The GLOBALFASHION MANAGEMENT EXECUTIVE MBA is PART-TIME and is the only fashion management and design MBA compatible with professional commitments. It alternates classes at IFM in Paris with intensive seminars in Paris, London, New York and Hong Kong / Shanghai.
The emergence of the “globalfashion industry” is a story often told by those who are either for or against globalization and the neoliberalization of trade. Economists hailed the emergence of a new global era of economic progress, where the unencumbered movement and global flows of capital, people, goods, and ideas uninhibited by national barriers and protective state policies produced progressive and competitive environments of economic freedom and natural selection. 1 Their anti-neoliberal critics, however, pointed to the path of destruction left behind, where a growing anti-sweatshop movement made visible the implicating threads between multinational design corporations and the exploitation of female garment workers in sweatshops and factories of the Global South. The arguments on both sides divide the world into North and South, exploiter and exploited, CEO and sweatshop worker, producer and consumer, seeking to answer who benefits in an end-sum analysis. While their analyses may depict the causes and consequences of globalization in large-scale historical transformation, their arguments obscure the motives for why individuals aspire to work in the industry and what they imagine it to be, and how new workers continually shape and change the nature of the globalfashion industry.
As well as the tidal inflows of new fashion brands, there has been a steadily increasing outflow of fashion aspirants. For instance, in 2012, the well-known Chinese brand Boisedeng purchased a prestigious site near Mayfair in London for a flagship retail store.4 Boisedeng moved quickly to activate their strategy of establishing a brand platform in the UK and Europe by forming a partnership with iconic English football club Tottenham Hotspur (Mathews 2013). However it is mostly Chinese students who have made their way to globalfashion capitals like London to gain qualifications from prestigious institutions. Upon their return to China they are in the unique position of being able to focus upon building brands in their own domestic market, as well as participating in international fashion week events. Unlike their contemporaries from the 1980s and 1990s, for whom international education was almost impossible, they have been fast-tracked and must now keep up with the rapid pace of the Chinese economy. Their capacity to do this is advanced by substantial numbers of Chinese tourists who are able to travel to Europe in pursuit of cultural experiences they have previously not had access to. Their travels invariably take them to European luxury retailers where they are able to purchase products without incurring the hefty value-added tax they would otherwise be charged in China. However upon their return to China, they carry with them new expectations of quality and service from fashion brands, and new standards for creative producers to aspire to.
In this article I contend that by emphasising the economic flows of fashion instead of the aesthetic field, an alternate view of a fashion system emerges that focusses on the increasing importance of Chinese fashion design to the domestic economy, while an intensifying presence on the global stage is re-creating China’s importance as a production powerhouse as well as a design force. The consumption of fashion is understood to be fundamentally ‘a cultural practice where clothes function as symbols that indicate social markers such as status, group allegiance, personality and fashionability.’ 1 Yet new applications of digital media have changed the field irrevocably and the concept of fashion is now made acutely manifest in the sociologist Zygmunt Bauman’s depiction of liquid modernity. 2 In China new centres of fashion are emerging in sites of increased financial activity, which in turn contradicts the hegemonic supremacy of traditional European fashion capitals. In this context, digital media allows Chinese designers and consumers alike to respond quickly. Traditionally profits were repatriated to Europe, yet increasingly financial capital now flows in reverse to Asia for the benefit of Asian investors. In this way, China’s reputation as manufacturer to the world is being reshaped by a political mandate that underpins a new creative and financial impetus that challenges established models, offering China as a future powerhouse of globalfashion design.
extensive spaces of retail, from individual boutiques to the large department stores of Blomingdales and Selfridges. Lastly, the globalfashion media – with historically famous magazines like Vogue, Harper’s Bazaar, Elle and Marie Claire and a range of design, advertising, branding, internet, social media and now cable TV channels. The fashion media are not simply ‘mediators’ of a pre-formed set of products, but engage in highly complex feedback looping and consumer dialogue, setting and consolidating trends, forging tastes and values, making explicit and enduring associations between styles and class or celebrity, and creating the frameworks through which the fashion designers themselves explore, experience and relay the crucial and quite unique fashion ‘sensibility’, where great designers can almost smell the emerging zeitgeist of contemporaneity. With recent developments in the integration of haute couture into mainstream markets, the low market production of affordable luxury (Zara, Benetton), the proletarianisation of aristocratic chic
The network of fashion ecosystem identified works hand in hand in the globalised fashion. Each fashion organ in the globalised system depends on each other and create huge employment avenue for people. Globalised fashion trade has its own negative tendencies. Fernie (2003) cautions against the impression held that globalfashion is superior to traditional way. He pointed out that, that is not necessarily the case, though it has boosted world trade by blurring continents into one unit with a competitive advantage of reaching for more clients than before. Globalisation has created an open market for businesses to reach out to more clients to boost trade. As the potential markets expand, there would obviously be increase in demand ofproducts or services, which the manual production without the use of industrialised mechanisms could support. Reasons for the low trade impact in the fashion industry in Africa is largely due to low industrialisation and application of modern technologies, especially, in the production process; and policy implementation. With global trade force, the fashion industry keeps expanding at a faster rate. The 2005 Mintel Report as cited in Masson, Iosif, MacKerron and Fernie (2007) considers the European mass fashion retail market as the second largest in the world with growth exceeding that of the market as a whole. It supported this statement with examples, using the success story of UK‘s clothing sales that reached £37 billion in 2004, a 20 per cent increase over year 2000. Total exports for global clothing and textiles in 2007 were valued at US$628.4 billion, and positioned the UK fashion sector as one of the most traded manufactured products in the world (Moris & Barnes, 2009). This demonstrates the viability of globalised trade in placing businesses at a competitive advantage.
Experiential marketing according to Pine and Gilmore (1998: 97) is configured through theatrical acts that showcase these experiences. For Hackley and Tiwsakul (2006: 63-75) there is a link between “the role that entertainment marketing techniques may play in facilitating consumer self-concepts and identity formation through brand exposure within dramatic portrayals of characters and lifestyles”. Michault (2009) and Michauld (2015) affirm that the concept of luxury has lost the sense of authenticity and therefore it pursues hyper- reality and is oriented towards experiences, luring consumers with interactivity, connectivity and a great creativity in terms of image. Chanel, Dior and Louis Vuitton have been pioneers in introducing the fashion film notion in collaboration with famous directors. But besides H&M, which has been using audiovisual commercials since 2006, no other mass market fashion brand has used fashion film until 2013 or 2014. Fashion films are definitely a typical branding tool for luxury brands and we will explain the reason why.
Clothing is a historical necessity. Fashion, for Marx, though, by contrast, is associated with the class stratifications of the capitalist mode of production. Emblematic of class, it is deployed by Marx metaphorically. Discussing the first French Republic, he notes how it ‘was only a new evening dress for the old bourgeois society.’ 10 Fashion is dissimulation, a disguise that changes the surface, but not the underlying situation. The next generation of power- mongers, French politicians establishing modern bourgeois society from 1789 until 1814, did likewise, according to Marx, copying the copiers, shrouding themselves in ‘the austere classical traditions of the Roman Republic’, in ‘Roman costume’ and ‘Roman slogans’. 11
Europe and foreign languages are so to speak imbedded in the professional education. The internships will be accepted as compulsory internship and will be documented by means of a “Europass”. Internship providers are exclusively prime quality European textile companies as well as European Fashion designers. At the same time students deal with the manifold chances of the EU, they learn how to cope with the EU-bureaucracy, they learn how to contact a company, and they train and practice their managerial abilities by extending their horizon in an impressive way. The learning of languages as well as the professional education is disengaged from the educational context while in return the school benefits via relevant feedback from the markets. If necessary the education can be readjusted based on this feedback.
Despite the wide potential of social media, the fashion industry is resistant when it comes to its use. In fact, in the fashion industry Internet technologies are used as a distribution channel rather than as a communication device. Hines and Bruce (2007) state that fashion retailers use the Web primarily to display the most up-to-date collections and sell them online directly to their customers, and that despite the continued speculation about the limited abilities and disadvantages of online distribution (some designers and brands do not enable international online purchases because of the high cost in case of reclamation and eventual complication with intercontinental transport), the volume of clothes, accessories and foot wear sold via the Internet has grown steadily – from 25 to 30 per cent a year since 2000. As online purchasing has become a profitable distribution channel, the central attention of fashion marketers and PR executives is paid to corporate websites where online shopping is concentrated. Within the fashion industry, social media devices are used sporadically; mostly as an additional tool, promoting official websites and supporting public knowledge of the brand. Hines and Bruce (2007) criticize this practice and note that fashion marketers should be aware of the
All in all, the interdependence between the demand of fashion industry and the function of fashion education is of great significance for current economic growth due to the tight interaction between those two. The function of fashion education has strong impulse on the development of fashion industry. Accord- ing to the history of fashion, fashion’s ability of creativity is the soul of its own development. And fashion education therefore cultivates talents who have crea- tivity and originality, as well as other resources which are widely spread accord- ing to the industrial chain of fashion development. The counselling function of fashion education together with others paves the further way of fashion industri- al development by providing then with professional strategy and research plan, thus promoting the efficacy of fashion counsel. That is the reason why the pio- neers who devote themselves in the exploit of domesticated fashion market gain assistance and then make breakthrough mainly by the combination of fashion industry and education. All these functions are well equipped, and the key of industrial development lies basically in the abilities of precisely seizing the op- portunities, predicting the trend of fashion. During the developing process of fashion industry, the overall functions of fashion education provide huge sup- port for the industry, and gradually magnify the penetration of fashion educa- tion in every aspect of market and society. Therefore, its derived functions
The findings in this paper suggest that fashion plays a significant role in flourishing among the six participants. The results generated questions requiring further exploration, including: is the manner in which my participants intentionally manage their identity relevant to other groups? How can this help us to understand the way in which dressing connects to wellbeing? Do all the themes need to be in place for flourishing to occur? Exploring how the participants experienced wearing an outfit that made them happy has contributed to the possibility of viewing fashion from a positive psychology position, which could impact further research. This includes whether having a relationship with our clothes, a deep attachment to knowing who you are and how you express yourself sartorially, can affect the amount of clothes we buy.
When viewed from a value chain perspective, the apparel value chain is organized around five main parts: raw material supply, (including natural and synthetic fibres); provision of components, (eg yarns and fabrics); production networks (eg garment factories, their subcontractors); export channels (established by trade intermediaries); and marketing networks at the retail level (Appelbaum et al, 1994). Research carried out on particular sectors, eg garment, electronic and agricultural commodities, has provided valuable insights into the role of lead firms in constructing these chains. Lead firms, predominantly located in developed countries, include not only multinational manufacturers, but also large retailers and brand-name firms, playing a significant role in specifying what is to be produced, how, and by whom. Our proposition for remanufacturing in fashion is illustrated in figure 7. The heavy lines depict the remanufacturing process network of textile recyclers, technology providers eg Lectra ® (with latest CAD/CAM pattern cutting/management software), local crafts entrepreneurs in destination second hand market areas and factories supplying clothing to the large retailers. Our intention is to pursue this research by interviewing members of this proposed network to understand the issues raised by our proposition with a view to developing an industry based remanufacturing process.
Salomon and Rabolt (2004 11 ) have stated that sustainability is not something consu- mers consider when making purchasing decisions. However, in 2018, McKinsey (2018, 62) reports that the millennial generation is displaying stronger interest for increased transparency and sustainability than any prior generation. According to their study, 66% of millenials were prepared to spend more on an ethical option when shopping for clot- hes. On the other hand, many consumers continue to place more importance on the fashionability of garments on the expense of sustainability (Joergens 2006, 364). Even as ethical fashion represents a small portion of the industry, it’s quickly growing. The increasing interest in ethical fashion is fueled by multiple motives. Therefore, the ethi- cal consumption movement can be divided into numerous subcategories. The green consumer can have a particular interest in e.g. veganism, decreased consumption in ge- neral or merely high quality clothing, which is more often produced in an ethical man- ner. The concept of “lowsumerism” is associated with consumers that seek to limit their total consumption, resulting in a minimalistic lifestyle. “Lowsumerism” contains the notion of criticality towards consumption, which means that, for instance, clothing pur- chases are limited to only what is absolutely necessary. Some consumers also believe the sustainability in fashion consumption is achieved through building a minimalist cap- sule wardrobe that contains high quality basics. The vegan movement entails consumers that are dedicated to consuming animal-free products, be it food, clothing, or other pro- duct categories. A number of fashion companies have entered this niche field in order to cater to this specific audience. Vegan fashion is also aligned with the values of those who are generally interested in animal rights but not necessarily committed to a fully vegan lifestyle. (Todeschini 2017, 762-763.) According to Joy et al. (2012, 280-282) there is an existing contradiction between young consumer’s interest in fashion and en-
ing ready-made, worked out ties, shoes and socks . Fashion writers also note the fact that during the spring-summer season  in 1909, man fashion is massively staking on brown men shoes. At fi rst glance it can be assumed that mass unifi cation, which blurs the social frontiers, is already in eff ect, but in fact the unifi cation of men’s suit during this period only be- gins and is not so radical. Throughout the period of existence, the superstar bourgeoisie and its most rep- resentative part of the dandelion of London compete in order to invent various „betterments” in men’s suit so as to preserve the secret of male elegance  only and only to „protect secular people from unforeseen
The use of plastic as a nest material can be consid- ered a novel fashion since the frequency of use started in early breeders, which are known to recruit dispropor- tionately many offspring (Snow 1958). Such innovative individuals can be considered ‘trend-setters’ by initiat- ing plastic use and through social learning transmit this behavior to conspecifics. There are few examples of the emergence of innovations and the identity of the indi- viduals responsible for such novel behavior. An excep- tion is the emergence of a tradition of washing sweet potatoes by Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata) that allowed removal of sand from food items (Kawamura 1959), where the initial behavior emerged in a specific old female. Another example concerns the opening of milk bottles by birds, in particular Great Tits (Parus major),
response are a key influence here. If there was a viable option, a participatory design methodology that better engaged consumers, and offered a level of personalisation through sewing skills, for example, there could be numer- ous mutual benefits. A key ingredient is the proliferation of sewing skills through mainstream education. However, there is the need for a creative response from the Retail sector to imagine new consumer experiences exploring co-design. Here digital technologies have potential to sup- port mass-customisation from many platforms. Advance- ments in digital fabric printing, weaving, knitting and im- portantly pattern-cutting technologies, offer the means to evolve the desirable circular economies often discussed as an antidote to the global supply chain and the associated environmental issues. Engaging consumers in design and making, logically offers prospective empowerment with the means to be proactively involved in a solution.
“Looking like someone who works for a living actually seems to be coming back into vogue” (Armstrong, 2009, p.1). In contrast an article on the BBC News Channel on 28 th August 2009 by Bill Wilson the Business Reporter investigates sales of haberdashery products at John Lewis. Andy Street the Managing Director thinks people are taking a new interest in “Traditional skills, including creating and maintaining things” (Wilson, 2009 p.2). The article also discusses the reprinted version of the World War Two pamphlet however curator, Mr. Charman from the Imperial War Museum believed that the revived ‘Make Do and Mend’ trend was nothing new: “I started here at the museum in 1974 and have been through many recessions, and every time the same question gets asked – ‘how did they cope during the war” (Wilson, 2009, p.2). This comment implies that the Second World War was a time of such huge social upheaval that its reaction to this, particularly in relation to clothing and fashion, is always considered both viable and influential.
The choice of Burberry as the data set of interest for this study was influenced by several factors. First, Burberry is one of the UK’s highest profile exporters, but supply chain disruptions resulting from Brexit are expected to add millions in extra trade costs for this fashion house (Rovnick 2019). Accordingly, there is a need for more data analytics into this brand to help improve its profitability via more lucrative resource allocations. Secondly, as evidenced in the seasonal plot in Figure 8, Burberry appears to be struggling in terms of increasing and maintaining online consumer interest in the brand name. Thus, there is need for further analysis and forecasting of future online behavioural trends for Burberry so that the management can put in place a series of actions for improving its online footprint and be better positioned to compete with other luxury fashion brands. Thirdly, Burberry believes in the importance of digital innovation and sees ‘online’ as the first access point to its brand (Burberry 2018a). Therefore, Google Trends-based analytics has the potential to help the brand ensure its online content remains highly relevant to its consumers. For example, Burberry (2018a) states the brand wishes to personalise online homepages, and fashion consumer Google Trends-based analytics can help the brand in identifying the most popular product categories and terminology for any given market (see Section 2.2.4). Fourthly, as a brand, Burberry has recently demonstrated its willingness to change for the better and become more sustainable. For example, in July 2018 Burberry was called out for burning millions of its products to protect its brand (BBC 2018). Swift to act, by September 2018 Burberry announced that it will stop the practice of destroying unsaleable products and the use of real fur, and work towards reusing, repairing, donating or recycling their unsaleable goods (Burberry 2018b; Hanbury 2018; Bain 2018). Thus, Burberry is a brand to watch, and is a brand that is responsive to the consumers’ needs and wants.
It is worth comparing and contrasting how fashion has reacted to deprivation initiated by other forms of social change. This serves to highlight and strengthen similarities to the two main issues discussed in this paper for instance, the political climate affects social change and this manifests itself through fashion. The punk rock movement of the 1970’s was one of the most visually challenging styles to emerge as a reaction to the political climate of the time. The modes of clothing were shocking because punks wanted to rebel against rules and regulations. Emerging from a political environment of strikes and recession it chose to react against all that was decent and proper. The establishment was violated as depicted in the iconic sex pistols t shirt of the queen with a safety pin through her nose. Clothing styles were therefore used as retaliation to political forces through the visual image of punk. Aggressive, spiky, tartan clad individuals in ripped garments and bondage pants communicated a message of a dissatisfied community of people. The look whilst adhering to some of the principles of ‘Make do and Mend’ in the assemblage of dress, was more make do and rip apart. Fashion was described by Lynch and Strauss as: