The modern sequence of glacier terminus positions is established using cloud-free Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images collected on August 6, 1986 (Landsat 5) and August 8, 2014 (Landsat 5). Rugged terrain in the study area means that each image must be orthorectified, which we accomplish using the digital elevation data- set. TM images have a pixel resolution of 28.5 m for the visible bands used in this study. Generating a time se- ries requires all images to be accurately co-registered to one another. To facilitate mapping the glacier bounda- ries, we produced a color-composite scene for each acquisition date, using bands 7 (short-wave infrared), 4 (near infrared) and 2 (blue). Each glacier boundary was manually digitized by a single operator. Manual digitizing by an experienced analyst is usually more accurate than automated methods for glaciers with heavy debris cover , such as Glaciers in Headwaters of the Enguri River. Combining the images with the baseline topographic map allows us to estimate the variability of Glaciers in 1960-1986-2014 years.
According to the data of 1911 the Kvishi glacier was the compound-valley largest glacier in the Dolra basin, with an area of 34.3 km 2 (Figure 3(b)). In 1960 the area of the Kvishi glacier was 19.1 km 2 . It was formed by joining several powerful glaciers and was a glacier of the compound-valley type. During the expedition in 1977 (R. Gobejishvili), the Kvishi glacier was already split and was consisted of four independent glaciers—Kvishi, Ladevali, Tsalgmili and Lakra. In the aerial image of 2014 it is well seen that there are already five glaciers there—Ladevali (Figure 3(c)), southern and northern Tsalgmili (Figure 3(d) and Figure 3(e)), Lakra (Figure 3(f)) and Kvishi (Figure 3(g)). This is caused by the fact that after 1977 due to the melting the Tsalgmili glacier was divided into two parts (northern Tsalgmili and the southern Tsalgmili). The ice tongues of the Kvishi basin glaciers are separated from each other by ~0.3 - 0.5 km and experience intensive retreating. It should be noted that if at early times the Kvishi glacier tongue was covered by a very thick loose material (this factor that has always had a large dead glacier), today the ice tongues of the individual glaciers are characterized by nearly pure surfaces.
According to K. Podozerskiy (1911) there were 25 glaciers with the area of 16.6 km 2 in the Klich River basin at the end of the 19th century. By the data of 1960 the number of the glaciers was 28 with the area of 9.5 km 2 . We should indicate that the distribution of the glaciers in the topographical map of 1960 and of K. Podozerskiy do not coincide with each other. The glaciers given in the Catalogue of K. Podozerskiy were not reflected in the data of 1960. It is related to the small glaciers or the snow spots, which have disappeared due to the intense retreat of the glaciers or they still are the snow spots (in the Achapara gorge and near the Klukhori Pass). By the data of 2014 the number of glaciers is 29 with the total area of 6.1 km 2 . It follows that after 1960 the total area of the glaciers has reduced by 35.6% and the number has increased by the 1 glacier.
The average rate of terminus recession of valley glaciers doubled in the north and more than tripled in the south in the 21st century in comparison with 1987–2001. Using the approximation by Jóhanesson et al. (1989) based on a ra- tio between glacier depth at ELA and mass balance near the glacier terminus, dynamic response times of Djankuat and Garabashi glaciers are estimated as 12–15 and 17–18 years respectively. The observed glacier recession and its accel- eration in the last decade detected from the changes in the rate of snout retreat are consistent with the positive trend in summer air temperatures since the 1990s. Strong positive anomalies of 2 ◦ C in 2006 and 2010 (Fig. 6a) contributed to enhanced glacier melt (Fig. 7). The exceptional heat wave which developed over European Russia in July–August 2010 (Grumm, 2011) was as detrimental for the state of the Cau- casus glaciers as the 2003 western European heat wave was for the glaciers in the Alps (Haeberli et al., 2007). The mass balance records for Garabashi show that in the summer of 2010 alone, the glacier lost 2.52 m w.e., close to the record loss of 2.58 m w.e. in the El Niño year of 1998 and nearly twice the long-term average (1984 to current). A strong de- cline in cumulative mass balance (Fig. 7) occurred after 1998 despite a 20 % increase in precipitation (Fig. 6b) north of MCR (WGMS, 2013).
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Abstract. The glacier coverage in the Caucasus Mountains underwent considerable changes during the last decades. In some regions, the observed reduction in glacier area is com- parable to those in the European Alps and the extent of supra-glacial debris increased on many glaciers. Only a few glaciers in the Caucasus are monitored on a regular basis, while for most areas no continuous field measurements are available. In this study, regional differences of the conditions for glacier melt with a special focus on debris covered glacier tongues in the well-studied Adyl-su basin on the northern slope of the Caucasus Mountains (Russia) is compared with the Zopkhito basin which has similar characteristics but is located on the southern slope in Georgia. The paper focuses on the effect of supra-glacial debris cover on glacier summer melt. There are systematic differences in the distribution and increase of the debris cover on the glaciers of the two basins. In the Adyl-su basin an extensive debris cover on the glacier tongues is common, however, only those glacier tongues that are positioned at the lowest elevations in the Zopkhito basin show a considerable extent of supra-glacial debris. The ob- served increase in debris cover is considerably stronger in the north. Field experiments show that thermal resistance of the debris cover in both basins is somewhat higher than in other glaciated regions of the world, but there is also a significant difference between the two regions. A simple ablation model accounting for the effect of debris cover on ice melt shows that melt rates are considerably higher in the northern basin despite a wider debris distribution. This difference between
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tory (RGI), presents these together as one main region (Pf- effer et al., 2014). In the RGI version 3.2, the Greater Cau- casus region database contains 1303 glaciers, with a total area of 1100.7 km 2 . Although this version omitted glaciers in the eastern Caucasus section (Shahgedanova et al., 2014), these omissions have been partly rectified by adding nominal glaciers from the WGI-XF (Cogley, 2009). The 339 added glaciers, with date ranges 1965–1976, cover 155 km 2 and in- clude some in the central Caucasus section (in the Svaneti and Lechkhumi sub-ranges in the Georgian Caucasus) and in the Lesser Caucasus in Armenia (Arendt et al., 2015). Af- ter these corrections, the RGI 4.0 and 5.0 version databases contain 1637 glaciers, with a total area of 1255.6 km 2 . The GLIMS database (http://www.glims.org) identifies (based on 2005–2007 ASTER imagery) in excess of 1300 glaciers with a combined area of 1354 km 2 . These previous inventories, executed by semi-automatic digitizing also do not consider the separate Georgian Caucasus glaciers composition.
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The reduction of glaciers of Mulkhura River basin over the last century is revised in the paper. Mulkhura River basin is located on the southern slope of the central Caucasus from the Mount Ba- shili (4148 m) to the Mount Gistola (4860 m) and it is the main center of the contemporary glacia- tions in the Enguri River basin. The percentage reduction of areas of compound valley glaciers with the relation of air temperature and atmospheric precipitation is given in this paper. Also the paper considered the dynamics of the Tviberi and Tsaneri glaciers, which were the Georgia’s largest glaciers at the end of the 19th century. We used the catalog of the glaciers of the southern slope of the Caucasus compiled in 1911 by a well-known researcher of the Caucasus K. Podozers- kiy, which was drawn up on the basis of the 19th century maps. In order to identify the area and number of the glaciers of the 60s of the 20th century, we used the work of R. Gobejishvili—the Georgian glaciologist of the 20th-21st centuries, composed on the basis of 1:50,000 scale topo- graphic maps of 1960. The data of 2014 have been obtained by the Landsat aerial images of L8 OLI/TIRS (Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor) taken in August 2014. In the mentioned study, except of the old topographic maps and aerial images, we used the climate in- formation especially air temperature and precipitation data of the Mestia weather station.
Abstract. There have been numerous studies of glaciers in the Greater Caucasus, but none that have generated a modern glacier database across the whole mountain range. Here, we present an updated and expanded glacier inventory at three time periods (1960, 1986, 2014) covering the entire Greater Caucasus. Large-scale topographic maps and satellite im- agery (Corona, Landsat 5, Landsat 8 and ASTER) were used to conduct a remote-sensing survey of glacier change, and the 30 m resolution Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM; 17 November 2011) was used to determine the aspect, slope and height distribution of glaciers. Glacier margins were mapped manually and reveal that in 1960 the mountains contained 2349 glaciers with a total glacier sur- face area of 1674.9 ± 70.4 km 2 . By 1986, glacier surface area had decreased to 1482.1 ± 64.4 km 2 (2209 glaciers), and by 2014 to 1193.2 ± 54.0 km 2 (2020 glaciers). This represents a 28.8 ± 4.4 % (481 ± 21.2 km 2 ) or 0.53 % yr −1 reduction in total glacier surface area between 1960 and 2014 and an in- crease in the rate of area loss since 1986 (0.69 % yr −1 ) com- pared to 1960–1986 (0.44 % yr −1 ). Glacier mean size de- creased from 0.70 km 2 in 1960 to 0.66 km 2 in 1986 and to 0.57 km 2 in 2014. This new glacier inventory has been sub- mitted to the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) database and can be used as a basis data set for future studies.
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It is known that due to climate change, an intensive melting of glaciers is underway in every region of the con- temporary world. The current glacial processes in the Caucasus, particularly, in Georgia, are one of the evi- dences of it. In general, in most cases as a result of glaciers melting, their morphological types, expositions and elevations above sea level fluctuate. In some cases, glaciers number increases in parallel with the reduction in their area. That was typical for the glaciers of the Nenskra and Nakra River basins in the years of 1911-1960, when the glaciers area had reduced from 50.54 sq. km to 48.62 sq. km, and their number had increased from 54 to 75 glaciers. In the same period in the Nakra basin, the glaciers area had reduced from 20.24 sq. km to 18.49 sq. km, and their number had increased from 26 to 31 (Figure 8). In the mentioned period of time, there was a same situation for almost all of glacial basins of the southern slope of the Great Caucasus.
ABSTRACT: Iran has always been considered by colonists due to its strategic position. The aim of Tsarist Russia according to Peter the Great’s willing was to reach the warm waters and to achieve this goal they needed to cross Iran. By the invasion of Russia to Caucasus territories of Iran, a long and devastating war began between Iran and Russia which lasted ten years. Russo-Iranian wars and treaties of Golestan and Turkmanchay are accounted as miserable and dark and blurred pages of Iran’s history. These wars that occurred in the time of Fath Ali Shah Qajar the incompetent king of Iran had nothing consequently but unhappiness and destruction for Iran. Loss of fertile and populous territories like South Caucasus, Georgia and Armenia, however, was irreparable in terms of economic and territorial, but was tolerable compared to other provisions of Convention of Turkmanchay such as territorial restriction of Iran and dispossession of Iran in the Caspian Sea and establishment of consular jurisdiction about Russian nationals which brought a severe damage to Iran’s political and economic independence. A study of more than two decades of experience in first and second Russo-Iranian wars which cost very heavily for Iran could provide useful lessons for the development history and historical-political insight of the country. Since these wars and treaties after them had a very important impact on Iranians and the future of Iran, the aim of this paper is to review the social and political consequences of war between Iran and Russia. The research method is descriptive-analytical. The results indicated that awareness of Iranian nation about their own ability to deal with the aliens and unfolding the power of people and the Constitutional Revolution, entry of Shiite clerics into the arena of politics and changing lifestyles of Iranians are of the most important political, social and cultural consequences of Russo-Iranian wars.
Abstract. The Enguri dam and water reservoir, nested in the southwestern Caucasus (Republic of Georgia), are sur- rounded by steep mountain slopes. At a distance of 2.5 km from the dam, a mountain ridge along the reservoir is af- fected by active deformations with a double vergence. The western slope, directly facing the reservoir, has deforma- tions that affect a subaerial area of 1.2 km 2 . The head scarp affects the Jvari–Khaishi–Mestia main road with offsets of man-made features that indicate slip rates of 2–9 cm yr −1 . Static, pseudostatic and Newmark analyses, based on field and seismological data, suggest different unstable rock vol- umes based on the environmental conditions. An important effect of variation of the water table is shown, as well as the possible destabilization of the slope following seismic shak- ing, compatible with the expected local peak ground accel- eration. This worst-case scenario corresponds to an unstable volume on the order of up to 48 ± 12 × 10 6 m 3 . The opposite, eastern slope of the same mountain ridge is also affected by wide deformation affecting an area of 0.37 km 2 . Here, field data indicate 2–5 cm yr −1 of slip rates. All this evidence is interpreted as resulting from two similar landslides, whose possible causes are discussed, comprising seismic triggering, mountain rapid uplift, river erosion and lake variations.
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From the first sight, results of our panel data and of the time-series approach contradict each other, because our time-series numbers are almost systematically lower. This applies especially to the individual country estimates for Georgia, Armenia, and Kazakhstan. For the region as a whole the numbers differ quite significantly as well. However, we should take into account the conventionally accepted fact that time-series estimates are almost always systematically lower than their panel counterparts (Feldstein and Horioka, 1980). Keeping this assumption in mind, the contradiction is not fatal. In fact, it turns out, our differential is basically in parallel with what previous research would predict. In addition, the larger long-run FMOLS coefficient and the smaller time-series estimate hint at the existence of a powerful long-run solvency constraint, which does not carry as much weight in the short-run. Given the non-stationary nature of both variables and the presence of endogeneity in our model set-up, we would personally prefer and recommend the panel-data estimates over the times-series ones.
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cer. At the same time they are providing information about risks of this decease and about the ways of avoiding breast cancer. The director of First Online Market Company stated that he had attempts to have collaboration with one of the HEI in Georgia when his company was planning to enter the market. He wanted to explore the market and to find out the steps of entering the market, but he was demanded to pay 6000 GEL for this research, which was a big amount of money for their start-up business. Therefore, the coopera- tion with higher education institution could not take place. As for the third question about frequency of the collabora- tion his answer was “it happened once”. Avon Georgia, VTB bank, World Vision Georgia and Bank of Republic answered that their collaboration with institutions happens regularly. Even the second half of the companies claiming to have cooperation with HEIs in Georgia had negative answer for question number four. They have never spent any amount of funds on receiving service from HEIs (see the Table 1.3.). Consequently, these companies could name the percent- age share of their income spent by them on collaboration with HEIs.
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The state is blessed with a varied topography that is an unusual mix of rugged mountains, green hills, holy caves and rocky deep water fjords. It is said to be a treasure house of geological information due to the diversity of its geographical features. It represents century’s old heritage of culture, religion, language, traditions, architecture and art forms. All these provide immense potential for developing a fabulous variety of tourist attractions. Its strategic location within India enhances the scope of dual or multiple destinations tour package promotions. Overall the photographic and verbal stimuli in promotions amplify the geography, nature, culture, life and historical importance of the place. Moreover, the tourist brochures assure world-class hotel facilities, transportation, communication and site-seeing arrangements. At present, the State receives more than half of its guests as pilgrims.
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Post-Miocene tectogenesis was strong in the folded trip of the Greater Caucasus, and the platform massif activity was mainly expressed in vertical (epirogenetic) uplifting, accompanied by small faults and wavy folds of local importance.By the influence of ascending movements the sea finally leaves Zemo Imereti Plateau and adjoining districts and enters the subaerial development stage. Maruashvili  considers the Attic or Pre-Kimmeridgian mountain forming phaseas the beginning of thelatter. At the same time, the last manifestation of magmatic activity should have been occurred, which resulted in formation of Goradziri, Perevisa and other lacolith-extrusions. This period is related to the formation of central types of structures (volcanic apparatus, intrusives of isometric forms) we have identified with structural decoding of satellite imagery .
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member state” is particularly weak in its governance. For example, jump to free trade or customs union, because existing protection and customs procedures are very corrupt and so should be scrapped, since otherwise real economic development is stunted. Similarly, if the national currency is poorly managed, jump unilaterally into the euro zone (as Kosovo and Montenegro already, or following the Panama and Puerto Rico example, long successfully part of the dollar area). The model also takes advantage of the EU’s present build up of its Pillar II and III competences, for military security (viz. Rapid Reaction Force now being prepared) and police, justice and combating of cross-frontier crime. Accordingly the EU may become capable soon of operational deployment in these new domains of policy. Finally, the model would also comprise special institutional relationships, maximising the links with the many different EU institutions and agencies. Such ideas are ahead of existing policies, but are entirely consistent with the EU’s actual or potential capacities. The EU needs a formula that would honour its pledges to work for real integration for Balkan countries which are not yet accession candidates. The Stabilisation and Association Agreement (SAA) concept has been proposed by the Commission, and negotiations begin for a SAA with Macedonia, whereas a feasibility study for another SAA has been undertaken for Albania. The content of SAA policy so far may be considered too timid, and failing to reflect the new or emerging development of Pillar II and III policies, and even for Pillar I proposing extremely distant time- horizons (such as 10 years for free trade) and in completely ignoring euro-linked monetary policy questions (of the type argued in the preceding paragraph). However they at least represent some move in the direction of offering a more substantial integration path for countries a long way away from orthodox convergence. For next official policy moves, the SAA mechanism could be offered to South Caucasus states, whose wish to accentuate their European vocation was sufficiently credible.
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Pavo, Roswell, Toccoa, and Tallapoosa. Two of the girls were in business offices, one a kindergartener, and eleven were teaching and making between thirty and sixty dollars a month. 65 Wey supported the cause of the Student Aid Committee and requested more donations from the GAFWC by arguing that on the “back of every loan is a story of struggle and deprivation and payments on loans are small, and often delayed because Georgia does not pay promptly her teachers salaries.” 66 The Student Aid Committee kept meticulous records of loans that had been made and what had been repaid. Figures 1 through 3 show detailed accounting of loans made through 1925. Though the repayment of the loans may have been slow, the majority of the girls did repay what they had received from the Student Aid committee. The girls were very appreciative of the opportunity they were given. One specific example was detailed in an article in the Atlanta Constitution in 1912 which showed the far reaching influence of the loaned money. The article presented a story of a girl who borrowed money from the committee for a year's training at the State Normal School to perfect her work in the rural schools of her county. Once she completed her training, she took charge of the country day school and at the end of the year had made enough money to pay her loan back in full. She started a night school for boys who could not attend during the day and at the end of her second year, she accumulated $75 which she gave to the Student Aid Fund because she wanted to help others as she has been helped. She continued to do community work which has brought
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tent and surface-elevation change. The ClimateWNA v4.72 program (http://www.genetics.forestry.ubc.ca/cfcg/ ClimateWNA/ClimateWNA.html) interpolates and extracts climate data for specific locations for western North Amer- ica, relying on downscaled PRISM (Daly et al., 2002) and historical data (Mitchell and Jones, 2005) to generate monthly time series of temperature and precipitation. For details, refer to Wang et al. (2012). We use averaged Cli- mateWNA output for points along the centerline every 100 m in elevation for all 33 glaciers (n = 212) to estimate Cariboo Mountains glacier climatology, and for glaciers of the Castle Creek region (n = 47), Quanstrom region (n = 62), and Pre- mier region (n = 103) to estimate subregional climatology. We compare monthly temperature precipitation data from ClimateWNA with measurements at Castle Creek Glacier (Déry et al., 2010) for 2009–2011 to estimate the ability of ClimateWNA to represent conditions at high elevations in the Cariboo Mountains.
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for the Gilbert chron, which still may be considered to be poorly studied. We present here a detailed paleomagnetic, rock-magnetic, and Thellier paleointensity study of an Ar- Ar dated lava ﬂow succession located in southern Georgia. A previous study (Camps et al., 1996) revealed that several consecutive lava ﬂows record an intermediate polarity di- rection at the base of the section followed by a thick reverse polarity zone. Here, we try to extend the paleomagnetic record by sampling some parallel sequences that may be un- ambiguously correlated to the original proﬁle. In addition, we succeeded in estimating the absolute paleointensity—a decisive parameter in furthering our understanding of the ﬁeld behavior during and around reversals and excursions.
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Abstract. In order to monitor the changes of the glaciers in the Gongga Mountain region on the south-eastern mar- gin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, 74 monsoonal temperate glaciers were investigated by comparing the Chinese Glacier Inventory (CGI), recorded in the 1960s, with Landsat MSS in 1974, Landsat TM in 1989, 1994, 2005, and ASTER data in 2009. The remote sensing data have been applied to map the glacier outline by threshold ratio images (TM4/TM5). Moreover, the glacier outlines were verified by GPS survey on four large glaciers (Hailuogou (HLG), Mozigou (MZG), Yanzigou (YZG), and Dagongba (DGB)) in 2009. The results show that the area dominated by the 74 glaciers has shrunk by 11.3 % (29.2 km 2 ) from 1966 to 2009. Glacier area on the eastern and western slopes of the Gongga Mountains de- creased by 9.8 % and 14.6 % since 1966, respectively. The loss in glacier area and length is, respectively, 0.8 km 2 and 1146.4 m for the HLG Glacier, 2.1 km 2 and 501.8 m for the MZG Glacier, 0.8 km 2 and 724.8 m for the YZG Glacier, and 2.4 km 2 and 1002.3 m for the DGB Glacier. Decades of cli- mate records obtained from three meteorological stations in the Gongga Mountains were analyzed to evaluate the im- pact of the temperature and precipitation on glacier retreat. The mean annual temperatures over the eastern and west- ern slopes of the Gongga Mountains have been increasing by 0.34 K decade −1 and 0.24 K decade −1 (1988–2009), re- spectively. Moreover, mean annual precipitation has only in- creased by 1 % in the past 50 yr. The increasing amount of precipitation could not compensate for the glacier mass loss due to the temperature increase in the Gongga Mountains. This suggests that the warming of the climate is probably
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