Governance and Creative Industries

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Creative Clusters: Towards the governance of the creative industries production system?

Creative Clusters: Towards the governance of the creative industries production system?

The notion of a production chain takes us beyond simple mapping of co-location and begins to open up a space for the analysis of process; something that clearly requires a different quality of information. As I have already pointed out processes such as in inter-firm interaction, and the intra-firm organisation of production itself, are highly variable and linked to materials, technologies and relationship to audiences, as well as to the structure of markets. It is on this point that we can begin to make a robust case for the exceptionalism of the creative industries as a whole, and for differences within them. Each industry has characteristic forms of organisation, markets and regulation. A full account will have to wait until more research has been carried out in this area. However, we can offer some indicative views about the varieties of production chains. For the sake of simplicity these can be split into three types: (1) those that focus on bringing the content to the audience; (2) those that bring audiences to content; and, (3) service-based activities. This distinction should not be read as a rigid tripartite division, but rather a continuum along which activities can be placed. It is a useful distinction as it helps to open up some of the contrasting underlying characteristics of the governance of the sector.
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The cultural and creative industries: organisational and spatial challenges to their governance

The cultural and creative industries: organisational and spatial challenges to their governance

bestehenden Institutionen der Verwaltung, der Po- litik und der Wissenschaft einfügt. Die Fortschritte bei der Erfassung kultureller Einrichtungen und Bestände lieferten eine Reihe konzeptioneller Dif- ferenzierungen und empirischer Befunde, die be- stätigen, dass die KK eine signifikante Rolle in der Gesellschaft spielt – eine Rolle, die sich außerdem rapide wandelt. Die Antworten, mit denen die Po- litik auf diese Herausforderungen reagierte, richte- ten sich bisher vor allem auf die Betrachtung der erstellten Produkte, während dem Erstellungspro- zess weit weniger Aufmerksamkeit gewidmet wur- de. Geographen haben dazu einen wichtigen Bei- trag geleistet, vor allem zu Themen der Cluster- Bildung und der räumlichen Integration der KK. Wir erörtern, wie sich die Politik hinsichtlich der KK von der Kulturpolitik und der Industriepolitik unterscheidet, was die Etablierung eines neuen Politikfeldes erfordert. Dieser Beitrag strebt eine geographische Betrachtung dieser Debatte an. Wir betonen die Notwendigkeit, Governance als das Handeln von Institutionen zu betrachten, das eher den Bedingungen der KK entspricht. Des Weiteren unterstreichen wir, dass sich das Management der KK auf die Erstellungsprozesse richten muss und nicht auf den Output. Wir meinen, dass die Gover- nance eines solchen Systems vor allem im Aufbau und in den Zwischenräumen von Netzwerken er- reicht wird. Diese Prozesse beinhalten mehr als nur das Erzeugen von „Linkages“, sie besitzen zusätzlich das Potential, sowohl das Produktions- system der KK als auch die Governance-Struktu- ren neu zu formieren und zu verändern. Unser Beitrag weist auch auf eine Reihe komplexer Orga- nisationsformen hin, die dem Wachstum an Output der KK zu Grunde liegen. Dies hat dazu geführt, dass einige Kommentatoren auf die Notwendigkeit hingewiesen haben, die potentielle Effektivität der traditionellen (insbesondere der auf Output- Management ausgerichteten) Politik zu überdenken, und vorgeschlagen haben, dass die Beachtung des Prozessmanagements und das Erforschen der Tech- nologien und Techniken der Governance ein nützli- cher Weg sein könnten, um in der Debatte voranzu- kommen. Zweifellos ist das Management, das Gren- zen zwischen öffentlich und privat, zwischen gewinn- orientiert und gemeinnützig, zwischen formell und informell überschreitet, ein brandaktuelles Thema. Dieser Beitrag führt schließlich einige Beispiele auf,
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The Cultural and Creative Industries: new engines for the city?

The Cultural and Creative Industries: new engines for the city?

So, we can now see the problems: the CCI are now an important part of the city, but how are they to be governed, if at all? There is a strong tradition within continental Europe regarding the way in which culture and the cultural sector has been seen as something to be preserved in the public sector. A further division exists between the private sector and what is referred to as the third sector (charitable and informal activities). The CCI seem to have a presence in all these governance spaces. Continental European experience has previously framed the way in which policies for the culture and creative industries have been discussed; that is, by default, the state assumes responsibility. However, the dual trend of, on the one hand, the decline of the state's power and resources and reduced funding for culture, and, on the other, the rise of the for-profit aspects of CCI have created new challenges, and called forth the need to reconsider older governance responses. One of those new insights comes via the United Kingdom; although it shared the state funding model with mainland Europe, it also has a tradition of charitable and private sector involvement. This legacy has perhaps put the UK in a better position than most European nations to confront the current challenges of the intermingling of the types of activities in the different sectors. Much of the strength of the culture and creative industries comes from the public and private sectors as well as the intermediate sector. The formal and the informal are interwoven. In such an interconnected system, applying policy or intervening in one part rather than the whole can disrupt important interdependencies. However, each of the three sectors have a myopic focus on narrow concerns, something often referred to within government as a “silo mentality”; so, the governance challenge is to be cross-sectoral.
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Efficiency Performance And Productivity Of Creative Industries

Efficiency Performance And Productivity Of Creative Industries

Based on the CPI index score, Japan has the highest score and is ranked first with a score of 1.114. This means Japan is considered as the country with the highest output / input ratio (productivity) with a more efficient level of input use. Meanwhile, Indonesia's productivity level (output / input ratio) is in the 12th position with a score of 0.526. However, the highest score in the first position of creative destruction (efficiency) input Singapore with a score of 0.892. It means that Singapore is the most efficient country. Meanwhile, Indonesia is ranked 23 out of 24 countries with a score of 0.221 and is classified as the group of countries with the lowest level of efficiency along with Cambodia with the most inefficient score (0.212), Myanmar (0.282), Laos (0.288), and Philippines (0.306). The CPI index aims to provide policy makers by offering tools to measure progress in encouraging creativity and innovation in 22 Asian countries (together with the United States and Ireland). According to the ADB report (2014), Indonesia is ranked 12th out of 24 nations, with a high level of creative productivity due to its ability to place relatively scarce inputs for efficient use. However, in terms of inputs, Indonesia only has medium basic knowledge, and low level of competition. Besides, the dynamics of industrial companies that have weak governance lead to low innovation. Nevertheless, the country can produce relatively high levels of output. As part of the 2005-2025 long-term National Development Plan (RPJPM), Indonesia's current plan for 2019-2024 focuses more on developing human resource capacity and improving science and technology. This effort is generally only aimed at increasing the country's knowledge-skills based generation. However, based on the CPI, it shows that the knowledge-skills based program may not be the highest priority in region (ADB, 2014). The implication of the CPI index value and the policy is that the focus and contribution of the CPI is to analyze efficiency and productivity (efficiency by linking inputs to outputs). It implies that the economy may have a higher level of productivity, but it may still be less efficient than other economic activities. In this case, the similarity of CPI with this research is to capture what specific elements are more important in (CPI) regions. The results of this study support the CPI's opinion that the knowledge-skills based (creativity and innovation) has not been the highest priority in the regions.
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Mapping the Creative Industries in Townsville: a preliminary scoping study

Mapping the Creative Industries in Townsville: a preliminary scoping study

The Australian bureau of statistics (ABS) data was constructed through defining occupations in the Creative Industries; the ABS defines its occupations through the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO). The ABS census data for 2006 and 2011 contained a number of Creative Industries workers operating in Townsville. These were firstly determined as individual occupation areas for each of 2006-11, after which they were aggregated using the concentric circles model and concept put forward by David Throsby (2008).

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Constructing a Creative Agricultural Complex Base on the Law for Development of the Cultural and Creative Industries in Taiwan

Constructing a Creative Agricultural Complex Base on the Law for Development of the Cultural and Creative Industries in Taiwan

The cultural industry refers to “companies that derive their development mo- mentum from individual creativity, technology, and talent, as well as those that create pre-existing wealth and employment opportunities through the develop- ment of intellectual property rights”. The cultural and creative industries are closely related to the cultural industry and the creative industry season, and they are different from each other. It also emphasizes cultural and creative. To put it simply, it is to integrate the originality and variability of knowledge into a cul- ture with rich connotations, so that it can be combined with economic activities to exert the functions of the industry. Therefore, cultural creativity is a process in which knowledge and intelligence evolve into specific wealth. It has three characteristics: first, the use of some form of individual “creative” in the produc- tion process; second, the symbolic production of unique creativity and The con- sumption of physical entities; third, the marketing of products has intellectual property rights.
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Creative Industries: Case Studies from Arab Countries

Creative Industries: Case Studies from Arab Countries

In Arab countries there has been a widespread impression that there has been a decline in creative and artistic activities which, in turn, has led to a decline in the output of creative industries in those countries (see for instance, the Arab Human Development Report 2003.) Since there has been no systematic collection of data/statistics for verifying this impression, a systematic empirical study was needed, in order to provide scholars, business leaders and policy makers with a sound advice and assist them in making informed policy decisions concerning this important issue. It could have been, however, quite costly and time consuming to conduct such an analysis for all creative industries and for all Arab countries. Therefore, a selective approach was required. This consisted of choosing four key creative industries in five selected Arab countries (Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon) and thus conducting five national case studies (the final reports of these case studies are listed in the reference list) 1 .
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Mindful practice: research and interdisciplinary dialogues in the creative industries

Mindful practice: research and interdisciplinary dialogues in the creative industries

Some of my colleagues and students have argued that ‘set’ or traditional methodologies are constraining, however I believe that knowledge of their processes enables us to identify and trace the methodological territories as points of departure from which our innovative approaches can be develop. There are many established research methods that we can appropriate, adapt and (re)invent. So, in my view, the introduction of a diversity of ways to conceptualise and construct research methods is a central aspect of learning that underpins the development of new methodological approaches in the light of the individual’s questions, learning and representational styles. This is predicated on the belief that when the person behind the research is made visible other practitioner researchers can see how an individual’s purposes, personal theories, experience, strengths, uncertainties and commitment play a part in the methodological choices that they make. As mindful practitioners we are challenged to recognise our roles as knowledge workers by sharing our praxis. If in so doing we can build a resource kit of emerging and relevant methodologies from which researchers can select, adapt and modify, the processes of our research outcomes are more likely to serve a creative and liberating function. If they are also offered as examples of approaches that have been developed and used for other purposes, times and contexts, then we can study established methodologies from their situated value, so that lessons can be learned for our own research (Dodds and Hart 2001:168).
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Observation the Implementation of Business Knowledge Management System in Creative Industry in Achieving Compatitive Advantage (Study in Visual Communication Design Business in Riau Province, Indonesia)

Observation the Implementation of Business Knowledge Management System in Creative Industry in Achieving Compatitive Advantage (Study in Visual Communication Design Business in Riau Province, Indonesia)

The implementation of the knowledge management system in the creative industry business is very important because it will affect the achievement of sustainable competitive advantage. The implementation of the knowledge management system in the creative industry based on the results of respondents' responses is indeed still lacked. So far, the emphasis in creative economic business activities is only on the competencies of creative talent, the creative economic impact on national economic growth. Knowledge related to markets and customers is still not optimally done. So that creative talent does not totally do the work because business efforts in the creative industry in determining their position in the market have not been carried out optimally. So that creative economic products tend to lack differentiation and diversification through emphasizing the creativity of creative talent. This also causes creative talent to be unprofessional and less committed to the organization. In addition, the creative industry business in the visual communication design sector has no effort to protect the knowledge of creative talent against unexpected use from outside the business itself. So that it makes creativity and innovation as an important part of business in the creative economy to be very poorly encountered. This is because efforts to win competition in business are not important. So that efforts to continue to develop the skills and expertise of creative talent cannot be expected from a creative economy business, but from stakeholders who are concerned about the existence of creative economic businesses, both creative communities, business owners, regulators. The government as a policy maker besides being able to use creative economic products, can also direct companies in the region to use local creative economy products. So that it can develop the skills and expertise of creativie talent through providing experience to creative talent and motivating the creative industry to offer superior products. Academics can also be involved in researching phenomena that occur in creative economic business activities both micro and macro. Research related to the implementation of KMS in improving competitive advantage needs to be done by the next researcher in the sub-sector based on heritage. Culture as identity and self-image in dynamic and uncertain conditions, it is necessary to study the effect of implementing KMS in achieving competitive advantage and sustainability.
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Benchmarking and understanding London’s Cultural and Creative Industries

Benchmarking and understanding London’s Cultural and Creative Industries

The local area study – which still awaits a geospatial analysis sufficient to do it justice – revealed or confirmed a number of key features of London’s creative industries. First, they were highly agglomerated, in a way that mirrored the agglomeration of the finance and business sector. London’s financial district lies in the City and, with the growth of docklands, increasingly to its East. London’s creative sector is to be found in all the boroughs surrounding the finance sector but above all, to its west, in Westminster and in a belt fanning out from Westminster towards Heathrow Airport.
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Research Handbook on Intellectual Property and Creative Industries

Research Handbook on Intellectual Property and Creative Industries

Elgar Law’s Research Handbook on Intellectual Property and Creative Industries is the latest addition to its growing Research Handbook series and provides a whistle- stop tour of the interaction between intellectual property (“IP”) and the “Creative Industries”. For the purposes of this book, the term “Creative Industries” encompasses a wide range of content including advertising, architecture, fashion, software, film, music, publishing and broadcasting (p. 79). Although films, music and video games are part of the Creative Industries, this Research Handbook does not cover these types of work in great detail and interested readers should consult Richardson and Ricketson's book in the same series for more detail. 1
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Spillover effects in the arts, culture and the creative industries in Europe

Spillover effects in the arts, culture and the creative industries in Europe

This project started approximately 6 months ago. As they move forward, the researchers are addressing evaluation challenges to help them proceed. One challenge is to find ways of integrating all the information derived from research within their framework and then to present it in numerical form in order to illustrate change. They regularly adjust this tool to the needs and the context of the project requirements, which is costly and time consuming. During the Q&A session after the presentation, it was stated that – besides the measure- ment of change caused by the arts, culture and the creative industries in general – it is im- portant to anticipate (and differentiate between) the long-term, short-term and the imme- diate changes of these interventions. The principal challenge is to define whether there is sustainable impact in the long-term.
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Barriers to the Development of Creative Industries in Culturally Diverse Region

Barriers to the Development of Creative Industries in Culturally Diverse Region

“Diagnosis of Participation in Culture in Podlaskie Voivodship” confirms that the stimulation of cultural diversity potential in the region is one of its key challenges (Poleszczuk et al. 2012: 50–51). Experts during interviews indicated that cultural diversity is used only in very commercialized forms, not associated with high culture. At the same time there is a closing of the various minority groups in their own borders (bonding social capital), limiting their openness to cooperation both between themselves and with representatives of the Polish population. Migration from the region of the creative persons that work or could work in creative industry was also emphasized. Some
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Determining The Potential Footwear Village To Developed As Creative Industries Tourism Area Study Case: Footwear Village, Mojokerto City, Indonesia

Determining The Potential Footwear Village To Developed As Creative Industries Tourism Area Study Case: Footwear Village, Mojokerto City, Indonesia

Creative industries mapping study which has been conducted by the Ministry of Trade of the Republic of Indonesia in 2007 have same definition about creative industries with UK DCMS Task Force 1988, so that creative industries in Indonesia defined as industries which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have a potential for the wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property and capital. There are different definitions about creative industries, the creative industries relate to the tourism are defined as: knowledge based creative activities that link producers, consumers and places by utilizing technology, talent or skill to generate meaningful intangible cultural products, creative content and experiences [5]. There are some aspects that influence the development of creative industries: Creative person (related to creative human resource based on motivation, competence and talent of interest); Organization context (culture, policy and communications systems); Environment (capital, partnership, technology, competition and government regulations); Product innovation (design) [1]. The development of creative industries are in dynamically include the local innovation capacity, the availabi lity of venture capital, the role of collaboration between institutions, skills and knowledge base and public policies that support the development of creative industries [7]. Develop creative industries required of stakeholder role such as government (provide direction education and providing incentives for actors in creative industries sector); From the business side (aspects that need to be considered is to provide training on entrepreneurship, business coaching and mentoring; financing schemes, marketing and busines matching as well as the creative community); From academics side (founding creative-oriented curriculum and entrepreneurship, implementing innovative multidisciplinary research and education and training institutions) [4].
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The Role of the Creative Industries: Translating Identities on Stages and Visuals

The Role of the Creative Industries: Translating Identities on Stages and Visuals

The interest of scholars, filmmakers, and artists in the relationship between translation and creativity within aesthetic discourse has unexpectedly increased, and the attention has focused upon the exploration of the modes and genres that make translation an expedient for the re-framing of migrant identities from contexts of crisis in contrast to the stereotypical representations in media discourse. Contemporary artistic forms of communication provide numerous levels of comprehension of the complex issues surrounding the nature of modern warfare and the continuing state of emergency in which we all live today. While representing contemporary conflict through first- and second-hand experiences, stories narrated through aesthetic discourse offer alternative viewpoints, not always reflected in mainstream media. By ‘reversing the anti- refugee discourse with art’ (Shabi, 2016), the creative and cultural industries are willing to translate the real voices of migrant identities by the creation of public spaces, where translation becomes the linking element between the arts and society. The ever growing potential of translation in both metaphorical and practical terms is thus strengthened by the spread of artistic narrative forms, where
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Creativity and Creative Industries in Cairns: Views from the Field

Creativity and Creative Industries in Cairns: Views from the Field

property, markets and audiences – has spread globally as a means by which to grow developed and developing economies. Yet given it largely has a top-down or policy focus, alongside the fact that it represents an ideological and point of tension for many traditional artifact producers, its understanding and relevance to regional workers on the ground has been questioned (e.g. Luckman 2; Gibson 3). Indeed, Luckman refers to the fact it is an “identifier that is not embraced by all” (12). Given there remains a level of contestation around the creative industries notion in the literature, alongside recently emerging views which demonstrate difficulties in applying this form of analysis to non-urban locations, there remains further opportunities to explore these issues as they apply to creative workers in regional and rural locations, and in particular in relation to far north Queensland. Hence, given the lack of published research exploring the nature of the creative industries sector and creativity in Cairns, the key centre in far north Queensland, the following research question was developed: What might be revealed and understood in relation to creativity and the creative industries concept in terms of the tropical location of Cairns, Australia?
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How to Teach Entrepreneurship to Communication and Creative Industries Students

How to Teach Entrepreneurship to Communication and Creative Industries Students

international business development study module targeted for undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of culture and creative industries (see the definition later in this document) in order to equip them with relevant skills set for future working life and changing labor market from an entrepreneurship perspective. The Study Module can also be used as a professional development program for other potential target groups in Europe to benefit the knowledge economy of Europe. These groups include managers and entrepreneurs and other groups of experts already working in expert positions in existing
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Communication Design: Insights from the Creative Industries (Book Review)

Communication Design: Insights from the Creative Industries (Book Review)

Anybody charged with making sense of this whole new world of graphic design will be confronted with a messy and unfolding terrain where things rarely stay still long enough to map them. This challenging context marks out the ambition of Derek Yates’ and Jessie Prices’ book Communication Design: Insights from the Creative

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A Further Study on the Talent Cultivation of Creative Industries and Design Art

A Further Study on the Talent Cultivation of Creative Industries and Design Art

With the needs of creative industries, design art talent must integrate creation, research and development and design together. Harry Potter, the $6 billion industrial chain, a popular cultural and commercial band, is the specific practice of design art. China's cultural and creative strategy and enhancing the cultural industry is in need for such impact and thinking. A kind of cultural industry, penetrating into the field of publishing, film, game and derivative products, has not stopped. It will enter the lower areas, such as toys, clothing, stationery, food, etc, which is in line with the needs of the high-end design artistic effect of creative industries. More creative thinking training content should be added in the talent cultivation process, encourage the pursuit of attractive novel ideas. The creative industries which attract people and produce greater economic benefits often are design art products with shot cycle but much creative content, such as animation, newspaper, theatrical performances and other original category of cultural industries.
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Analysis on the International Competitiveness of Beijing’s Cultural Creative Industries

Analysis on the International Competitiveness of Beijing’s Cultural Creative Industries

The added value of Beijing’s cultural creative industries shown in Figure 1 main- tained a momentum of rapid growth from 2005 to 2014. The added value of Bei- jing’s cultural creative industries in 2014 was 279.43 billion yuan, and it accounted for 13.1% of Beijing’s gross domestic (GDP). By the end of 2014, about 0.17 mil- lion cultural creative enterprises were established in Beijing, which is 15% higher than that in the previous year, with a registered capital of 433.85 billion yuan, which is 39.4% higher than that in the same period in the previous year. Corpo- rate units above the designated size brought in 1102.9 billion yuan in sales, which is 9.5% greater than that in the last year. The number of employees in cultural creative industries was 1.097 million, which is 2.2% greater than that in 2013. Beijing’s cultural creative industries, under the transformation of economic de- velopment and the adjustment of economic growth speed, have an obvious driving role in economic growth, which shows a strong anti-risk.
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