A dedicated commission was established from among the members of INGHE. The members of the commis- sion were young residents in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine (Public Health) supervised by two professors from universities in Rome (Sapienza University of Rome) and Bologna (Alma Mater University). The first phase consisted of a broad-based literature review concerning “globalhealtheducation” and “medical education”. A deep analysis of two official documents of the Italian Medical Association and The Permanent Conference of the Presidents of Degree Courses in Medicine was conducted, as they provided a mainstream, external per- spective. The second phase was characterized by brain- storming and discussion among the members of the commission, to identify the principal points that should be included in the document. The third phase resulted in the elaboration of the first draft of the paper. Finally, the draft was discussed and reviewed by all members of INGHE. No standardized methodologies have been used to reach the consensus. The draft was shared among the members of INGHE, all of whom were able to read and analyse it independently prior to the group meeting. Consensus was reached after discussions in the plenary session. In March 2015 the final paper was disseminated in Italy .
Globalhealth at academic institutions: a growth industry As the field of globalhealth emerges as its own academic and clinical discipline, medical schools in the U.S. are positioning themselves by establishing or strengthening related programs, centers, and institutes . These new entities are often charged with defining curricular and co-curricular opportunities, and their leaders are contributing to the discussion of competen- cies in globalhealth [12–14]. An intraprofessional education committee of the Consortium of Universities for GlobalHealth is providing important guidance in this area . A few schools are also taking a lead in the effort to disseminate this information without barriers, as exemplified by the freely available GlobalHealth Delivery cases published by Harvard Business School, the open-access training modules by Unite for Sight, and all-access syllabi, readings, and taped lectures hosted by various U.S. universities or their open courseware partners such as EdX and Coursera. By broadening access, these new offerings are additionally helping to level the playing field in globalhealtheducation . In addition, a growing number of low- and middle-income countries, including (among many others) China, Thailand, Mexico, Rwanda, and South Africa, are now establishing their own globalhealtheducation centers and institutions [17, 18].
results did not support these ﬁndings. More than 25% of responding resi- dents with primary care, hospitalist, and subspecialty practice goals re- ported deﬁnite or very likely plans to work or volunteer in developing countries in the future. Residents planning hospitalist careers did tend to be more likely to report such plans than other residents; however, this ﬁnding was not statistically signiﬁ- cant. The clinical and teaching exper- tise of both generalists and subspe- cialists are relevant in developing countries. In addition, the lifestyle characteristics of disciplines such as hospitalist medicine may prove conducive to pursuing international work. These data demonstrate the universality of interest in GH and suggest that GH education should not necessarily be limited to any speciﬁc group of pediatric residents. TABLE 4 Resident/Program Characteristics Associated With Future Plans to Work/Volunteer in a
The medical faculty of the University of Hamburg offers a six semester-long elective course that integrates GH into a broader curriculum of intercultural competence and international medicine. The final year elective “Trop- ical Medicine and GlobalHealth” at the University of Würzburg constitutes another opportunity for medical students to incorporate GH into their curriculum by combining clinical and project work. Two medical schools have mandatory GHE offered as a lecture on public health at the University of Bonn that includes GH topics and a seminar series on GH ethics at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. The medical faculty of the University of Giessen employs a voluntary GH-focused curriculum (Schwerpunktcurriculum “GlobalHealth”), which is a combination of different teaching formats such as lectures, seminars and studies abroad. The student-led “Globalisation and Health Initiative” (GandHI) at the University of Aachen as well as the University of Heidelberg’s Society Georg Forster for GlobalHealth offer extracurricular GH activities for medical stu- dents. Other voluntary extracurricular activities open to students of all disciplines are the “GlobalHealth Student Group”, the “GlobalHealth Summer School”, the “GlobalHealth Conference” in Berlin and the
and integrating social determinants of health into clinical paradigms. 12–17 Programs seeking to train globally competent pediatricians, both those who will practice in the United States and internationally, face predictable challenges. Allocating resources toward GH education is difﬁcult for many pediatric departments, and not all departments have faculty with GH expertise nor an infrastructure to support global training. 5,8 Notably, of the US pediatric residency programs that offered GH electives in 2013 – 2014, only 66% provided predeparture training and 54% had GH lectures, representing signi ﬁ cant gaps in GH education. 4 The author team sought to address these and other gaps by
The framework acknowledges earlier [38,39] and more recent calls by WHO  to conceptualise educational programmes for health care providers on the principles of the ‘health for all’ (HFA) policy. Therefore, the frame- work proposes that education in globalhealth builds on the three basic values underpinning HFA: (i) health as a fundamental human right; (ii) equity in health and soli- darity in action; (iii) participation and accountability . This foundation ensures that educational interventions are socially relevant and orient on people’s needs. It is also relevant for GHE because HFA entails: putting health in the middle of development strategies for socie- ties worldwide; linkages between its underpinning princi- ples (i - iii) and the evolution of the term ‘ globalhealth ’ and its objects (Table 1); regarding health professional education as a major determinant in realising the HFA
Findings from our work should be interpreted with certain limitations in mind. Data were self-reported and discrete de ﬁ nitions were not provided for all terms used in the database, which could have introduced bias. We developed the data collection tool for the database, and the program and educational elements included may not represent every important characteristic relevant to this topic. The data collected represent only 1 academic year (2013 – 2014), and we cannot conﬁrm if these data are reﬂective of all recent years. As we update the database and make it publically available via the APPD GH PEG Web site, moving forward we hope that additional years’ worth of data will provide clarity about trends in GH education over time. Finally, as the primary goals of the study were to guide programmatic features of the APPD GH PEG, to identify avenues for collaboration, and to assess the current state of pediatric GH
We developed 7 logistic regression models to examine the association of participation in a GH elective with resident career plans, specifically (1) plans to incorporate GH into their careers (yes versus no) and the likelihood of incorporating the following components into their careers: (2) GH clinical work in international settings, (3) GH clinical work in domestic settings (eg, a refugee or immigrant health clinic), (4) GH education in international settings, (5) GH education in domestic settings, (6) GH advocacy, and (7) GH research (2–7 were dichotomized as very likely or somewhat likely versus neutral, unlikely, or very unlikely). On the basis of previous work, 14
The Rural Undergraduate Support and Coordination (RUSC) program (1997-2011) developed rural clinical placements for Australian medical students to provide an inspiration for future rural work. In the late 1990s the University of Adelaide, South Australia, had a large enrolment of Malaysian students sponsored by their government and bonded to return to their national health service. The challenges for these Malaysian graduates of working in tropical rural settings prompted the introduction of an International Health (IH) course, which included ‘tropical medicine’. An initial course was developed in 1998 by RUSC academics Drs Owen Lewis and Jonathan Newbury, in the then Department of General Practice. Course content included disease-specific topics, public health, Indigenous health worker training and consideration of philosophical and religious issues.
Twenty-nine (91%) out of 32 U.S. trainees reported ex- periencing a change in the way they viewed themselves as clinicians as a result of their rotation in Naivasha. The majority of these cited increased confidence and self-reliance as a clinician, especially when dealing with resource limitations. Other commonly expressed feelings were gratitude for the education, training and resources available in the U.S. and feeling more committed to ca- reers in globalhealth. Interestingly, while the majority of internal and family medicine residents felt more confi- dence, those in procedure-based residencies such as surgery and obstetrics-gynecology tended to feel more humbled by the experience. A surgery resident reported “I’m not more confident having had this experience that so stretched my comfort limits and my abilities. I’m ac- tually more humble, with a new appreciation and hunger for the skills, wisdom, and judgment I have yet to learn as I continue my surgical training,” while an ob-gyn resi- dent stated “I feel that medical education is a great gift that I have received and this rotation [made me want] to share this with others”.
It has been recommended that the LCME establish a standard curriculum in globalhealth as a necessary minimum . However, there is no convincing evidence that a standard 30-hour curriculum provides compe- tency in the scope or complexity of globalhealth. In- deed, such training may take the form of a full residency in countries such as the UK, before a physician can be considered competent in tropical medicine . As mentioned earlier, unlike US schools of public health, which have well-defined globalhealth curricula , there is presently a lack of uniformity in such offerings in US and Canadian medical schools . As the field of GH in medicine matures, there may initially need to be a balance between prescriptiveness and libertarianism. There is general agreement on the concepts of GH com- petencies, sharing of lessons learned, and collaborations, in medical school and residency [28-32]. However, this consensus stops short of a standardized, testable GH curriculum for all medical schools, although some experts have issued a call for standardization on the definition of globalhealth and GH education [10,28]. Similar to how the Flexner report brought coherence to medical education, so too should the foundations of GH build from an evidence-based core [5,33-35].
Because the GHSP was originally conceived as a pro- gram to enhance the globalhealth competency of post- graduate trainees in family medicine, the GHSP team conducted a comprehensive needs assessment of this constituency. Given the breadth of globalhealth and the goal of providing an overview while focusing on fam- ily medicine and primary care, the needs assessment sought to focus the curriculum around the expressed needs of the learners. An online survey exploring their interest and curriculum suggestions for a globalhealth training program was sent to all family medicine resi- dents at the University of Toronto. The content of the survey was intentionally broad, including subjects that might or might not fall directly under the usual rubric of globalhealth but that were clearly related to addressing the health issues of marginalized or vulnerable individu- als and populations. More than one-quarter (28%) of the 371 residents responded. Of these, 28% were interested and said it was likely they would attend the course if it were offered. The most common reasons for negative responses were unwillingness to use vacation time and being already engaged in the GlobalHealthEducation Initiative (a 2-year globalhealth program offered for trainees of all specialties). Responses about preferred
available when students commence the programme is usually limited to that collected routinely as part of the application process. As such, our findings of what might predict performance using this type of data is valuable. On a wider scale, the analysis challenges us to reflect on the module’s teaching and assessment and how it corresponds to the needs of globalhealtheducation (21;22). Does it help participants to become not only experts in knowledge but “agents for change” with leadership attributes for settings with few resources (3)? The rewards we give influence their learning and practice in future.
Also, the number of COVID -19 patients who had died also increased from just 5 to 117 placing positivity death rate at 0.65% compare to neighboring West Africa, country, Mali of 5%. Even though, the positivity death rate of 0.65% is low relative to Africa and World average of 2,5%, 5% respectively, the reality about COVID -19 in Ghana is that the confirmed cases are increasing with more Ghanaians dying. In fact, the Ghana health Service admits that Ghanaians who report to the hospital are now dying within 48 hours. Though, there is no literature on why Ghanaians are now dying quicker from COVID -19, however, the researcher postulates that it may be due to the growing incidences of stigmatization, denial of the existence of COVID -19 coupled with changes in weather may be responsible for increase in cases, hospitalization and quick death. Stigmatization and social exclusion of COVID -19 patients makes it discouraging for people with suspected symptoms to report immediately for medical attention. Thus people with suspected symptoms hide at home and finally report to the hospitals when they are at the point of death. This development undermines the fight against the pandemic.
Abstract: Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current find- ings to support simulation in the next developmental stages.
At Petra English Department, for example, environmental issues are incorporated in skill courses, like reading. Reading materials can be taken from various sources, because a lot of reading materials include environmental issues. Teachers and students can discuss materials like recycling, pollution, and sewage treatments thoroughly and students can be encouraged to give comments. If the students are active in class, they can be encouraged to give comments orally. If they cannot or are reluctant to do so, they can write their comments and then read them aloud so that each student in the classroom can know what his or her classmates' opinion about that topic. Then the teacher can also give his or her opinion and insert globaleducation there.
Ninety percent of the world ’ s children live in low- and middle-income countries, where barriers to health contribute to significant child morbidity and mortality. The American Academy of Pediatrics is dedicated to the health and well-being of all children. To fulfill this promise, this policy statement defines the role of the pediatrician in globalhealth and provides a specific set of recommendations directed to all pediatricians, emphasizing the importance of globalhealth as an integral function of the profession of pediatrics.
Anti-immigrants sentiments are currently rising across Europe. Ethnocentric identification, group conflict and othering are determinants of these sentiments. They generate a fertile ground for populism and stimulate anti-democratic behavior. Therefore they challenge democ- racy from within and make the ‘migration crisis’ in its core to a crisis of democratic values. Literature suggests liberal education and in particular global citizenship education to keep de- mocracies alive. This study is concerned about answering the research question: ‘ How are democratic values addressed by global citizenship education and what is the potential of global citizenship education to reduce anti-immigrant sentiments? ’ A qualitative research on the basis of five policy documents, published by different policy actors (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the Development Education Exchange in Europe Project, Oxfam, the North-South Center and the European Commission) is conducted. The findings reveal the potential of global citizenship education to restore democratic values and to trans- form the learner’s way of thinking and personal identities. Freedom, equality and solidarity are constituting three mechanisms to overcome ethnocentrism, to transcend group conflict and to transform the perception of the other. Against the expectations derived from theory, democratic values are not reducing determinant of anti-immigrant sentiments alone, but in interaction with each other.
World Studies was the original term used by educators who led a series of projects during the 1970s and 1980s, providing training and resources for a large number of teachers, teacher trainers and NGO educators, often in cooperation with local education authorities (Tye, 2003). The earliest of these was the the World Studies Project led by Robin Richardson (1976) and colleagues at the University of London Institute of Education, which was particularly influential in providing a model for exploring global issues which emphasised the need to explore the economic and political context of such issues, the role of values and opportunities for action. Richardson’s ideas were taken forward in later projects developed by Fisher and Hicks (1985) and Pike and Selby (1988) and the term ‘globaleducation’ became used instead of World Studies. This also reflected influences from the US where educators were seeking to define a ‘global perspective’ and even develop ways of measuring such a perspective (Hanvey, 1976: 2). For example, Hett developed a ‘Global mindedness Scale’ to measure ‘a worldview in which one sees oneself as connected to the world community and feels a sense of responsibility for its members.’ (1993: 143).
Work on the definition and measurement of health care quality has resulted in the availability of a range of quality indicators . Two widely used indicators measuring dif- ferent aspects are 'frequency and importance of experi- enced events' and 'degree of satisfaction with these experiences'. However, questions that ask for 'reports about events' that did or did not happen during clinical encounter, rather than a satisfaction rating tend to reflect better the quality of care and are more interpretable and actionable for quality improvement purposes . Exam- ples of standardized surveys using these report-type ques- tions can be found in two 'families' of surveys. One of these two families is called the QUOTE (i.e. QUality Of care Through the patients' Eyes) family [7-13], which was developed in the Netherlands to measure patients' experi- ences with quality of care and to assess the importance consumers attach to the different quality aspects of care. Apart from the generic items that each questionnaire com- prises, in addition group-specific, care-specific, or disease- specific items are included in the questionnaire. However, one of the disadvantages of the questionnaire is that it uses answering categories that are internationally not widely used: no, not really, on the whole yes, and yes. The second family of surveys is the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS ® ), which is