In addition, calculated data for the Pre-Experience (Figure 4) and Post-Experience (Figure 5) demonstrate a relatively inconsistent measure. Standard deviations range has a range of 3.1 points for the pre-experience data and 8.5 points for the post-experience data. This data is most likely indicative of the large change in values for the various levels and supports the premise that growth and learning took place as a result of engaging in the globalfield experience.
In sum, the field of business schools, through its autonomous/dominant pole, has developed and imposed doxa, where as part of it, business schools comply with the continuous improvement belief. Something most aim to achieve by accumulating the symbolic capital of accreditations. The latter gives us, so far, a robust panorama of the field of business schools and its doxa. However, there is still something about the field that we do not understand: why is the fieldglobal? Bourdieusian theory explains how hierarchies are formed within the same cultural context. Nevertheless, when we see that members of AACSB come from all around the globe, that EQUIS has an international mission, that AMBA has accredited programmes in dozens of countries, or that league tables such as QS include business schools from many different cultures, then we know that this is a globalfield. But, we still do not know why would Indian or Nicaraguan or Pakistani or Mexican business schools be willing to accept doxa and the supremacy of the Western autonomous/dominant pole?
Polish pedagogues noticed the significance of educational problems and educational reforms in other countries to be capable of introducing similar solutions into the Polish system of education. These types of publications were issued in Poland in the interwar period. One of the most important publications was a monograph by Józef Chałasiński, entitled The School in American Society (Szkoła w społeczeństwie amerykańskim, which presented the historical, socio-economic and cultural conditions of American education . Chałasiński was one of the most outstanding classics of Polish sociology. Therefore, this monograph presents a slightly different approach than the comparative analyses by Polish pedagogues. Chałasiński stressed that the American system of public education did not developed based on the principle of state monopoly in the field of education. Public schools emerged as a result of self-organization of the society, which took care of its educational needs on its own. As Chałasiński points out, the American system of education is based on the self- government of the society on various organizational levels, from the local to the state one. A characteristic feature of the American education is the right to establish private institutions, from elementary to higher schools, and to administer those facilities as they were enterprises . At a time when public education systems were already in place in Europe, the functioning of public and private education in the United States was regarded as an expression of the democratic principle of justice. The sociological analyses of the system of education in the United States brought the specificity of such a different education closer to Polish and European educators and educational activists.
Global geomagnetic field models using spherical harmonic basis functions are important in space physics research, space weather and applications like navigation and mineral resources exploration. These models are based on various geomagnetic field data sets ranging from Earth surface magnetic observatory measurements to low-Earth orbit satel- lites equipped with highly sensitive and accurate magnetometers. Although these field models are derived by fitting harmonic functions to data distributed across the Earth, they are applied on regional scales within fixed boundaries in many instances and one can therefore question how well do these models perform on restricted areas. Three recently published global geomagnetic field models, IGRF-12, CHAOS-6 and POMME-10, have been statistically evaluated over Southern Africa using repeat station data as well as measurements from 4 INTERMAGNET observatories located at Hermanus and Hartebeesthoek in South Africa as well as Tsumeb and Keetmanshoop in Namibia for 2015. Apart from the observatory data, the field survey repeat station data do not form part of the data set on which these globalfield models are based and therefore can be regarded as an independent test of these field models over an area like South- ern Africa which is well known for its rapid change of the geomagnetic field. Results obtained in this investigation for both main field and secular variation models clearly showed the importance of timely ground-based geomagnetic field observations in the derivation of accurate field models, particularly in regions characterised by rapid and unpre- dictable secular variation changes.
The Arctic Ocean is the natural place where the two big continental ferro- magnetic fields are gathered into one globalfield. The Magnetic North Pole (he- reafter MNP) is the entrance to the ferromagnetic field of the Earth. It is espe- cially important to notice that the thermal heat that we find in the Arctic ocean can most certainly cause frozen magnetic flux in that area to release and hence—in the long run—make that area very flexible (easy to adapt to the global FMF) (Figure 4).
All of the studies mentioned so far have considered the number of null points in local quiet-Sun regions. Cook, Mackay, and Nandy (2009) were the first to study the number of null points in a globalfield. They used a potential field source surface (PFSS) model (which considers a sum of spherical harmonics) to extrap- olate the coronal magnetic field from both smoothed synoptic magnetograms from the NSO Vacuum telescope at Kitt Peak and from simulated photospheric magnetic fields based on these smoothed synoptic magnetograms. They found that the numbers of nulls varied in phase with the solar cycle and preferentially formed over active regions. However, in this study they neglected to include, in the simulated field, small-scale quiet-Sun fields, which, as discussed above, give rise to many null points. Also, all quiet-Sun fields were smoothed out of their synoptic magnetograms. Thus, the PFSS extrapolations, even though they had a maximum harmonic number of l max = 63, only modelled the large-scale field.
In the past two decades the regulation of global finance has become a prominent topic in political science and sociological studies. Analyses can be found not only of institutional and regulatory adaptations on the national, international and supranational level (e.g. Dale 1984; Kapstein 1996; Eichengreen 1999; Scholte 2002) but also of the increasing relevance of private actors (e.g. Sinclair 1994; Cutler/Haufler/Porter 1999; Strulik 2002; Tsingou 2003) and mixed public-private arrangements (e.g. Strulik 2000). In light of the continuing development of the regulatory field as well as the intensification of the debate on the characteristics and effects of knowledge society (e.g. Adhikari/Sales 2001; Willke 2002), a shift of research towards the relevance of knowledge for finance and politics appears heuristically promising. Instructive for such a project are empirical studies in political science which highlight the knowledge intensity of financial business and the increasing importance of market actors’ expertise in managing financial risks (e.g. Porter 1999; Sinclair 1999). Additionally, sociological systems theory provides concepts for the description of not only the distinctive characteristics of knowledge but also the interac- tion of knowledge and ignorance (e.g. Luhmann 1998; Willke 2002). An understanding of ignorance and its progressive (re-)production by the use of knowledge seems to be particularly important, because political and economic decisions are ever more often con- fronted with problems of ignorance that cannot be specified and managed by traditional methods. As sociological studies on science and risk (e.g. Ravetz 1987; Bonß 1995) demonstrate, conditions of ambiguity and unpredictability are becoming the focal point of modern societies risk management.
We have used a global model of the solar wind magnetosphere interaction to model the high latitude part of the external contributions to the geomagnetic ﬁeld near the Earth. The model also provides corresponding values for the electric ﬁeld. Geomagnetic quiet conditions were modeled to provide simulated external contributions relevant for internal ﬁeld modeling. These have proven very valuable for the design and planning of the up- coming multi-satellite Swarm mission. In addition, a real event simulation was carried out for a moderately active time interval when observations from the Ørsted and CHAMP sattelites were available. Comparisons between the simulation results and the satellite observations for this event demonstrate the current level of validity of the global model. We ﬁnd that the model reproduces quite well the region 1 current system and nightside region 2 currents whereas it consistently underestimates the dayside region 2 currents and overestimates the horizontal ionospheric closure currents in the dayside polar cap. Furthermore, with this example we illustrate the great beneﬁt of utilizing the global model for the interpretation of Swarm external ﬁeld observations and, likewise, the potential of using Swarm measuremnets to test and improve the global model.
production quantities (averages of 1997–2006) of all cultivated crops listed in FAO statistics (FAO 2009) except temporary forage grasses were in- cluded in the total energy values for each of the 15 areas. Thus, in addition to cereals, pulses, oil crops, sugar crops and root crops, production of vegetables, fruits, nuts and fibre crops (hemp, flax, etc.) were also taken into account. Sufficiency of food production on arable land was then evaluated for each area for three different diets, vegetarian (GE usage 490 kg per capita per annum), moderate (860 kg) and affluent (1535 kg), using the United Nations population statistics. Estimation of food sufficiency in the future (2050) was based on United Nations estimations of population in the different areas (United Nations 2007) and estimations of changes in agricultural production (Parry et al. 2004) in the future (Annex 1). Before any of the areas were considered able to set aside field from food production, the GE required for each diet was doubled to cover yield fluctuations, storage losses (which can be substantial, particularly in developing countries) and other production uncer- tainties (Penning de Vries et al. 1997, Wolf et al. 2003). Food value of animal husbandry products relying solely on grazing was not taken into ac- count, as data for calculations of productivity of permanent pastures was not available for all the studied areas. Also game and fish were excluded from the calculations.
tained in the framework of the Russian Federal Pro- gram: World Ocean: Study and Research in Antarctica: Determination of Changes in the Antarctic Environ- ment: Environmental Monitoring. The Vostok mea- surements were collected by specialists of the Russian Antarctic program. The Concordia electric field data collection was approved by IPEV/PNRA via ‘‘Elec- tricite Atmospherique DC 33 N.’’ Concordia meteoro- logical data were provided by IPEV/PNRA project ‘‘Routine Meteorological Observations at Station Con- cordia,’’ which is financially supported by PNRA through collaboration with ENEA. Lloyd Symons, Peter Jansen, and Eric King (deceased), Australian Antarc- tic Division, contributed to the design, development, testing, and deployment of the electric field mill in- strumentation. Solar wind parameters and magnetic coordinates were obtained from the National Space Science Data Center OMNIWeb database (http:// omniweb.gsfc.nasa.gov/form/omni_min.html) and the auroral indices from the linked access to the World Data Centre for Geomagnetism, Kyoto (http://wdc. kugi.kyoto-u.ac.jp/aeasy/index.html). Daniel Weimer’s models were obtained via the CEDAR database.
Those students wishing to apply for ‘exceptional circumstances’ consideration must submit to the university a formal request in writing, through the Field Education Coordinator, stipulating their reasons for requesting such a consideration, and further describing specific steps, measures and processes which will be taken within the proposed placement to ensure compliance with each of the salient AASW accreditation standards for field education. The request will be assessed by a panel of RMIT social work staff. It is necessary in these circumstances that on site social work supervision, in both placements, is best provided by the agency and, for each placement, a different staff member to whom the student as employee is directly accountable. If the agency is unable to provide this internally, an arrangement may be negotiated where the agency provides the services of an off site supervisor to complete the
Image restoration is the process of renovating a corrupted/noisy image for obtaining a clean original image. Numerous MRF based restoration methods were utilized for performing image restoration process. In such works, there is a lack of analysis in selecting the top similar local patches and Gaussian noise images. Hence, in this paper, a heuristic image restoration technique is proposed to obtain the noise free images. The proposed heuristic image restoration technique is composed of two steps: core processing and post processing. In core processing, the local and global features of each pixel values of the noisy image are extracted and restored the noise free pixel value by exploiting the extracted features and Markov Random Field (MRF). Moreover, the restored image quality and boundary edges are sharpened by the post processing function. The implementation result shows the effectiveness of proposed heuristic technique in restoring the noisy images. The performance of the image restoration technique is evaluated by comparing its result with the existing image restoration technique. The comparison result shows a high-quality restoration ratio for the noisy images than the existing restoration ratio, in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR).
The purpose of this review is not to argue for a particular normative frame for global health ethics, but rather to raise critical issues that bear on the normative direction of this emerging field. We do not claim that identification with the field by any specific tranche of the literature is illegitimate; nor do we offer a unifying definition for the field. This Crit- ical Interpretive Review is intended to serve as the first step in an ongoing deliberative process that seeks to better delin- eate the scope and charge of global health ethics scholarship and hopefully to develop a normative concept responsive to truly global needs and health trends. As the term ‘ global health ethics’ is still a contested one, about which no one ‘truth’ has yet been constructed, we see this as a moment (or a snapshot) in a broader discursive process in which language reflects and both de-constructs and re-constructs this relatively young area of scholarship. We hope that this overview of the contours of the field will help to map the normative way forward as we grapple with the ethical issues in global and planetary health. Going forward, two common and critical themes in the literature should be heeded. First is the need to acknowledge the challenges of extraordinary dis- parities in health, with inability to narrow these adequately merely through the now discredited idea of economic growth and trickle-down effect. This entails serious moral consideration of what we have termed the structural level of engagement in global health. Second is the need to afford
Second, we develop the concept of ‘receptivity’. Whilst this has been previously deployed to refer to the likelihood of organizations conforming to pressures emanat- ing from different ﬁeld members (Delmas and Toffel, 2008), here we use it to indicate the openness of a particular ﬁeld location to alternative institutional logics, prescrip- tions, and practices. In our case, the ‘receptivity’ of the Milan sub-ﬁeld was connected to a series of broader developments in the Italian political economy which led from the late 1990s to the rise of Milan as an international ﬁnancial centre and to its inte- gration into the global economy. This increased the likelihood that the Milan sub- ﬁeld would become more ‘receptive’ to the practices of the global organizations it increasingly hosted. Whilst more work to further deﬁne the concept of ﬁeld ‘receptiv- ity’ is needed, our contribution points to two key characteristics. First, ‘receptivity’ is a dynamic and evolving condition, as it is connected to broader ﬁeld level develop- ments (Fligstein and McAdam, 2012). Importantly, this relates to the suggestion that ‘over the longer term, institutional complexity unfolds, unravels and re-forms, creating different circumstances to which organizations must respond’ (Greenwood et al., 2011, p. 319) and highlights the need to examine how ﬁeld level responses to com- plexity exploit opportunities that are temporally bound (Faulconbridge and Muzio, 2014). In our case this relates to the way that ‘ﬁeld relocation’ only became possible as a strategy in the mid-2000s when, as a result of the exogenous jolts (Meyer, 1982) of Europeanization and re-regulation, the Milan sub-ﬁeld became increasingly estab- lished. Second, ‘receptivity’ is also relative to other locations within a ﬁeld which may generate greater degrees of complexity and lesser prospects for success. This is exem- pliﬁed in our case study by the Milanese sub-ﬁeld being more ‘receptive’ than other locations such as Padua or Rome. This highlights the importance of examining the 119 ‘Field Relocation’ as a Response Strategy
However, neither decentralized algorithms nor accompanied guarantees are studied for the well- behaved mean-field setting. To fill this void, we study the decentralized exchangeable multi-agent systems in the collaborative setting where each agent seeks the optimal policy that minimizes the accumulative global cost over all the agents, via neighborhood communications by a connected network. We propose the first decentralized policy learning scheme with smaller exploration space, less communication, and more robustness. Moreover, we study the non-convex problem geometry by several almost continuity results, which are combined with one-step iterate progress to establish a sublinear global convergence rate for the simple yet fundamental setting LQR. Our contributions are concluded as follows: (1) We formulate the policy gradients for MARL under the mean-field setting. (2) We proposed the first decentralized algorithm (MF-DPGM) to effectively learn the optimal policy for mean-field MARL. (3) We present a novel global convergence guarantee for MF-DPGM under mild assumptions and simulation results to justiify the performance of our algorithm.
This study aims to provide further evidence for the potential inﬂuence of the global solar magnetic ﬁeld on localized chromospheric jets, the macrospicules (MS). To ﬁnd a connection between the long-term variation of properties of MS and other solar activity proxies, including, e.g., the temporal variation of the frequency shift of solar global oscillations, sunspot area, etc., a database overarching seven years of observations was compiled. This database contains 362 MS, based on observations at the 30.4 nm of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Three of the ﬁve investigated physical properties of MS show a clear long-term temporal variation after smoothing the raw data. Wavelet analysis of the temporal variation of maximum length, maximum area, and average velocity is carried out. The results reveal a strong pattern of periodicities at around 2 years (also referred to as quasi-biennial oscillations—QBOs). A comparison with solar activity proxies that also possess the properties of QBOs provides some interesting features: the minima and maxima of QBOs of MS properties occur at around the same epoch as the minima and maxima of these activity proxies. For most of the time span investigated, the oscillations are out of phase. This out-of-phase behavior was also corroborated by a cross-correlation analysis. These results suggest that the physical processes that generate and drive the long-term evolution of the global solar activity proxies may be coupled to the short-term local physical processes driving the macrospicules, and, therefore modulate the properties of local dynamics.
Third, we advance the emerging body of work that focuses on the geography of institutional ﬁelds (e.g., Greenwood et al., 2010; Lounsbury, 2007; Marquis et al., 2007). This literature has long recognized the importance of the difference between peripheral and core positions. Thus, for instance, we can expect actors in peripheral positions to draw less beneﬁts from membership of a particular ﬁeld (Fligstein and McAdam, 2012), to be more aware of alternatives and committed to change (Greenwood and Suddaby, 2006a, 2006b), and to be better placed to side-step pres- sures for conformity which are less avoidable in core positions (Quirke, 2013). This differentiation between core and periphery positions and their respective structural characteristics is what Quirke (2013) refers to as the ‘topography’ of ﬁelds. Our case study goes further and suggests the geography of ﬁelds and sub-ﬁelds, in terms of their association with particular geographical locations, also matters. Thus, for instance, it mattered that the speciﬁc sub-ﬁeld that our case study ﬁrms targeted was located in the city of Milan, as a speciﬁc geographical place with its own distinctive history, cul- ture, and institutions. In particular, it mattered that Milan as a rising global city and ﬁnancial centre was increasingly integrated in the global economy and, as such, was populated by a range of actors who were different from the rest of the Italian legal ﬁeld. Thus, following Lounsbury’s (2007) seminal contribution, our analysis by exam- ining the geographical variability of ‘receptivity’ within ﬁelds highlights the impor- tance of locating ﬁelds and their sub-ﬁelds. This is important because, as the ‘receptivity’ of the Milan sub-ﬁeld indicates, institutional prescriptions are exercised in patchy and uneven ways within different ﬁeld locations. As such, organizations must take account of the characteristics and opportunities offered by different locations within ﬁelds as part of their attempts to manage and reduce complexity.
We analysed three common sections of each report using a self-generated coding frame based on the areas and best practices promoted by the CSR organisational field. The three sections we scrutinised are: the CEO/management statement(s), the environmental section and the social section. The latter examines a firm’s commitments to labour/ employee issues and human rights. These two areas represent the issues that the CSR organisational field has promoted most aggressively, unlike CSR issues such as corporate philanthropy. We included the management letter in the analysis to assess the rationale that firms give for their CSR engagement and the extent to which this rationale is shaped by stakeholder relations as the varieties of capitalism literature posits. We identified the environment and social sections of each report by taking the naturally occurring sections so labelled by the firm itself and adding further occurrences to it using a dictionary search. All 40 firms included a management letter in their report. Similarly, a large majority had naturally occurring environmental and social sections, although some have separate sections for employee issues and human rights. The three sections included in our analysis on average represent approximately 50% of a firm’s report. The other common sections that firms include are their economic performance/activities, company information and community programmes.