most efficient strategy for Verticillium wilt control (Cirulli et al., 2000; Ciancolini et al., 2010).
Twenty-four viruses, belonging to 13 genera, have been up now isolated from globeartichoke (Martelli and Gallitelli, 2008). The majority of these viruses have been found in many countries of Europe and Mediterranean area and they are transmitted mainly by aphids, nematodes and infected propagated materials. The most detrimental viruses for globeartichoke are the AILV (Artichoke Italian latent virus), which is widespread in Apulia region, the ArLV (Artichoke latent virus) that is widely often distributed in mixed infection with AILV in globeartichoke cultivation areas, the TSWV (Tomato spotted wilt virus) and the AMCV (Artichoke mottled crinkle virus) (Acquadro et al., 2010). In particular, TSWV and AMCV severely affect plant growth and provoke deformities on flower heads along with serious economic losses. The use of virus-free planting material coming from meristem-tip culture represents an important tool for the virus infection control and allows a significant increase in productivity (Gallitelli and Barba, 2003). Instead, seed propagation does not guarantee to obtain virus-free plants. In fact, some globeartichoke infecting viruses such as AILV and ArLV are transmitted both via seed and pollen (Bottalico et al., 2002; Acquadro et
The globeartichoke ‘Romanesco C3’ map (LOD 6.0) consisted of 473 loci falling into 20 LGs, each containing at least eight loci (Figure 1). The number of mapped SSRs has now risen from 46 to 185. The largest LG con- tained 73 loci, and the range in genetic length of the in- dividual LGs was 34.5-140.9 cM. CyEM loci (139 markers) were mapped to all the major LGs, and their inclusion allowed the integration of six AFLP loci which previously had remained unlinked . Two LGs (C3_13 and C3_18) which were previously separated have now been merged, while LG C3_4 has been split into C3_4a and C3_4b as a consequence of more stringent LOD ap- plied (Figure 1). LG C3_17 has increased in genetic
Otherwise, effect of the different concentrations of jasmonic acid (JA) on fresh mass and dry matter of both two plants species was tested. Among the tested concentrations of JA, 50 µM was more suitable for callus growth. However, it was noticed that, callus of milk thistle was more positive responding for exogenous application of both SA and JA compared with callus of globeartichoke. In vitro hypolipidemic effects of extracts of globe artichokes and Milk thistle callus cultures were studied. Extracts of calli of both plants showed hypolipidemic viability effects in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, globeartichoke and milk thistle extracts recorded potent antioxidant effects as compared to their standard. There were significant differences between extracts of calli and standards at the low levels groups (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 mg/l). Moreover, globeartichoke extract showed more potent hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects than the milk thistles extract.
Globeartichoke production reached 1.8 million of tons in 2013 worldwide [FAO 2016]. Of this amount, 51.7% came from Europe. Artichoke pro- duction in Africa, America and Asia represented 20.9%, 18.7% and 8.8%, respectively. In Europe, Italy (466508 Tm) is, besides being the major arti- choke producer, the holder of the most important germplasm with numerous commercial and local varieties of globe artichokes that have adapted to different environments [Mauromicale and Ierna 2000, Fratianni et al. 2007]. Thus it not surprising that Italian cultivars (Catanese, Bianco di Pertosa, Carciofo di Aquara, Tondo di Paestum, C3, Violet de Provence, Romanesco, Tema, Tempo, Tondo di Paestum, Violetto di Sicilia) are the most studied for their composition and phenolic characterization [Lattanzio and Van Sumere 1987, Fratianni et al. 2007, Lombardo et al 2010].
Drought is one of the major abiotic stress limiting plants growth and productivity in many areas of the world (Tanji, 1990). Expansion of drought leads to osmotic stress, specific ions toxicity and ionic imbalances (Munns, 2003). Limited water supply is a major environmental constraint in productivity of medicinal plants; e.i. moisture deficiency induces various physiological and metabolic responses like stomatal closure and decline in growth rate or photosynthesis (Flex et al, 2004). The results of Idrees et al. (2011) showed that water stress significantly reduced the plant height, shoot and root dry weight and long term water stress led to gradual decrease in photosynthetic activity, antioxidant metabolism, total alkaloids and ascorbic acid of Cathantherous roseous. Piriformospora indica, (Basidiomycota, Sebacinales) just the same as arbascular-mycorrhizal-fungi (AMF) colonizes the roots of many plants (Harrison, 2005; Oldroyd, 2006), but it is an axenic fungus. The fungus was discovered by Verma et al.(1998) from Thar desert in Rajesthan. P.indica tremendously improves the growth and overall biomass of diverse hosts including legumes (Verma, 1998; Varma 1999). Arabidopsis Thailania (Pe škan - Bergh öfer et al.,2004; Shahollari et al., 2005; Sheramti et al., 2005), barely (Waller et al., 2005 and 2008; Baltruschat et al., 2008), tobacco (Barazanni et al., 2007 for sebacina vermifera), medicinal and other industrial crops (Rai et al. 2001; Singh et al.2011). Globeartichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a perennial
Commercial F 1 hybrids are not as uniform as experimental ones produced by crossing a pair of highly inbred lines, and genotypic analyses have confirmed the hybrids are quite heterogeneous at the genetic level (unpublished data). A potential alternative approach to developing a seed-propagated variety sufficiently distinct, uniform and stable at the phenotypic level, thus satisfying the regulatory requirements for varietal release, could be to generate an open pollinated variety bred from a group of closely related progenitors. As yet there is no firm understanding as to what level of homozygosity can be tolerated in globeartichoke before plant vigour and/or the yield or capitulum quality are compromised.
One third of the artichoke production is used in industrial processes, where up to 70% - 85% of the initial raw material is transformed into solid wastes. For an adequate management of these wastes, it is necessary to know their water sorption properties, because physical, chemical and biological changes which occur during their storage depend on water-solid interactions. The objectives of this work are to experimentally determine equilibrium sorption (adsorption and desorption) data of artichoke wastes at different temperatures (25˚C - 55˚C), as well as correlate and predict water sorption isotherms using bib- liographic models. Equilibrium moisture content ranged 0 - 0.6 kg water/kg dry solid (water activ- ity 0.05 - 0.9). Water sorption isotherms were classified between Types II and III. Hysteresis phenomenon was not observed, neither was the dependence of the equilibrium data with tem- perature. BET, GAB, Oswin and Peleg correla- tion models were satisfactorily fitted to experi- mental data. A predictive model based on com- position and physical state of artichoke waste components was also successfully used to re- produce experimental data.
are derivates of the stearidonic acid (18:4n-3), a plant-derived dietary n-3 PUFA, whose impact on tissue n-3 PUFA content are lacking.
The identification of vitamin C and some vitamins belonging to the B group (thiamine, riboflavine, nicotinamide and nicotinic acid) in artichoke extracts was already reported . It has been demonstrated that the nicotinic acid can inhibit lipolysis, acutely reducing plasma free fatty acid concentrations, and my act in much the same manner as cynarin . We are describing for the first time the incidence of pantothenic acid, pyridoxal and pyridoxine in artichoke extracts, while the above mentioned B5 and B6 vitamins were suggested to act as cancer risk reduction agents , and having anti-inflammatory effects associated with atherosclerosis and autoimmunity .
The picture on the left page shows today's main barriers to constraint-free world shipping sys- tems, and the picture on the right page shows the main barriers to the world railway systems. On both the maps, main obstacles that have to be overcome in these two modes of transportation are shown in pale brown or blue. In both cases, it is the high North with its permanent layer of snow and ice that is the main obstacle today. The present ice cover is prohibitive for both the transporta- tion modes and therefore leads to the absence of shipping or railway connections along the whole high North and the Arctic area. In terms of other areas of the globe, it is mainly the vertical form of the continents that has been a major hindrance between the world oceans and continents. About a hundred years ago, a huge step was reached in transcending these barriers: the building of the Suez and Panama Canals.
by the same actor (Quill Roberts), with the same cockney accent, and dressed in the same modern jeans and baseball cap, as the Carpenter in 1.1; when he climbed onto the stage from the yard to read his warning to Caesar, it was almost as if the reason he knew about the conspiracy was that he had been standing in the audience, watching the play. This impression was further cemented when the Elizabethan-costumed Portia entered behind him to begin the next scene, and he pointed directly at her on his closing reference to “traitors” (2.3.16), breaking the convention established thus far that characters exiting from one scene were not aware of the presence of the characters entering for the next. When he climbed up onto the stage again to warn Caesar at the beginning of the assassination scene, the reactions from the stage characters – “What, is the fellow mad?” and “Sirrah, give place” (3.1.10) – thus almost became class-coded responses to an intrusion from a working-class audience member who was unaware or unmindful of the usual conventions of theatre spectatorship (in 1999, a common charge in the press against real spectators at the Globe). 6
As reported in Figure 7b, neat PLA shows a sharp and intense peak, thus indicating no restriction to the macromolecule chain motion. On the contrary, the presence of artichoke fibers hinders the chain mobility, resulting in a broader and larger peak for both the composites, i.e., UNID and RANDOM. This behavior can be attributed to the good fiber-matrix adhesion, as suggested by the tensile results and confirmed by SEM micrographs. More in detail, UNID composites clearly show a broader and lower tan delta peak than RANDOM ones. This different behavior cannot be addressed by changes in fiber-matrix adhesion, which, as already discussed, is not affected by the arrangement of artichoke fibers within the PLA matrix. On the contrary, the different shape of the tan delta peak can be explained taking into account the random placement of the fibers within the PLA matrix. Indeed, this arrangement leads to the overlapping of the fibers, thus creating some matrix-poor areas, as previously evidenced by SEM micrographs. These zones can favor the PLA chain mobility, thus justifying the higher damping shown by RANDOM composites rather than UNID ones.
The study of the mechanisms of the adsorption of the methylene blue on the waste of the artichoke has been the subject of this work. The results related to the kinetics and isotherms of adsorption have been exploited to explain the method of fixation of the dye on the adsorbent. The study of the influence of the mass and the initial concentration on the kinetics showed that the process of adsorption follows the model of pseudo- second order. The adsorption capacity of a mass of the waste of artichoke increases with the increase of the initial concentration of the dye in the solution. The model of Langmuir expresses the type of adsorption; the dye molecules are adsorbed in a monolayer.
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