Human capital is arguably the most treasured and valued asset of any organization, and is primarily responsible for adding value to all other assets of an organization. The very word recruitment is a logistics nightmare for the HR of many organizations. It has been seen, in this rapid changing world, that various sourcing recruitment channels, such as social media (LinkedIn, Facebook, etc.) have been developed and used, in addition to the traditional ones (advertisements, employee referrals, recruitment agencies, etc). In this paper, an attempt has been made to identify the changing trends related to effective hiring sources and to study their impact on the leading globalorganizations. It is concluded that a shift is being made towards the modern and innovative sourcing channels due to various factors like quality, cost, availability, time, etc.
Defining/Changing Organization Structure:
GlobalOrganizations must devise an organizational structure that enables rapid decision-making. A rigid hierarchical structure may not work very well for globalorganizations. Multi-centered organizations work well. Successful globalorganizations have attempted to establish core competency centers in different countries. While defining the global organization structure care should be exercised to ensure that the organization designers are not restricted by their own cultural attitudes. It is very critical to understand the value systems of the countries in which global sourcing is planned.
The FCGH elements that we have described should create new standards for GHOs. The FCGH would have to accommodate the diversity of GHOs. It might not be possible for all GHOs to adhere to all of the standards. A GHO with a small secretariat may not have the resources to justify a full-time human rights staff member, yet it might incorporate human rights functions into the job description of one of its staff. Resource and time constraints may impose further burdens, as implementing these measures will require developing and monitoring new policies and engaging additional partners. Yet even modestly sized GHOs can do much to advance the right to health. For example, the Global Health Workforce Alliance, with its primary functions of advocacy and generating knowledge, could integrate health workforce and right to health links. This could entail, for example, advising on how to incorporate human rights into national human resources strategies in relation to health worker education or equitable distribution of health workers, gathering and sharing best practices on these forms of integration, or convening meetings on the intersection of the health workforce and human rights.
Having the right technology will enable a more efficient way of working in a global company. However, the human factor cannot be disregarded - hence having the right hu- man interaction design is equally important. The scope of the International Business Communication Project has fo- cused on these key deliverables.
HR in international organizations are in need of new perspectives (cf. Collings, Wood & Caligiuri, 2015; Robinson-Easley, 2014), as well as whether the role of corporate HR will be diminished or strengthened in response to these changes (Collings, Scullion & Morley, 2007). As global teams become increasingly employed in organizations, HR are faced with challenges as well as benefits at the levels of the individual, the team and the organization. At the same time, as globalorganizations develop more effective HR policies and practices, such as global diversity management, they will tend to develop more effective global teams (Nishii & Özbilgin, 2007). We encourage manuscripts that address important HR issues with respect to global teams in organizations at these various levels of analysis, or multi-level in their approach, as well as contribute to the development of new theoretical perspectives. Papers may be conceptual or empirical, and could address (but are not limited to) any of the following topics:
This paper is prepared mainly based on secondary information gathering, reviewing and analyzing the existing international literatures published in the relevant books, journals, magazines and websites. Researchers’ personal observations at different times at different organizations have been taken into consideration for insight vision of the study. However, some of the managerial level employees of different well reputed organizations have been consulted through convenience sampling with a set of unstructured questionnaire related to information systems used in different organizations and impact of the systems on managerial decision making. Based on this information a final conclusion has been made which shows the interrelationship between management information system and managerial decision making.
These developments are monumental and broadcast the capabilities that these organizations have to make great change, however, without the same mandated standards, disparities amongst the educated youth in the country can negatively impact civil society and education in the future. If a student is provided with this “alternative approach” of learning at a high-achieving primary school, they are likely to not have the same experience or assimilate into the same level as their peers as they move to secondary school. In order to address these disparities, education NGOs should meet accreditation requirements upon registration. These accreditation requirements should mandate both a baseline curriculum to meet the same standards as the government model; as well as require all teachers working for these alternative schools to be certified through the nation’s same standards, whether through a certain exam or a course requirement ran by the Ministry of Education. These policy changes would allow for uniformity of the basic right to education for the nation’s youth while also leaving room for innovation without the same implications.
The research was undertaken as an honours thesis over a period of one (1) year starting in December 1999.
The research best fits into the category of a qualitative design as it aims to highlight the experiences of individual organizations i.e. it is not concerned with averaging data as in a quantitative design. Multiple case studies were identified as the appropriate strategy to gather the detailed and intensive data that was required to satisfactorily address the aims set. The main instrument for data collection was personal interviews. Other sources of evidence included corporate websites and librarians, journal and newspaper articles. Since the research tried to represent the perspective at a broad level of Australian industry, the study encompasses organizations from three different industries: telecommunications, services and transportation. The sampling was not representative of targeting a pre-determined industry, geographic region, or size. The sample consisted of organizations where contacts were available and the participant agreed to partake in the research. The aim was to gather information from large-sized firms who had sufficient offshore development experience.
The existing literature in International Political Economy tells us that regulators and their networks of experts should rush to establish author- ity over technically complex issues in global governance (B€ uthe and Mattli 2011; Lall 2014). We also know that state, private sector, and civil groups are active in propagating expert networks on financial issues (Kastner 2014; Newman and Posner 2016). Critical in this regard is ‘issue control’ or who has the right to speak with authority on a given issue of the regulatory agenda (Henriksen and Seabrooke 2016; Seabrooke and Henriksen, 2017). Issue control is important for professional and organi- zational networks and does not simply rely on organizational mandates and agenda setting. This concept is particularly important in the world of financial regulation, whose extreme technical complexity and exposure grants a privileged place to the ‘grey matter’ of prominent experts (Baker 2013; M€ ugge and Perry 2014; Seabrooke and Tsingou 2014). As such we need to know more about the environment in which knowledge about shadow banking regulation is produced.
As technological approaches failed to develop a vaccine or treatment, and as public health approaches placed emphasis on behaviour change, often bordering on blaming individuals for their positive status, PWAs and their allies developed an alternative response. The Gay Men’s Health Crisis, founded in 1981 in New York City, was the first formal PWA support group, and throughout the 1980s similar AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) developed across North America, Western Europe and Latin America (Knight 2008, 12). These were some of the first disease specific organizations formed by patients (Soderholm 1997, 78). Membership largely consisted of middle class white males who were well educated, articulate and professional. They rejected state sponsored campaigns that characterized them as statistical risk groups and as populations of disease carriers (Fee 1994, 1478). Instead, they argued that it was not their sexual orientation or behaviours that were the problem, but the homophobia, stigma and discrimination that forced individuals to engage in risky activities, and avoid information and medical care (Bayer & Fairchild 2006).
Differences in the scope of governance standards become apparent on the global scale. The human rights regime was already very well developed and specified in 1998, but there was a steady increase in ROs which took on a similar set of governance standards up until the year 2004. This is represented in the radar graphs in Figure 2.2 by the expansion of the main dimensions covered under the human rights label, while at the same time the geometric form does not change much. The only exceptions are the social and economic rights, which seem to be slightly more prevalent in ROs by 2004, but this trend diminishes over the following years. By the end of the time period under study, 60 per cent of the items that we covered are present in the three dominant dimensions of human rights (fundamental political and civil rights, social and economic rights, and cross-cutting rights). In absolute terms, ROs prescribed 45 out of 76 standards in these three dimensions, on average.
In conditions of (post) global society, there are different models of workers’ participation in the decision-making process within labor organizations. These models are not depending only on dominant political ideology in the society, but largely also on organizational culture practiced in the business environment of these organizations. That is how, for example, one of the key characteristics of Japanese organizational culture are workers initiating decision- making, i.e. the whole decisionistic process in large number of cases moves bottom-up, and that is very specific in comparative analysis with the rest of Western world (Giddens, 2007). More attention will be paid to the globalization of organizational culture as specific phenomenon in separate chapter of our research.
Collaboration with faith-based organizations (FBO) has been integral to the work of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) for more than fifty years. Within the health sector, this partnership spans both time and geography to serve the health needs of vulnerable populations and communities in the developing world. Faith leaders and faith organizations are closely linked with the communities they serve - culturally, spiritually, and physically. They often represent and are composed of trusted individuals whose lives, beliefs, and cultural values are aligned with their beneficiaries. They know intimately the networks - both formal and informal as well as the opinion leaders, the history, the behaviors, and the practices which have strengthened or weakened the communities they seek to serve. They are often rich in experience and
The 2010 National Security Strategy acknowledges the challenge these organizations pose and that combating transnational criminal and trafficking networks will require a “multidimensional strategy that safeguards citizens, breaks the financial strength of criminal and terrorist networks, disrupts illicit trafficking networks, defeats transnational criminal organizations, fights government corruption, strengthens the rule of law, bolsters judicial systems, and improves transparency.” (National Security Strategy, 2010, p. 49) To help mitigate transnational crime in this hemisphere the U.S. needs to help improve Latin American and Caribbean domestic institutions and coordination across all their institutions—ranging from the law enforcement and judicial sectors to education. A key to countering TCOs is to understand associated networks or the supply chain. Major crime groups such as Mexican cartels or Colombia’s FARC contract with smaller, local criminal organizations that move goods. These are important elements of the network but little is known about them. These franchises operate in, and control, specific geographic territories, which allow them to function in a relatively safe environment. These pipelines, or chains of networks, are adaptive and able to move a multiplicity of illicit products (cocaine, weapons, humans, and bulk cash) that ultimately cross U.S. borders undetected thousands of times each day. The actors along the pipeline form and dissolve alliances quickly, occupy physical and cyber space, and use both highly developed and modern institutions, including the global financial system, as well as ancient smuggling routes and methods (Farah, 2012). They are middlemen who have little loyalty to one group and often have no aspiration to develop their organization into a major trafficking network. They make a living by moving goods and ensure which families are safe from the TOC group who threatens to kill those who do not assist them.
When seeing The DAO as a body on the blockchain, in form of an organization, one could try to define it through its relations with other actors on the blockchain or on a market. The inner determination takes the form of power in the form of executed code. When the code is deployed, it is a power that decides e.g. who can be part of The DAO and allows one to relate to The DAO, as one would with a body. Looking back at the Colebrook quote, the code is what closes off The DAO to give it identity, while at the same time being the medium for interactions with the outside. Compare this with registered organizations in national legislations, where the registration and the statutes of the organization defines the boundaries, so that a third party can clearly see what is inside the organization and what is outside, and interact with the organization accordingly. In The DAO, the code is visible for third parties through its publication of the blockchain, making it accessible in a way comparable to a registration. The rules set in the code define functions of The DAO in a way similar to how the statutes govern a national organization. See however section 5.2.1 on the dissonance between the blockchain and registries in accordance with existing national laws. The difference between that discussion and the case here, is that the former has to comply with existing requirements, while the latter can make up its own rules on what a register needs to be.
imposed by the notion of “made-in-China”, Chinese CROs had changed their value proposition from just cost-saving to value-added for clients. When the Chinese CROs began their business at the beginning of 21 st century, most of them strived to survive by attracting clients with their advantages of low human and material cost without too much emphasis on the service quality. However, the ruthless “red ocean” competition on price and tough demands from high-end clients eventually forced CROs with weak R&D and management capability out of the market rapidly. The surviving CROs in China then sought new value propositions through three main aspects: i) they invested into technology improvement and applied the most advanced biotechnology into their R&D services; ii) they invested into R&D capacity building, installed the most advanced laboratory instruments and advanced laboratory facilities to ensure scale economy and high efficiency; iii) they adopted global R&D standards and guidelines into their practices to meet the inter- national requirements including the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP), Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), and Good Clinical Practice (GCP). All these efforts enabled Chinese CROs to employ a new, systemic value propos- ition which was recognized as an increasingly important quality sought after by their clients.
services industry. In response to the high profile corporate failures of Enron and Arthur Andersen, among others, regulators in European and US jurisdictions have sought to extend and improve controls and internal and external reporting of financial firms. The Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act was introduced as a response to such failures. The most contentious part of SOX was Section 404 which requires that organizations asses their internal control structures for management and for external auditors to report on the adequacy of those controls. In order to meet these requirements the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations’ (COSO) internal control framework is often utilized (Agrawal et al. 2006; Damianides 2005). Previous research has shown that there is a positive relation between IT related weaknesses in COSO components and firms which have reported material weaknesses in their internal controls under SOX (Klamm and Watson 2009). Data quality has also been found to impact internal controls (Fields et al. 1986). SOX obligations posed serious challenges for IT departments, as increased demands to document and test important manual and automated controls required extensive revisions to internal business processes (Li et al. 2012). Consequently, the role of IT in complying with regulations became more critical, requiring senior IT professionals to pay close attention to new regulatory obligations (Currie 2008).