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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT List of Nomenclature PT ED M AN US CR IP T Velocity Pressure Capillary pressure Dynamic pressure External forces Gravitational forces Surface tension force Density Dy[r]

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This is as obvious as it is for a one-dimensional chain. New **gravitational** **forces** of the new balls that did not appear in the one-dimensional model will begin to exert further influence on each ball considered in the one-dimensional chain due to superposition. Due to the central symmetry of the spatial distribution of mass, the projection of new **gravitational** **forces** directed perpendicular to the axis on which the balls are all located in a chain, will have a mirror symmetry about the axis and will mutually compensate each other. No special calculations for an explanation of this effect are required. The projections of the additional **forces** directed along the axis of the chain, after a vector summation will be directed to the central ball and their quantities will be distributed in the same proportion as the **gravitational** **forces** are distributed in a one-dimensional model. Thus, the resulting picture remains exactly the same, except for the appearance of extra mass, forcing all the separate chains, passing through the central globe, to gather at a higher rate. Thus, the three-dimensional dust cloud, with zero relative velocity of its constituent elements in the initial moment of time, in the process of its compression must thicken its peripheral layers. It is obvious, that it is not necessary to demand central symmetry for the initial distribution of a fixed mass in this scheme of compression. The result of the dynamic distribution of mass in the process of spontaneous contraction would unquestioningly remain the same.

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In the present work, the charged dark matters of B1, B2 and B3 bastons are explained as the right-handed partners of the left-handed neutrinos. The new Higgs mechanism of 𝑆𝑈(2) 𝐷𝑀 × 𝑆𝑈(2) 𝑊𝑒𝑎𝑘 × 𝑆𝑈(2) 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑛𝑔 including electromagnetic and **gravitational** **forces** is applied. And the rest masses of the elementary particles depend on their charge configurations. The left- handed neutrinos have only the lepton charges (LC) and the right-handed dark matters have only the electric charges (EC). This explains the fact that the rest masses of the left-handed neutrinos are so small, and the rest masses of the right-handed dark matters are relatively very large. The proposed rest mass (26.12 eV/c 2 ) of the B1 dark matter is indirectly confirmed from

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The numerical and experimental results of roll waves generation were presented, whereas such waves stem from a disturbance imposed on uniform flow. In this, the propagation or not propagation of these waves depends on two criteria: the first associated with inertial and **gravitational** **forces** of the flow (Froude number), and the second with the frequency of disturbance. To simulate the Newtonian fluid, the experimental data obtained by [4] are inserted in the numerical model. To simulate the non-Newtonian, data with a power law fluid tested by [1] with the yield stress are inserted in model to check the validity of the criteria for generation of roll waves in Herschel Bulkley fluid flows. Through these simulations were possible to validate the criteria for generation to both cases.

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Furthermore, droplet shedding and mobility due to gravitational forces become invariant to intrinsic surface wettability as the contact angle hysteresis approaches zero (Fig. 1D), ens[r]

35 features of any sea level the first is the tidal range(R) which is the difference in high between two consecutive high and low tides [6], it important to distinguish between tidal range (vertical )and the horizontal movement of the water accompanying with the rise and fall of tides which is called tidal current .the second feature is the period which is the time between one high (or low) level and the next high (or low) level[7],there is two period of the tides diurnal (one high and one low tide per tidal day 24 h) and semidiurnal (two highs and two lows per tidal day12 h25 min), The tides appeared in the large ocean more than small river respect to the water level. Tides were exploited to produce power called tidal energy defined as the energy dissipated by tidal movements which directly derives from the interaction of the **gravitational** **forces** between the seas and the primary astronomical bodies of our system [6], it is a form of hydropower renewable energy source, tidal energy has a significant advantageous over the many forms of renewable energy source because it more controllable and predictable(depend on gravity –not on the weather), it has been used since the 11th Century in Britain and France, also now is taking place in Canada, China, Ireland, Japan, South Korea, Spain, and the united kingdom UK [8].The simplest system for generating electricity from the tides by use a dam across an estuary, Sluice gates on the barrage are opened to allow the tide to flow into the estuary on the incoming high tides, after that water flowing back on the outgo through the turbine system see figure (2)below, for instance, if an estuarine basin of area (A) of a dam and the water of density (ρ)runs out through turbines at low tide that the average power produced is:

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In aphelion and perihelion, the force of solar gravity acts on the planets with the largest value in this orbit and, consequently, the orbit of the planet has the maximum curvature. When the planet exits (deflects) from the plane of the solar torsion, the **gravitational** **forces** decrease, and the trajectory of the planets "straightens". A similar cycle of variation of **gravitational** **forces** and trajectory of motion is repeated for each planet in each revolution around the Sun. The more the trajectory of revolution of the planet deviates from the central plane of the solar torsion, the more the **gravitational** **forces** in these areas decrease. Consequently, the orbit must be more "compressed". A constant, cyclic variation of these **forces** makes the trajectory of the circulation elliptical.

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In the author's article [3] , the calculation of the **gravitational** **forces** acting on the planet Mercury and Pluto was made during their location in the orbit at the apex of the small semi-axes. At these points, the orbits of the planet deviate as much as possible from the plane of the solar **gravitational** torsion. The calculation was made based on the equation of universal gravitation of Newton and the equation of vortex gravitation (equation 7). The results obtained were compared with centrifugal **forces** at these points

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The author of the following lines is neither an astronomer nor even a professional physicist. He started to be interested in the cause of **gravitational** **forces** when more and more strange theories started to invade the field of Astrophysics in an attempt to explain what might be called Zwicky’s paradox (the missing mass enigma) concerning a large excess of average ro- tating velocity of the galaxies in Coma’s cluster with respect to the supposed total mass of the cluster. The more widely admitted explanation today is that some kind of “dark matter”, made of exotic particles (WIMPS or AXIONS) is present inside galaxies and maybe also in the intergalactic space. But the existence of such particles has not been proved until now. Many experts have worked in about 3 centuries to disprove theoretically the existence of Lesage’s ultra-mundane particles, but for dark matter, you can find almost everywhere quite determined claims about its supposedly very high percentage compared to “ordinary” matter, whereas no WIMP or AXION has been found in more than 40 years. Why such a difference?

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We have proposed a prequantum physics, itself founded on classical mechanics completed by the existence of an uni- versal cloud of tiny particles noted U. These U particle command the mass, variable, of electron, neutron, proton, and atom particles noted M. The “shocks” between U and M particles in the cloud, with screen effect, give birth to electrical **forces** among charged particles with very small differences between attractive and repulsive **forces**, and to certain **gravitational** **forces**. This cloud with the electromagnetic waves propagating thus recalls an ether, yet much different regarding its effects on the inertial mass of any particle within it. The electromagnetic wave and the photon look like if they were born from a statistical mechanics induced by the universal cloud, and their status, in this regard, may be compared to the status conferred by atomics to a temperature or a pressure. The wave transversality is explained. By the same token, one understands why the photon, a vectorial bearer of a statistical information, may thus describe a particle as well as a wave.

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Firstly, we know that the electromagnetic **forces** of the elements of a substance, in its solid state, which determines its permanent spatial form, fully compensate for the **forces** of **gravitational** compression, i.e., **gravitational** **forces** do not do any mechanical work and are unable to raise the temperature of the object, even though the **gravitational** field remains spatially distributed within the structure of the object as a potential field. This includes the fact that the **gravitational** **forces** are unable to raise the temperature of the multiphase incompressible objects such as planets, and maintain higher temperatures in their central areas. Therefore, if conditions are created for insignificant losses of energy into the environment from the formed stable structure, in comparison with its internal energy, the formed structure, characterized by the parameter "temperature" will definitely, gradually and unprompted become isothermal. Any convective processes, if they do not create favorable conditions for the release of energy from the limited supplies of a particular type of fuel can only equalize the temperature in their physical nature. However, for unknown reasons, this fact is ignored by astrophysicists (this problem will be discussed in a separate paper).

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There is a vast number of such theories and experiments, so in this article, after briefly reviewing the motivation for new physics coming from cosmology, I will focus on one particular example: the chameleon model [1, 2]. This is a scalar field theory, where the scalar mediates a fifth force. As the theory is non- linear, and the effective mass of the scalar varies with the density of the environment, the fifth force is suppressed in situations traditionally used to search for new **forces** and modifications of gravity. It has recently been understood, however, that laboratory experiments that probe **gravitational** **forces** with small, light particles such as atoms and neutrons can constrain the chameleon model and have the potential to exclude or detect this new particle and its associated fifth force in the near future.

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Pitts (2009) recently discusses such an account based on the possi- ble non-uniqueness of **gravitational** energy-momentum. The idea is that the difficulties linked with the definition of (local) **gravitational** energy- momentum and the lack of proper energy conservation can be removed if one drops the assumption of uniqueness for **gravitational** energy-momentum: we simply have to accept that there are infinitely many (local) gravita- tional energies, which can be represented by a mathematically precisely defined infinite-component (geometric) object. As discussed above, this move explicitly recognizes that any definition of (local) **gravitational** en- ergy needs additional background structures such as a (flat) background metric or a coordinate system for instance: gauge invariance is then re- stored by collecting all the background-dependent expressions for a given background structure into one (infinite-component) object. For instance, such object can be constituted by the expressions for Einstein’s pseudoten- sor in all coordinate systems; contrary to the different sets of components of a tensor in different coordinate systems, the different sets of components of this object in different coordinate systems do not constitute different descriptions of the same entity, but distinct entities, namely distinct but conserved energies (since (8) holds in the corresponding coordinate sys- tem).

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It’s proposed to use a global seismic antenna (GSA) as a **gravitational** telescope, arbitrary “quiet” seismic stations are its elements, and aperture of GSA must be of the order 10,000 km. The relative displacements of various points of the Earth are detected by GSA, these displacements are de- scribed as quasi-harmonic elliptical signals generated by **gravitational** waves, their amplitude ≈ 2.5 × 10 −15 m. It is found that these waves cause deformation (strain) of the order h ≈ 10 −21 . Pulsars

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to understand these laws more precisely. In spite of existence of great theory due to lack of proper mathematical support in those days Newton was unable put light on this theory. Newton mentioned separately that this force is independent of medium later on his named that force as **Gravitational** force. A well common known fact is that, permeability is an unrelated word for gravity. A theory of gravitation is an explanation of the long range **forces** that electrically neutral bodies also exert on one other because of their matter in contact. Until the 1920 Sir Isaac Newton’s law of universal gravitation, two bodies attract each other with a central force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them was accepted as the correct and a complete theory of gravitation. This theory is highly accurate in its predictions regarding everyday phenomenon. However, high precision measurements of motions in the solar system, the structure of black holes and the expansion of universe can only be fully understood in terms of relativistic theory of gravitation. Best known of these is Einstein’s general theory of relativity. This theory reduces Newton’s theory in a certain limit.

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Recent studies have demonstrated that a quasi-steady model closely matches the instantaneous force produced by an insect wing during hovering flight. It is not clear, however, if such methods extend to forward flight. In this study we use a dynamically scaled robotic model of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the **forces** produced by a wing revolving at constant angular velocity while simultaneously translating at velocities appropriate for forward flight. Because the forward and angular velocities were constant wing inertia was negligible, and the measured **forces** can be attributed to fluid dynamic phenomena. The combined forward and revolving motions of the wing produce a time-dependent free-stream velocity profile, which suggests that added mass **forces** make a contribution to the measured **forces**. We find that the **forces** due added mass make a small, but measurable, component of the total force and are in excellent agreement with theoretical values. Lift and drag coefficients are calculated from the force traces after subtracting the contributions due to added mass. The lift

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Leibniz imagined the space was filled initially with liquid matter. Taking a su- perfluid substance filling all space as model I explain electromagnetism over a stream superfluid substance: Electrical phenomena-progressive (potential), mag- netic properties-vortex (solenoidal). For an explanation of gravitation tubular threads in a superfluid substance is formed. The density thread is the gravity po- tential. Electromagnetic waves are caused by disturbances of the electromagnetic field and produced by the accelerated motion of charged particles, and gravita- tional waves are caused by the same accelerated motion of mass (the gravitation- al charge). **Gravitational** waves are generated by accelerated motion of gravita- tional charges (masses) [1].

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Force diagrams show you the direction a force is acting in. It shows you the direction an object is being pushed, pulled or twisted. The direction of the arrow shows you the direction of the force. The sizes of the arrows can be used to compare the sizes of the **forces**.

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Moreover, the field of numerical relativity is not just coding and running simulations but also a lot of work has been done in obtaining formulations of the theory [128, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148]. Basically these formulations take the Einstein equations and rewrite them in a way that makes traditional numerical evolutions possible. Building a numerical spacetime on the computer means solving equations. The equations that arise in numerical relativity are typically multidimensional, nonlinear, coupled, partial differential equations in space and time, as such they share the usual difficulties encountered when solving this type of mathematical problems numerically. However, solving Einstein’s equations includes some additional complications that are unique to General Relativity. Among the most important are: the choices of coordinates, the treatment of physical singularities (actually the key element is perform the evolution in such a way that the singularity can be avoided in the course of the simulation), the matching of very different regions (e.g. the far-field, radiation, zone for extracting **gravitational** radiation; and the strong-field central region where the source lays), time and spatial resolutions, among others. Chapter 2 describes and discuss the mathematical and technical details of the theory behind the numerical simulations.

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