Cookies were made from flour blends of 70% wheat and 30% sweet potato fortified with varying levels of brewers spent grain (BSG) flour. The BSG flour ranged between 0 and 9% of the flour weight. Cookies made with flour from 100% wheat served as the control. Studies were carried out on the functional properties of the flour blends, proximate composition, calorific values, physical characteristics and organoleptic quality of the cookies produced. Fortification of the blends with BSG flour reduced the bulk density from 1.24-1.08 g/mL and the water absorption capacity from 1.73-1.37g/g. Emulsion capacity increased from 76.10 – 83.45% and oil absorption from 2.20 – 3.66 g/g. The protein, fiber and ash contents of the cookies increased from 10.10-11.32%, 1.91- 3.11% and 3.87-5.31% respectively. Cookies containing 9% BSG flour had the highest fibre content. Organoleptic studies revealed that cookies fortified with 3-6% BSG flour were more preferred than the control.
It is widely known that quality of wheat grain and the end products is cultivar and environment specific (Peña et al., 2002; Williams et al., 2008). Location effect in wheat quality has been realized in many parts of the world as well as in India (Mohan and Gupta, 2011; Rharrabti et al., 2003).Wheat flour when mixed with appropriate quantity of water gives a viscoelasticmass called “dough”, this unique property to wheat flour is mainly conferred by the Gluten. While considering the wheat quality, the protein content and quality which is majorly represented by the gluten proteins is an important criterion of selection of wheat cultivars for specific products. It is influenced by genetic as well as by non- genetic factors.
In the present investigation attempts have been made to process boiled amaranth grain (amaranthus the physiochemical properties and proximate composition of flour and to develop fiber rich chapatti by the addition of optimized proportions of Wheat flour (WF), Boiled Amaranth Grain Flour (BAGF) and Water(W) with other ingredients using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for acceptable Chapatti considering Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat, Fiber, Diameter, Product weight and overall acceptability as a response variables. Combinations of wheat flour, Boiled er limits are 80-90g, 10-20g and 60-70g respectively were optimized by varying proportions to result a better quality chapatti. Whereas iodized salt and vegetable oil were kept constant for all formulations. Results revealed that, Response ogy (RSM) was applied for optimization, the multiple regressions was used to get optimum levels and it was found that desirable values of Carbohydrate (75.83g), Protein (13.16), Fat 162.99g) and Overall Acceptability (7.30) was obtained for the corresponding optimum condition of wheat flour (80gm), boiled amaranth grain flour (20gm) and Water (70ml). Hence it is concluded that RSM was used successfully to optimize d amaranth grain flour for the development of value added Chapatti.
1-Pentadecene and hexadecane were found in both adults of T. confusum and wheat flour infested with T. confusum beetles. 1-Pentadecene is associated with insect odour (Seitz et al., 1996) and is hypothesized as an epideictic (spacing) pheromone (Arnuad et al., 2002). The known conspecific aggregation pheromone of Tribolium spp. 2, 4-dimethyldecanal (Arnuad et al., 2002) was not identified in this study. Previously unreported VOCs, 2-methyl-1, 3-benzenediol and 4-ethyl-1,3-benzenediol, were unique to the headspace of T. confusum adults. Consequently these VOCs which were produced by adults might be used as biomarkers for detection of T. confusum in flour or grain. VOCs unique to flour infested by T. confusum, 3-penten-2-one, 3-octanone, 2-octenal and 2-butyl-1-octanol, might also be potential biomarkers for infestation.
Figure 7 shows the pasting profiles of isolated starch, crude flour, and nixtamalized corn flour obtained from small, medium, and large PUMA maize grains (Figures 7(a)-(c)); and Figures 7(d)-(f) shows the pasting profile for IMIC-254 samples as a function of the time. A pasting profile can be influenced by the particle size, chemi- cal composition of the grain, starch content, amylose and amylopectin ratio. Also, by the physicochemical transformation that take place during the nixtamalization process that gives as a result the increase in the Ca 2+ content and gelatinization (pre-gelatinization) for the nixtamalized samples. Isolated starch from puma exhibits a bigger peak viscosity that could be influenced by the amylopectin content (see Table 2). IMIC-254 crude flour does not show an apparent peak viscosity as well as the so call breakdown, and it is directly related to its com- position, in the case of nixtamalized flours both samples for small, medium, and large grains showed the same behaviors as a function of the time. According to this figure, the particle size of the starch granule from small, medium, and large grains does not have any influence on the pasting profile (see Figure 2) because no statistical difference between these granules was found. Flours from medium grains in both cases exhibit the biggest peak viscosity. The pasting properties are governed by the thermal changes (gelatinization) produced by the thermo alkaline process and the inclusion of calcium .
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Different types of corns are used as staple food in Bangladesh, core source of nutrients from foodstuffs for metabolic energy. Ready to eat or processed food stuffs that contains totally different macro and micronutrients such as Tocopherol, Thiamine, Riboflavin, Pyroxene, Mg and Zn etc. within the recipes for sample preparation, were incorporated different whole grains of wheat, wheat bran, rye, maize, soya, barley, chickpeas and plantain husk in numerous ratios. Developed flours were subjected to nutritionally active diet for diabetic patients, the extent of glucose when consumption of diets could be an essential issue. Protein, fat, crude fiber and energy values of developed multi grains combined and market flours were MFS- 1: (11.00%, 3.77%, 2.69%, 387.25); MFS- 2:(14.16%, 3.71%,3.21%, 385.73); MFS-3:(12.40%, 3.33%, 2.87%,385.24); MFS- 4: (11.31%, 2.16%, 2.45%, 382.83) and market flour samples CS-A: (12.04%, 2.05%,1.64%,358.37) and CS-B:(14.90%,2.06%,1.46%,350.82) respectively. Amongst, MFS- 3 sample resulted the preferences in hedonic sensory evaluation. Glycemic index (GI) resolved mistreatment normal methodology for MFS-3 and normal sugar. The GI worth of MFS- 3 sample (46.86) showed lowest postprandial aldohexose like compared to plain. once the analysis of all four mixed recipes compared to market samples, it showed that MFS- 3 sample possessed the simplest preferences because the different useful diet for type- 2 diabetic patients. Aims of the analysis works were recipe preparation of samples, product acceptances and determination of Glycemic Index (GI) for four mixed multi-wholegrain flours compared with 2 market multi-grain flours within the market.
It was confirmed in analogy to Gregová et al. (1996) that avenins, characterised under the conditions of SDS-PAGE, are a reliable implement for the identifications of oat culti- vars. It was also confirmed that oat grain contains anoth- er significant protein fraction – glutelins as German authors referred (Michael et al. 1961, Völker 1975, Wieser et al. 1980). The question of the protein fraction used for admixture identification remains still open. In sufficient- ly different cultivars, the reliability of the admixture de- tection in a meal sample could be high. Nevertheless, in other cases it will be necessary to use more sensitive techniques.
The particle size and damaged starch content of grain flours are determined during the milling process. They affect flour and starch characteristics such as gelatinization and pasting properties, solubility, swelling power, and di- gestibility, which have great influence on the quality of processed food products (Li et al. 2013). For rice flour, the quality of bread, noodles, and frying batters deteriorates when the raw flour has a coarse particle size and high damaged starch content (Araki et al. 2009; Lee and Lee 2006; Lee et al. 2013; Heo et al. 2012). Therefore, wet mill- ing of polished rice has been widely used to reduce grain hardness through soaking procedures, which produces finer rice flour with less starch damage compared with dry milling. However, wet milling has a high production cost and raises environmental issues such as water waste and pollution caused by soaking procedures, hindering the ex- pansion of the processed rice food industry in Korea. Hence, there is considerable demand for new rice cultivars suitable for dry milling.
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The species used in this study originated from laboratory cultures at the Research Institute of Crop Production. Acarus siro L. and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) had been collected in a grain store at Buštěhrad, Czech Republic, in April 1996. Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Troupeau) was ob- tained from the Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York, UK.
Although the measurement of wheat the texture has been studied and characterised at a material property level (Glenn et al. 1991; Delwiche 2000), it is still predominantly assessed empirically using either the granularity (particle size distribution) of the meal produced by grinding or the force/fracture characteristics of individual kernels observed dur- ing crushing. The extender Do-Corder Brabender is suitable for the evaluation of grains by the wheat hardness index (WHI). During grinding, a recorder registers the torque value and the acquired meal is sieved for 3 min using 0.140 mm sieve. WHI depends on the peak height on Do-Corder tester and the meal weight sieved through the sieve (Faměra et al. 2004). The particle size index (PSI) values (Method 55-30, AACC 2000) obtained by grinding wheat samples through grinder LM 3303 Perten and by sifter (0.075 mm sieve) correlate significantly with the flour yield. A large meal proportion passing through the sieve is indicative of the grain softness. The single-kernel characterisation system (SKCS 4100) measures the kernel texture by crushing, recording the force required, and reporting the results as the hardness index (HI) (Method 55-31, AACC 2000) (Satumbaga et al. 1995; Williams et al. 1998). For the research purposes, hardness is measured objectively by determining “pearling index”, defined as the percentage of the material pearled-off from a sample in the laboratory equip- ment (McGluggage 1943; Rodney et al. 2007). Contrary to PSI hardness, the grain softness is indicated in the PR by the removal of a relatively large proportion of the outer layers of the kernel, leaving small pearls. An acoustical, single-kernel wheat hardness instrument (Massie et al. 1994) analyses the level of sound above 15 kHz produced as a kernel is ground and improves the ability to classify mixed wheat samples. At present, the grain hardness is routinely determined by near infra-
The most limited assortment of the organic products was found in the smaller shop. The shop states that it is offering the organic products already 1 year, but it has in its offer only the organic cake. The specialized outlet with healthy food offers a wider assortment of the organic products, namely bread and pastry, milk and dairy products, flour, grain flakes, goat products, oils, tea, pasta ware, soya, vegetable, organic cake, buckwheat, coffee, wine and corn flakes.
in Sunco × Tasman, discussed above. The increased xanthophyll effect also came from the same parents as the increased b* effect (3B, Sunco; 7A, Tasman). This would indicate that it is likely to be the same QTLs causing each increased effect and there may be xanthophyll genes present on chromosomes 3B and 7A, and by extrapolation from the flour b* analysis for CD87 × Katepwa 3A and 7B, or genes affected by xanthophyll content. In support of our findings, a study by Alvarez et al. (1998) showed that carotenoid pigments could be assigned to chromosome 7H ch in tritordeum, which in comparative genetic maps shows extensive homologies to wheat chromosomes 7A, 7B, and 7D (Hohmann et al. 1995). Within the Sunco × Tasman doubled haploid population there was substantial transgressive segregation for xanthophyll content, flour b*, and noodle sheet b*. When the range of genotypes present in the progeny for the 2 QTLs associated with b* and xanthophyll content (3B-Sunco and 7A-Tasman) were compared, those progeny with both QTLs had a significantly higher mean b* than either parent, and those progeny with one or no QTLs. The presence of either QTL results in a medium level of yellowness. Potentially, further variation could be introduced by using the genes on 3A and 7B. This has significant implications for breeders and the wheat industry since different products require or tolerate different levels of yellowness. Sunco and Tasman flours appear white to creamy to the naked eye and are acceptable for production of a wide range of breads and noodles. Very low b* is unacceptable for WSN in some markets, whereas high b*, whilst advantageous for YAN, could preclude the use of cultivars from bread and other end-product markets. QTLs on 4B and 5B associated with flour b*, but not xanthophyll content, were attributed to the effects of height and subsequently grain size (4B) and protein content (5B) respectively. Presumably these loci influence flour colour via effects on the milling process, flour granularity, and the light absorption/reflection characteristics of flour samples. Interestingly, whilst QTLs on 4B and 4D, that corresponded to the semi-dwarfing genes Rht1 and Rht2, had a marked influence on plant height and grain size, only the 4B QTL had effects on flour and noodle colour (L* and b*).
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Registries of occupational asthma have found common agents to be: isocyanates and latex in South Africa ; moulds, animal epithelia and flour, grain and grain mites in Finland ; wood dust in Australia ; and isocya- nates, metal working fluids, adhesives, chrome, latex and glutaraldehyde in the United Kingdom . Physician reporting of occupational asthma to voluntary registries is known to be an under-representation of the total number of cases, and may be biased by diagnosis being related to the presence of a commonly recognized or deemed cause . A South Korean study which col- lected data from a range of sources (including physi- cians, surveillance systems and compensation schemes) found the most common agents to be isocyanates, flour/ grain, metal, reactive dyes, and solvents .
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Rheological characteristics of the dough obtained from grain of the different seeding rates were analysed at the Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt. There were analyzed for each treatment by pooling flour samples from the four replications. Water absorption of the dough (%), dough development time (min), dough stability time (min) and dough weakness (in Brabender Units, BU) were estimated in both years using a farinograph (Nr 941020, type 8I0105001, Brabender GmbH and Co. KG, Duisburg, Germany). Water absorption was estimated as the percentage of water in the dough for reaching strength of 500 BU. Dough development time was the time in minutes elapsing from the first addition of water to the development of dough maximum consistency. Dough stability time was the time in minutes between the dough development time and breakdown of the curve (i.e., the time elapsing after the mixing curve intersected the 500 BU lines until it left it). Dough weakness was the drop in consistency (in BU) during the first 12 min of breakdown. In season 2, dough resistance to extension and extensibility were determined using a Brabender Extensograph apparatus (Nr. 946003 type 860001, Brabender GmbH and Co. KG, Duisburg, Germany). Dough resistance to extension (R) was obtained from the maximum height of the curve in Brabender Units (BU). Dough extensibility (E) was estimated by the total length of curve, in mm. A proportional number was calculated by divided dough resistance by dough extensibility (R/E). The experiment included four treatments, which were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS, version 15. Mean of values were compared at 5 % level of probability using Duncan's multiple range test.
The integral grinding of wheat grains with dif- ferent particle size ranges significantly altered the thermo-mechanical properties evaluated by the Mixolab technique. In general, a deleterious effect on time of dough development, gluten strength, starch gelatinization and the retrogradation was intensified by the presence of all constituents of the grain in the wheat mass formulation when compared to RF. Based on the Mixolab curves, the particle size distribution played an important role in the WG thermomechanical properties, presenting different technological qualities. The stages of the Mixolab curves showed that the quality of the protein (C2) and the differences between the WG particle sizes with respect to the stability and development time, are broadly correlated with the quality of the gluten network. Coarse particles, such as those represented by CG, have a greater impact on the gluten network, and present lower stability and longer development time. It also demonstrates that the Mixolab has the ability to generate correlated data for characteristics such as wet gluten and W-SRC. However, the Mix- olab curves stage that described the characteristics of starch (C3, C4, and C5) demonstrated that in the WG samples, the presence of fibers limited the avail- ability of water to the starch, and that this effect was especially strong for flour with finer particle size, which also had the highest rate of absorption. Based on the present results, we report that that the Mixolab equipment allows a better understanding of the WG functionality with regard to the behavior of the protein properties. However, properties of starch, such as degree of gelatinization, gel stability, and retrogradation are influenced by the availability of water in the formed mass system. These data are rel- evant because differences in particle size distribution
water . The cleaned jowar grains were then dried under sun and it’s grained into fine powder. Then the flour was packed in a high density polethene bags, sealed &stored. Black gram flour: Black gram flour was processed which free from immature and field damage. Using grain cleaner, the foreign materials were removed. The clean and fresh black gram grinded in a huller mill. The black gram flour was packed in a high-density polythene bags, sealed and stored.
Sixty participants were randomly assigned into one of five independents groups: control group (without supple- mentation), brown flaxseed (flour or grain) and golden flaxseed (flour or grain) supplementation groups. The control group comprised twelve individuals, who maintained regular diets and received no supplementation. The purpose of this group was to eliminate laboratory abnormalities unrelated to the experimental protocol. The oth- ers groups received 40 gram aliquots  of their respective forms and varieties of flaxseed for daily use for a period of 14 days . Subjects were instructed to consume the raw flaxseed mixed with water every morning in the experimental period. All groups were instructed to maintain their usual physical activities and food intake.
The paper gives a complex hygienic characteristics of working conditions at typical contemporary flour-grinding pro- ductions which deal with grain processing. It is shown that workers who are employed at flour-grinding production and per- form their work tasks at all the stages of technological cycle on grain processing are exposed to a set of adverse industrial factors related to their labor process. These factors create hazardous working conditions which are ranked as having the 2nd and the 3rd hazard degree (3.2 and 3.3 categories) as per the Guide Р 2.2.2006-05. Among primary factors which create hazardous working conditions we can mention flour dust; grain dust; industrial noise; adverse microclimate; labor hardness caused by overall high physical dynamic loads borne by arms, body, and legs; a necessity to stay in an inconvenient and forced working posture; constant moving related to maintenance of equipment and control over production processes. According to the Guide Р 2.2.1766-03, categories of expected occupational health risk for workers are estimated to vary from average (substantial) risk to high (intolerable) one depending on functions performed by a worker. Working area air contamination with grain dust and flour dust are considered to be a priority health risk factor for workers employed at flour- grinding production. As we assessed occupational risks as per data obtained during periodical medical examinations, we detected an average authentic cause-and-effect relationship between working conditions factors and respiratory organs dis- eases (RR = 1.64; EF = 39 %, CI = 0.5–4.5), which meant such diseases were occupationally induced. Basing on the per- formed research, we developed priority measures which can help to reduce occupational health risks for workers employed at flour-grinding production.
Triticum aestivum L. has lower protein content than durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) and it has few protein-starch links, which provides it less hardness and makes the grinding easier (Greffeuille et al., 2007; Peck et al., 2008; El-Porai et al., 2013). Wheat protein are divided in soluble (albumins and globulins) and storage protein or gluten (gliadin and glutenin) (Shewry, 2009; Scheuer et al., 2011). Moreover, wheat functionality depends on its viscoelastic properties, which are responsibility of gluten proteins. Gliadin has a plasticizing function which provides viscosity to dough and glutenin provides resistance giving more elasticity to dough (Scheuer et al., 2011). In this framework, dough production includes several steps according grain quality, such as debranning, grinding, purifying, among others. The grinding aims to reduce of endosperm to very small and thin particles and to remove external layers of grain mainly bran (Mousia et al., 2004; Lijuan et al., 2007). Nevertheless, not always is possible to remove bran from endosperm and in some cases is necessary to purify flour to minimize the negative effects in dough colour caused by bran. Besides the dough colour effects, bran also has impact on dough volume, texture and taste due its interaction with gluten-starch links (Mousia et al., 2004). Germen is eliminated during the milling step and hence most of minerals and lipids content are lost (Cakmak, 2008; Scheuer et al., 2011). Wheat functional compounds such as vitamins, minerals, fibre and phenolic compounds are mainly located on external layers of wheat grain which are removed during
Eighty-four samples of baby food were collected from several local sources including retailers, factories and stores in Libya. The ingredients of the samples com- prised of rice flour, wheat flour, mixed grain cereal, wheat, rice, barley, and oat flour, skimmed milk powder or whole milk powder and in various combinations. The samples were examined for mycological profile before storage at 22˚C and 80% relative humidity in humidity chamber (Cryotechnics, 2000 Series, Edinburgh, UK) for 7 days. Standard methods were used for isolation, enu- meration and identification of fungi . Samples were reconstituted in maximum recovery dilutent (MRD, Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) and plated out on malt extract agar (MEA, VWR International, Lutterworth, UK) and potato dextrose agar (PDA, Oxoid CM 139). The plates were then incubated at 25˚C for 5 days.