In addition to indicating preferences for the various orientations recognized by the COM™, the COI® results can be accessed through three interpretive filters, namely the individual’s culturally conditioned sense of self, way of information processing, and interaction style. The first filter, Sense of Self, incorporates those cultural orientations with deep emotional connections to an individual’s sense of identity; they comprise an orientation cluster that should mark the needed expansion of empathy and resonance skills during globalleadershipdevelopment. The second filter, Information Processing, marks those orientations most significant for the shifting of “cognitive frames.” The third filter, Interaction Style, defines the cluster of cultural orientations most appropriate for behavioral adaptability.
For example, we fi nd that companies often place little value or reward on global mobility. This is apparent in three ways. First, in some cases, line managers actually feel they will be penalized for taking international assignments. They feel that “out of sight is out of mind.” Second, managers often hoard their talent and, without a culture of mobility, may be reluctant to offer up their best people for international assignments. Finally, and this is probably the biggest hurdle, repatriation is a serious problem. Those sent overseas have a hard time returning to their home country or to the corporate center.
Finally, this paper makes a potent contribution by extending the literature on globalleadership using developmental theories. The globalleadership field should move away from trait-like research to a more developmental approach (Hollenbeck, 2001). This paper argues that for some individuals the development may take a lifetime, for others not so long. Some of the developmental activities for the three proposed key constructs for globalleadershipdevelopment may overlap. For example, someone who has a global mindset will most likely have or be close to having a cultural adaptation worldview. The same is true that an individual who has a cultural adaptation worldview, will most likely also have a self-authored identity. Thus, while developing developmental activities, it is important to take the connections between the variables into
professional nurses in practice, education and in research thus addressing to some extent the ‘wicked problems’ that challenge nursing today, across the globe. Indeed, the society’s recent introduction of the Global Advisory Panel for the Future of Nursing (GAPFON) is testament to its commitment to unite nurse leaders worldwide in realising its vision of improving the health of the world’s people and is making progress (Klopper & Hill 2015). The benefits of collegial relationships in nursing are well recognised (Padgett, 2013; Gibson, 2012, Wood, 2011). These benefits include enabling capacity building (Ogilvie et al, 2003), enhancing the quality of information and resources (Attwood & Wellik, 2012), and increasing the efficacy of practice (Simmons & Adachi, 2012). However there is a need to enable meaningful connections and the majority of the survey respondents valued the potential global reach of the society to strengthen the voice of nursing on the international stage and enhance their leadership potential. As the challenges facing nursing identified at the outset of this paper are increasingly recognised as global problems (Gantz et al, 2012), supporting global nursing leadership is one way of recognising the commonality of the issues as well as collectively seeking solutions.
The clinical orientation to leadership uses findings from psychoanalysis, cognitive theory, developmental psychology and family systems theory to arrive at a more complete understanding of the dynamic process that exists between leaders and followers. Advocates of the clinical orientation to leadership argue that deconstructing the major preoccupations of executives – what is sometimes called their ‘inner theatre’ – helps illuminate the major themes that drive behaviour. In decoding their human ‘texts’, researchers extract significance from interrelated behavioural, cognitive and affective manifestations that have developed out of an individual’s experiences. In the deconstruction of the dynamics of leadership, this orientation looks to the triangle of mental life, consisting of emotion, cognition, and behaviour. While other approaches to leadership focus on the latter two elements, the clinical approach includes emotions in the equation.
secondary school heads are having to take on board the implications of the 14–19 agenda in terms of partnerships with other providers in order to offer the range of provision that is beyond one single school. here again the school’s inability to deliver the national entitlement in isolation will undoubtedly require partnerships with other schools, colleges, universities, employers and training providers. There will be complex issues about lead responsibilities, accountabilities, funding and governance arrangements, which are likely to require negotiating, networking, representational and strategic skills. It is possible to argue that these partnerships are of a different order from any ecM links for a primary head and that this (together with the relative size of institutions) is already beginning to be reflected in quite distinct models of school leadership in the different phases. In respect of the 14–19 agenda it is clear that leaders will need a grasp of the economic and business context of the school and the complexity of the local and regional job markets. even if they are assisted by specialists in accessing this information, they will need skills in analysing it in order to identify more clearly the school’s options in trying to best meet student needs. school leaders are likely to find themselves in dialogue with local businesses and employers in a way that will be new for many of them. schools will be engaging with some powerful and well-resourced stakeholders and there are dangers of particular stakeholders capturing the school’s agenda or undermining the school leader’s independence. Taking unpopular decisions can become difficult without some independent support and schools may find themselves balancing accountability to government with community accountability and engagement with local interest groups. higher order leadership capacities are needed to manage these tensions and dilemmas with competing interests.
In the beginning of 1970’s the leadership places a pivotal role as an essential part of achieving ever better productivity and performance. “The shift from manual to knowledge work in most economies, the rise of living standards and therefore expectations, the growth in educational qualifications and sophistication, are just some of the things that have changed people’s attitudes”. We live in an age where people have choices, where the deference common in an earlier age has disappeared, where the right to personal self-fulfillment is a widely shared belief (Rangaswamy & Helmick, 1976). As a result it is now recognized that, to get the best out of people, they need to be led, not just managed as subordinates. They need to feel motivated, committed, and even inspired. Persuasion, not coercion, is required. “Status and position are no longer enough”. Nowadays, competitiveness between organizations takes place not just at the level of the products and services they provide, but much more deeply at the level of the competences they possess. “And nowhere are those competences more critical than in the style of leadership they have” (Lokhande & Singh, 1977). The qualities, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of those whose task it is to bring out the best in their people.
This paper outlines some models of sustainability-focused business management in the hospitality sector in Japan. Focus is on leading global chain hotels operating in Japan. These global hotel chains standardize and align targets with UN Sustainable Development Goals for 2030 with a mission to establish sustainable Return on Investment （ROI） fulfilling their duty to shareholders. The SDG’s align with the three pillars of sustainable business aims to make improvements for society and environment in addition to maintaining profitable business operations. This paper proposes that despite Japan’s adoption of the 2030 SDG targets in 2015, there are few examples of clear corporate policy in the hospitality or tourism sectors. Sustainable business models of some successful global hotel chains, which operate in Japan, involve promoting education, third-party accountability, and transparency. There is growing necessity for Japan-based brands to create clear targets to meet the SDG for 2030 and implement sustainable business strategies. Efficiency targets will not only improve industry standards across the hospitality sector, but as the number of visitors to Japan continues to rise, international hotel brands will increase. Therefore, domestic brands must rise to international standards in SDG’s in order to retain the high-quality branding of made-in-japan omotenashi hospitality.
Leaders reported a 49 percent improvement in the number of leaders with positive leadership behaviors since attending the program; observers reported a 72 percent improvement. Leaders found the development program to be useful and applicable. Support and reinforcement for the program are high. Work groups are experiencing improvements in
New employees, and staff members hired into new positions, receive the necessary technical training to succeed in the job (Appendix B). Supervisors mentor and evaluate staff members in a continuous appraisal cycle and identify training needs. The Coordinator for Training and Staff Development works with supervisors to ensure needed training takes place.
effectiveness as leaders focus on preparing their assignments instead of managing their schools.
The global interest in leadershipdevelopment is predicated on the widespread assumption that it will lead to school improvement, and enhanced learning outcomes. The empirical evidence for this perspective is limited and assessing impact is difficult because of several conceptual and methodological problems. Firstly, as we have seen, the purposes of education, and of educational leadership, are wide and varied. The efficacy of leadership activities needs to be tested against all these criteria if a compre- hensive assessment of impact is to be made. In practice, however, impact studies tend to focus on the measurable outcomes sought by governments, notably student test scores. Secondly, even where improvements occur, it is very difficult to attribute them with confidence to a specific intervention, such as a leadershipdevelopment programme, when there are many other contemporaneous changes. Thirdly, while leadership is widely regarded as the second most important factor affecting student outcomes after classroom teaching, it is a mediated variable with leaders exercising their influence indirectly. This makes it difficult to assess the nature and extent of leaders’ impact.
This article examines the major challenges now facing local governments across the world and advocates the development of a new focus on place-based leadership for local government scholarship and practice. The challenges facing local authorities are many, but they can be summarised in two words: globalisation and urbanisation. In response to these we have witnessed, in many countries, a shift from ‘local government’ to ‘local governance’. This shift is discussed, and it is suggested that new models of partnership working could, if handled in the wrong way, undermine local democracy. To combat this danger it is essential to give civic leadership far more attention – in the worlds of both academe and practice. A new way of conceptualising place-based leadership – one that identifies three ‘realms of civic leadership’ – is put forward. This model emphasises the role of civic leadership in shaping emotions and supporting public service innovation. To illustrate the argument an example of highly respected place-based leadership is presented. Freiburg, Germany is recognised as a very successful eco-city and the leadership model is used to help explain why. The article concludes with some reflections and pointers for research and policy. It is suggested that new forms of ‘engaged scholarship’ – approaches that bring together academics and practitioners to co- produce new knowledge about place-based leadership in an international, comparative perspective – should be encouraged.
More than ever, now is the time for Human Resources to be centre stage. The greatest untapped potential in our organizations lies in the hearts and minds of the broader workforce. Skilled HR professionals and people leaders have the answers to unlock the opportunity. It’s about social technology to engage broadly and quickly. It’s about setting clear and high aspirations for transformation, developed collectively at all levels of the company. It requires aligned top teams. It is deployed through individuals with special change leadership skills, and it builds momentum and energy from enrolling and engaging the workforce in a focused, positive way and channelling their creativity and energy to areas of impact.
conversation that happens before you arrive. The pre-work assists you to take a ‘snapshot’ of yourself using the LDI Assessment, helping clarify your goals for the program. Think of this as a mini- research project on leadership, with yourself as the subject. The LDI in-class session then begins to open up this inner work and expands your self-awareness and range of possibilities that you can access in any circumstances that require your leadership. The journey then continues when you get back home and are tested in the real world. Our follow-through sessions and coaching options sets the LDI apart from many programs of this type. This helps you to interpret what you experience directly in your life and work, continuing your leadershipdevelopment long after the in-class session is over.
professional goals. During the counseling, leader and subordinate conduct a review to identify and discuss the subordinate’s strengths and weaknesses and to create an individual development plan that builds upon those strengths and compensates for (or eliminates) weaknesses. An example is a Cadet’s initial counseling at the beginning of the semester from Cadre (or the Cadet mentor) that specifies the cadets ROTC responsibilities, requirements and criteria’s to meet during the semester to be a part of the ROTC program. Another example is a Cadet’s initial duty position given to the Cadet when he/she is about to assume a leadership position for a period amount of time. The counseling describes the Cadet’s roles and responsibilities for the duty position. A couple of CDT examples are: CDT Duty Position and Mentor to Mentee (See example on pages 17 - 20). Event-oriented counseling involves a specific event or situation. It may precede events such as appearing before a promotion board or attending training. It can also follow events such as noteworthy duty performance, a problem with performance or mission accomplishment, or a personal issue. For instance, a developmental counseling could be given for a problem with performance (negative performance/negative counseling). Such as, when a Cadet fails to attend ROTC training (PT, Class, and Labs) without proper notification to the Cadet’s chain of command and Cadre, the Cadet would be counseled next time he/she is present for training for ‘Failure of Attendance’. Some examples of cadet event-oriented counseling with a problem with performance are: Academic Warning and Failure of Attendance (contracted & participating cadets) – (See examples on pages 21 - 26).
LEAD-431 School and Community Relations, 3cr. The purpose of this course is to provide a forum for the transfer of theory to practice in the area of school-community relations. Additionally a teacher-as-researcher model and community- based research pedagogy are required in order to assist prospective school leaders in investigating their local school communities and increase their leadership skills. Effective school-community relationships begin at home facilitated by skillful leaders who have effective communication, research, collaborative and problem solving skills. These skills form bonds between schools and the local and global communities. LEAD-432 School Finance and Budgeting, 3cr. The goal of the course is to enable a student to demonstrate an under- standing of school finance and related issues and to apply that knowledge in hypothetical school leadership situations. The content includes local, state and federal revenue sources, the legal and political settings that influence school finance, budgeting processes, revenue and expenditure management, research on the relationship of expenditures to achievement, the characteristics of a financially healthy school district, the operation of support services and measures to protect school funds and property.
In the competitive landscape of the 21st Century, a sustainable advantage of globalization depends on the skills and abilities of a leader who can manage diversity and implement increasingly complex business strategies. Effective workforce diversity management is a key to global business success (Okoro, 2012). In pursuit of leadership effectiveness in today’s globalized world, cross-cultural leaders need to be able to manage culturally diverse settings efficiently, known as a capability of cultural intelligence or cultural quotient - CQ (Rockstuhl et al., 2011). Since CQ is significantly related to individual international experiences (Lovvorn & Chen, 2011), global leaders should be aware and appreciate the diversity they face in leadership practices. Due to globalization, technologic innovation, and demographic changes, international organizations are seeking effective leaderships for diverse workforce management. Globalleadership is about managing a business across borders where there are different cultural, legal, and economic systems. It’s about knowing how to operate in multiple environments trying to achieve a common corporate objective.