As the 1980s evolved, the EU began to increase its focus on telecommunications as a policy area of strategic priority. In its policy statements on telecommunications, the European Commission took significant pains to point out to Member States the challenges presented by the EU’s main external economic competitors, the US and Japan, in a changing, increasingly globally competitive, sector to which Member States needed to respond (European Commission 1984). By contrast, the Commission showed political astuteness in highlighting to Member States opportunities to be gained through utilizing the EU institutional context to effect necessary change in telecommunications. The EU was at the time pursuing the wider project of the Single European Market whose broad objectives, the Commission argued, were co-terminus with changes necessary in telecommunications. Key policy proposals were thus presented in a landmark Green Paper (European Commission 1987), effectively beginning a process of significant transfer of sovereignty from the national to the EU level in telecommunications. As a consequence, the character of telecommunications governance in Europe has been very significantly ‘EU-ised’. Whilst the Southern states of the EU (France, Spain and Italy principally) as well as some of its smaller states, were initially reticent about adopting the reform of telecommunications along the lines proposed by the Commission, by the early 1990s all EU Member States had accepted neo-liberal arguments, propounded forcefully by increasingly commercially oriented telecommunications service providers, multinational business users and key powerful EU States such as the UK, Germany, and eventually, France (see Humphreys and Simpson 2005). The Commission’s policy persuasiveness in its ‘domestic’ context was soon to be replicated in its efforts to secure a united EU negotiating front in telecommunications at the global institutional level.
(to act) that arise from broader international structures in terms of both social and material content. For Jørgensen (2009: 12) this entails examination of the: 1) international distribution of power 2) international interaction and social structures 3) the influence of other governments (and organizations) and 4) the international cultural environment. When analysing telecommunications and Internet governance these are important factors, not least because these two sub-sectors of communications, and the EU’s role within them, have evolved under different actor constellations, with the interaction between the EU and US important in both. Local, national and global conditions and pressures also exist within different, though in part overlapping, timeframes in both cases. There are contrasting global institutions often underpinned by contested governance principles in each case. Within telecommunications, for example, the movement away from the embedded liberalism of the 1970s towards the promotion of neoliberal ideas in the global political economy in the 1980s, of which the EU (through the European Commission) was a key protagonist, meant that it was ideally placed to influence the institutions that would govern world trade (WTO) and indeed to take a prominent position (alongside the US), in constructing, promoting and successfully embedding its own governance goals for the telecommunications sector internally and outwards through the WTO.
Ramona R. Rush is a professor/dean emerita of communications at the University of Kentucky in Lexington. She has served as an administrator, professor and researcher in mass and international communications at several universities, including the University of Kentucky where she was founding dean of the College of Communications in 1977. Carol Oukrop, director/professor emerita, taught journalism and mass communications at Kansas State University in Manhattan for 33 years, serving as director of the A.Q. Miller School of Journalism and Mass Communications 1986-1997. She was also on the Women’s Studies faculty at Kansas State. Both authors retired from their universities in 2002. Katharine Sarikakis is a Senior Lecturer at Coventry University in England. Her research interests are in the field of globalcommunications and policy, gender and citizenship as well as issues of equality in doctoral education.
A comparison of the three developed satellite models has been made for developing earth geographical cover- age for satellite Globalcommunications. We believe that an optimization technique can approximate this asym- metric variation very effectively in the instantaneous arc lengths and this is exactly an interesting point for further investigation. System performances such as global cover- age decisions, low handover rate requirements, accept- able transmission delay etc. need further research.
TVCom. A consulting group with 20 employees located in Belgrade, Serbia, TVCom uses Cisco Unified CRM Connector in its inbound and outbound call centers to deliver personalized customer care (customer support, telemarketing, and telesales services) to Fortune 100 companies. TVCom uses Cisco Unified Communications and Smart Business Communications to provide reliable, efficient, and personalized support to tens of thousands of callers. “Skills-based routing was a key requirement,” explains IT Manager Marija Savic. “We can route each call to the agent most qualified to answer a question. This feature was critical because we have a limited number of agents, all of whom are doing several jobs at once.” TVCom deployed its Cisco solution with future growth in mind, and the company is already making plans to adapt its scalable network to support new applications and clients.
1. This licence, granted under section 61 (1) of the Communications Act 2006 (the “Act”) on [ ] (the “Date of Issue”) by the Minister to [ ] (“the Licensee”), authorises the Licensee to establish and use the Earth Station or Stations described in the Annex for the purpose of providing a link by means of radiocommunications between such Earth Station or Stations and any satellites described in the Annex through the use of the frequency bands specified in the Annex from the location or locations identified in the Annex SUBJECT TO THE TERMS OF THIS LICENCE.
“In times of global recession it is those organisations who have good governance practices in place (IT being a major enabler and expense item in most organisations), and good HR practices in terms of recruiting, developing and retaining IT skills (that) will have major advantages over those who don‟t.”
Given the difficulties involved in establishing line-based communications, and in light of the fact that British forces from November 1916 held a 90 mile sector of the frontline, it would be reasonable to assume that wireless played a prominent role in the army’s communications system. However, apart from its use for the early warning anti-aircraft system developed in 1916-17, the full potential of wireless was not exploited by British forces in Macedonia. This was largely on account of the limited number of wireless sets and trained operators available. Consequently, wireless was regarded as a secondary means of communication, just as it was on the Western Front until 1918, when the transition from static to more mobile warfare exposed the limitations of line-based communications in such operations. 180 This point was illustrated in February 1918 when the airline routes between GHQ and corps headquarters were badly damaged by a severe snow storm. Wireless became the principal means of communication during the three month period the lines were being repaired. Once the line system was fully restored, however, wireless dropped out of use completely. 181
communications theory, or the like. Remember, though, that you need to get your topic approved by me, and that the choice of your topic (how relevant it is to your audience's needs and the purpose of this class, how engaging and interesting it is) has everything to do with the success of your presentation.
For USTTI scholars, the free exchange of ideas and experiences with professionals from the United States and around the world is critical to maximizing the beneﬁts of USTTI training. This exchange of information begins prior to each training course, with an important orientation session hosted by the USTTI staff in Washington, DC. USTTI orientations are mandatory and typically held on the last business day prior to the ﬁrst day of training. During these one- day orientation sessions, USTTI scholars familiarize themselves with topics that may be addressed in training, receive introductory materials, and acquaint themselves with fellow participants. In addition, USTTI orientation sessions often include discussions about communications policy in the U.S. led by government ofﬁcials, academics, and policy experts from the business or legal community. Importantly, these meetings provide an excellent forum for the exchange of professional, cultural and technical information that is critical for the fulﬁllment of training objectives.
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, originally Group Special Mobile), is a standard set developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe technologies for second generation (or "2G") digital cellular networks. Developed as a replacement for first generation analog cellular networks, the GSM standard originally described a digital, circuit switched network optimized for full duplex voice telephony. The standard was expanded over time to include first circuit switched data transport, then packet data transport via GPRS. Packet data transmission speeds were later increased via EDGE. The GSM standard is succeeded by the third generation (or "3G") UMTS standard developed by the 3GPP. GSM networks will evolve further as they