LOCAL GOVERNMENTRESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT SCHEME
3 Prior to implementing the Standards via our Volunteer Management System in 2006, Council volunteer programs were operating at the
individual program level. With the system came the need for a permanent Volunteer Development Officer, and subsequently a focus on greater consistency across all volunteer programs. Our recent evaluation of our Volunteer Management system 2006, has shown that volunteer co-coordinators have a higher workload as a result of implementing National Standards via our system. As Council has committed to the Standards, there has been budgetary implications which were not foreseen. This is both at the corporate level, and at the program level. An example would be that police clearances had not been factored in to program budgets in 2007. For one program this proved to be $1200 that they were not planning for. Additionally, Child Safe Environments Training had only been considered for a few volunteers. In 2008 we expanded requirements for volunteer roles ( and staff!!) which necessitated a separate budget bid to cover the significant costs of training for a higher proportion of paid and unpaid staff. Our Human Resources Department has not budgeted to include volunteers in many of its corporate level training ( OHS&W, Equity and Diversity). The National Standards have been a catalyst
Are academics free to pursue their own research interests, in this metric driven and controlled environment? Or, as national priorities for research are identified and embedded within university systems and academics are increasingly measured and assessed by defined research outputs, would they rather conduct safe rather than speculative or contentious research (Kerlind & Kayrooz, 2009; Willmott, 2011)? With increasing time required to meet disciplinary norms, they may not have time for innovative and influential research (Humphrey & Gendron, 2015; Turk, 2014). Although, academic freedom has been threatened by the rising trend of GREs in higher education, to date, public debate and scholarly discussions about the nature and impact on academic freedom have been marked by a lack of empirical data (Kerlind & Kayrooz, 2009; Slaughter & Rhoades, 2004). We highlight the importance of these issues for the ongoing sustainability of academic endeavour (Godemann, Bebbington, Herzig, & Moon, 2014), and the need for research that will address them from academics’ point of view.
Efforts are made in the policies to coordinate R&D activities at the national level. The national STI policy has for instance created a national STI governance structure, known as National Science, Technology and Innovation Council, to coordinate science and technology and innovation as well as R &D activities in the country. Accordingly, the main actors of innovation system are stated to include the Council itself; Ministry of Science and Technology; and other related ministries and Innovation Support and Research System. The innovation support and research system comprises universities, governmentresearch institutions, national laboratories, TVET institutions, among others (STI Policy, 2012). National and regional forums are also created to facilitate the linkage between industry and higher education and research institutions. Unfortunately, the national STI and R&D governance system seem even to exclude independent research institutes as stakeholders. However, despite this effort to coordinate research and technology activities in the country at the national level, the efforts that are exerted to systematically and institutionally coordinate research activities at the line ministries are very weak. It is not common to see a national research system and policy in the different ministries /agencies. A better organized system to link the different stakeholders is observed only in the agricultural sector (Mouton & Boshoff, n.d.). The Agricultural sector has a national agricultural research policy that has identified research priority areas and major research programs. The sector has its own National Agricultural Research System which is composed of the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), the Regional Agricultural Research Institutes (RARIs) and higher learning institutions. The activities of the National Agricultural Research System are coordinated by a body called the Ethiopian Agricultural Research Council (EARC). The EARC is responsible for federal-level research issues, such as policy formulation, coordination, governance, priority setting, and capacity building.
The rapid expansion of local government’s non-tax revenue is easy to encourage repeated construction and blind construction, resulting in convergence of in- dustrial structure, serious waste of funds and decline in benefits, and at the same time aggravating the difficulty of national industrial structure adjust- ment. Under the fiscal decentralization system, local governments have the initiative to develop the local economy, which is due to the interests of local governments. It intensifies the structural contradictions of economic develop- ment and reduces the quality and efficiency of economic growth. For example, some local governments blindly borrow money to invest regardless of economic development conditions and their own affordability. However, investment projects started under the background of blind borrowing are often inefficient, and some even repeat construction. The date of completion is the time of loss, which not only cannot produce the “poverty eradication” effect, but also places a heavier debt bur- den on the local government and reduces the quality and efficiency of economic growth.
CIRCA is the first institution of its kind not only in the Philippines but also in the South- east Asian Region set up to deal with climate change adaptation. Its goal is to enhance the ability of Albay residents and Filipinos in general to cope with climate risks. It also aims to strengthen the capacity for research and project/program implementation in sustainable agriculture, forestry, fisheries, energy and eco-cultural tourism in the light of growing chal- lenges due to climate change.
One criticism levelled against the concept of evidence-based policy is that it tends to be based on a positivist scientific view of evidence, which holds that the ‘facts’ are valid and agreed by all the relevant parties (Smith, 2000). In the social sciences, however, there is not always agreement as to the ‘facts’, especially where these are seen to be socially constructed, for example as in the case of criminal statistics (Wiles, 1971). There is also often disagreement, in the complex world of human behaviour, as to what should count as evidence of effectiveness. The aims of social policies are sometimes hard to operationalise, such as improving quality of life, or hard to measure, such as reducing reoffending. There is a danger, then, that evidence-based policy risks focusing on the measurement of quantity because it is easier to measure than quality and likelier to give seemingly more valid results (Crawford, 2001). Indeed, qualitative studies are often excluded, for example, from systematic reviews and thus their ability to have an impact on the policy making process is circumscribed (Graham and McDermott, 2005). The question of what might be considered evidence in the policy process is related to the nature of the policy question. As well as wanting to know whether a policy works, policy makers also need to know what works for whom and under what circumstances. To answer this more complicated question, there is a need, according to Solesbury, for research which is not just evaluative, but also ‘descriptive, analytical, diagnostic, theoretical and prescriptive’ (Solesbury, 2001:8). When policy makers deliberate, evidence as to the impact of a policy is only one of the types of evidence they could consider. While RCTs or well designed quasi-experiments are appropriate for answering questions about
In all, Government Medical College Jammu (GMC- J) published a total of 514 research publications during the study period (1973- May 2011), as seen from the Scopus database. Falagas, Michalopoulos, Bliziotis, and Soteriades (2006) based on their findings reveal that the developing regions of the world contribute a very small amount of research to the worldwide biomedical research output. Over a 39 years’ time span the research activities in Government Medical College Jammu have shown a considerable fluctuation. Out of 514 publications maximum number of 423 (82.30%) publications are published during 2003- 2011 followed by 1973-1982 (8.17%) respectively. The range of papers published during the period under study is in between 42- 423. Results of the present study shows that the period during 1983-1992 has witnessed decreased literature output. This may be explained by the fact that the state was hit by the major turbulence . A widespread insurgency started in Jammu and Kashmir State during this Period. We can propose that unrest have brought about a reduction in the quantity of publications. However, during 1993- 2011 the publication count rose continuously. The reasons could be attributed to normalcy, access to internet and quality resources. Of various Departments the maximum contribution of (97publications) has been observed from the Department of General medicine and least contribution of (one paper) from Nephrology Department . However, Department of Dermatology, blood transfusion, Forensic medicine, Microbiology Psychiatry contribute in the range of 2- 8 publications. This can be elucidated by the fact that post graduate courses have been started in the aforementioned disciplines few years back.
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Multics provided a source of empirical demonstrations for the graduate work of Roger Schell, who contributed more than 10,000 instructions to the core OS as a student member of the development staff. After graduating, (then) Major Schell, Ph.D., was assigned to ESD Hanscom and given responsibility for two early- stage security projects. One was to enhance Multics security for multilevel operation in order to replace less secure GE 635 GCOS systems then installed in the Pentagon, enabling Multics to process both Secret and Top Secret data. The other was to contract for and manage the panel of experts that produced the Anderson report , whose scope was to “develop a comprehensive plan for research and development leading to the satisfaction of requirements for multi-user open computer systems which process various levels of classified and unclassified information simultaneously through terminals in both secure and insecure areas.” The report recognized a need for a formal definition of what is meant by a secure system and advocated systems built around a security kernel incorporating a reference monitor.
Transformational leaders have the ability to challenge assumptions, take risks and motivate others, and agree with exploratory service innovation. Transfor- mational leaders achieve the implementation of exploratory innovation through information feedback from effective communicators (Vera & Crossan, 2004). First, through the display of their idealized influence, transformational leaders establish themselves as example, and will be able to transfer this tendency to in- novation behavior to the members of the organization (Waldman & Yammari- no, 1999). Second, through intellectual stimulation, transformational leaders encourage subordinates should be thinking “outside the box”, and encourage to look at the problem in different angles (Sosik et al., 1997). Third, through indi- vidualized consideration, transformational leaders pay close attention to em- ployee growth and needs, to help employees occupation planning, through the consideration to make the members of the organization feel the importance of transformational leadership on reform and innovation, thus affecting the whole tendency of government departments in the choice of exploratory service inno- vation. Fourth, though inspirational motivation, transformational leaders com- bine personal identity with collective identity. The main responsibility of trans- formational leaders is to change the individual consciousness of subordinates to serve organizational goals and to enhance the intrinsic motivation of subordi- nates to pursue exploratory innovation (Jansen, Vera, & Crossan, 2009).
Analyzing the course of the Risk Model project and as indicated in the findings, we observed alignment efforts made by both RIVM and the Inspectorate; investigators, inspectors, and managers tried to create alignment within the bounds of their reach, both according to the institutional procedures at stated moments and accord- ing to the circumstances in the project. The importance of well-organized interaction between the networks RIVM and the Inspectorate is recognized on an institutional level; the RIVM and the Inspectorate have agreed upon transparent formal procedures to streamline the yearly commissioning process and to monitor the course of the agreed research projects. The Risk Model project was managed according to these formal rules and procedures. De Leeuw et al.  described a classification of 30 differ- ent theoretical frameworks for dealing with action on the nexus of research, policy, and practice. They established three groups of seven categories of theories, one of them the category Institutional Re-design. This category com- prises theories that acknowledge the importance of in- teractions between actors from different institutions, which results in the explicit management of these inter- actions by maintaining institutional arrangements and establishing institutional rules. In our view, alignment efforts by the formal procedures match with strategies in the category Institutional Re-design. For both RIVM and the Inspectorate, alignment rules and guidelines were top-down established and explicitly encouraged project leaders and contact persons to interact with their counterpart at the other organization during
The sustainability of government debt is the process of meeting the needs of economic development under the premise of long-term development strategies and models of government debt with the coordination of various economic factors taken into account. On the risk analysis of government debt, the fact that the government is different from the enterprise should be taken into consideration, that is, companies can go bankrupt whereas the government as a public body has the power to obtain compulsory assets. Local government is able to influence the balance of the debt changes by means of changing the future payment flow. To this end, we use the dynamic model of debt sustainability constructed by Chen Guanyou with government’s payment flow as the main variables  to inspect conditions for achieving the
respondents were asked to imagine that they could allocate £100 of the income tax they paid this year to one or more medical research charities. They were asked how they wished to allocate the £100 between cancer research charities and medical research charities concerned with diseases other than cancer. After having been given the opportunity to allocate £100 in this way, respondents were then asked if they would want to reduce or increase any personal out-of-pocket donations that they already make to cancer research and non-cancer medical research charities. Descriptive analyses and random effects modelling were used to examine patterns in the response data. Results: The general tendency of respondents was to act to offset hypothetical changes in government spending. When asked to imagine that the government had reduced (or increased) its spending on cancer research, the general tendency of respondents was to state that they would give a larger (or smaller) allocation of their income tax to cancer research charities, and to increase (or reduce) their personal out-of-pocket donations to cancer research charities. However, most respondents ’ preferred allocation splits and changes in personal donations did not vary much from scenario to scenario. Many of the differences between scenarios were small and non- significant.
The critical researchers believe that social reality is historically constituted and that it is produced and reproduced by people. Even though people can deliberately act to change their social and economic state of affairs, critical researchers have identified that their ability to do so is constrained by various forms of social, cultural, and political dominations. The critical research focuses on the oppositions, conflicts, obstacles, and contradictions in the contemporary society, besides seeking to be emancipatory, i.e. it should facilitate in eliminating the causes of alienation and domination.
It is also a fallacy to believe that money will always solve things. Yes, it is a critical factor, however, many quality governments work with very few financial resources – and usually this is because they are endowed with strong capacity in human resources. Moreover, some municipalities with very small budgets can do great things if they are allowed the freedom to do so. Researchers should thus endeavor to develop work that ties their research interests with the needs identified by their partners in local government. For example, research can highlight, compare and measure the effectiveness of service delivery alternatives.
The reasons for the local government debt in China, such as the mismatch between the local government's power and financial resources, the concept of political achievements, and the rule of law and the rule of law reform of the fi- nancial market mechanism all take time. It needs to take into account the appli- cability of the current Chinese fiscal system; it is necessary to carry out a slow experimental trial and error to get a better solution, and the current economic situation of each province adopts a soft landing method to gradually carry out governance. This paper analyzes the problems and suggestions of local govern- ment debt from a general direction, and cannot give specific suggestions ac- cording to the actual situation of each province. This is also a new research di- rection for the study of local government debt problems in the provinces.