- mined when entering data into the system, the system with GIS integration, able to detect anomalies such as land overlaps, missing information or documents and notify when any reports are due or are coming up for review.
The development, weighting and combination in a GIS of the different parame- ters (land use, soil types, alteration thickness, slope, induced permeability and drainage density) influencing infiltration conducted to set up the map of the po- tential recharge areas of the aquifers of the Department of Aboisso. This map highlights fives classes of recharge areas (bad 20%, mediocre 19%, medium 45%, good 15% and very good 1%) with medium, good and very good classes domin- ance covering 61% of the study area. In the case of this study, the aquifers of the Department of Aboisso are so favorable to recharge whose relevant element is the land use allowing infiltration.
In this research, the nautical chart web based will be develop and disseminate as internet mapping. The users can access and updates the charts from time to time if there are new changes identified. Web GIS provides end-users a cost saving solutions to access up-to-date spatial datasets and information (Horanont et al., 2002 ; Painho et al., 2001). A web GIS is designed with tools and features that are common on web pages and it is therefore easy to understand for users familiar with the Internet (Nelson, 2002).
Scale is used here to refer to both the detail at which decision makers seek answers to questions in time and geographic terms (modelers will call this temporal and spatial scale respectively), and the corresponding detail at which data are available (see Matthews et al. 2001). For example, if flow and diversion records have historically been recorded on an average annual basis, a model addressing questions about daily management cannot be developed with any degree of accuracy. Nevertheless, if detailed analysis is sought despite a paucity of data, the question comes down to one of time and money. The modelers present at this initial meeting should spell out how much time and funding are needed to collect data at the level of detail necessary to respond to the questions asked. In water basins with seasonal and annual fluctuation in water supply and use, developing a representative record may take years. However, such investment may be warranted if the ultimate goal is development of a tool for management and enforcement. Since many adjudications take multiple decades, investment up front may provide the necessary tool to implement the decree once issued.