Over the last few decades, the Green Revolution initiated by Norman Borlaug, has saved the lives of millions of people in developing countries and involved the combined use of high-yielding crop varieties, mineral fertilizers, water and agro-chemicals. However, the Green Revolution cannot be considered to be truly “green”, due to signiﬁcant and sometimes inappropriate use of agro-chemicals, especially chemical fertilizers. Highly productive new crop varieties generally need lots of fertilizer and water. Facing the great challenge of high resource use and environment cost of the current operation of the food system, leaders of many countries have agreed on a vision to realize sustainable development, particularly for agri- culture as an important part of this global movement. China, a big agricultural country endowed with rich agricultural resources, has a long history of farming and tradition of intensive cultivation as well as a rural population of 800 million [ 1 ] . The Chinese government has placed high priority on the development of agriculture and especially on increased food security. Since 1978, China has implemented a policy of reform and opening-up gradually, bringing along a quickened pace in agricultural reform and development [ 2 ] . Particularly in recent years, the government has given ﬁrst priority to research work on agriculture in rural areas and with smallholder farmers [ 3 ] . The new central collective leadership of China has clearly proposed a national concept of greendevelopment, aiming to seek fundamental solutions to the problems associated with agriculture, rural areas and rural people, the so called “Three Rural Issues”. One of the most important issues is
Greendevelopment ensures the socioeconomic development that incorporates environmental issues while remaining economically viable for owners and tenants. Government as the authority of the state should provide favorable incentives, policy and regulatory pressure for greendevelopment. The present study aims to investigate the government policies and regulations for greendevelopment in Bangladesh and make a critical discussion of the initiatives. The study is descriptive in nature and collects secondary information. Evidence suggests that environmental degradation and climate change related risks and vulnerabilities have intensified in Bangladesh. The government of Bangladesh (GOB) is concerned about greendevelopment and formulates various Acts, regulations and policy initiatives since 2010. Major greendevelopment initiatives observed in the financial institutions due to the mandatory requirements by Bangladesh Bank but green bond and green insurance in capital market are yet to be developed. The GOB required taking proper policy initiatives for the garments and leather industries to ensure pollution free production system which ensures green trade initiatives. The environmental taxes and ecological compensation mechanisms should be revised. Urban green space and Government green procurement are still less concerning matter. The GOB should make effective collaboration with all related stakeholders to ensure the greendevelopment.
This research has been made possible with funding from the Economic Social Research Council’s Impact Acceleration Account (Grant RMS 99307) and the guidance of Adam Barker at the University of Manchester. The authors would like to thank staﬀ at Derby City Council who have contributed their valuable time and eﬀort to advise and help guide the development of this research. Particular thanks go to Jonathan Ward, without whom this research could not have been undertaken, and Helen Oakes of Derby City Council.
Microcredit is a well known tool to address the issue of poverty that is a condition that affects the bottom fifty percent of people. Microcredit alleviates poverty by engaging communities in microloans and micro-businesses so that they may earn income. This new microeconomic determination program is expanding all over the world to develop economic growth in people’s lives; however, if microfinance institutions are not controlled and they are provided to people who practice unsafe and non-eco-friendly businesses, the effect could be a minimalist microcredit approach that is unable to promote sustainable business development. To understand microcredit and renewable energy programs for greendevelopment, the researcher visited and studied Grameen Bank of Bangladesh; Grameen Shokti’s Renewable Energy Project in winter 2008 and had an internship at the Alterna Savings’ Community Micro-Loan Funds program in Toronto in the summer and fall of 2007 respectively. This paper envisions a comparison and contrasting of the Grameen Bank and Grameen Shokti credit systems (Bangladesh) with Alterna Savings credit programs (Canada) and its impact on Toronto’s local living economics and environmental development. Results show that within the two sample cases, microcredits are positive to environmental sustainable development.
Urbanization is caused by technology progress and social productivity development, scattered settlements in function area of the agricultural population in the rural areas into focusing gathered in non-agricultural function of non-agricultural population, and then it is the historical process that the traditional rural society into a modern society. Therefore, urbanization is not just a simple population transfer process, also need to experience a long process of demographic transition and population adaptation. Based on this, we should make good use of the urbanization development platform to vigorously develop the green economy. Of course, the precondition is need to ensure that the urbanization development platform is robust, that must be stable grasp the direction of the urbanization development, and can not deviate from the development law of urbanization. If the blind pursuit of urbanization development scale, ignoring the quality requirements of urbanization development, then the development of green economy lose fertile soil, it is difficult to achieve development under the background of urbanization, and may even be killed in infancy. So the scientific background of urbanization is conducive to the sustainable development of green economy. In the process of urbanization, we should gradually abolish the extensive economic growth pattern of "three highs", and introduce harmonious and efficient green economy mode into the process of urbanization, constantly build greendevelopment environment in the whole society. Within the scope of the binding environment as much as possible to have population transfer, resource development, system construction etc, and adhere to the sustainable developing green urbanization path, in order to seek to maximize the integration of economic growth, social harmony and ecological environment.
2. Challenges Of GreenDevelopment In Asia
A number of Asia and the Pacific countries have recorded significant growth rates that have been much admired, as they not only contributed to reducing poverty in the region but also to a shift in the balance of economic power in Asia. A number of Asian countries are reaching and surpassing middle income levels. The high growth rates are accompanied by concerns regarding the environmental sustainability as the region also recorder marked by adverse trends of reduced air and water quality, depleting natural resources and threats to biodiversity. In 2005, the Asia and Pacific required three times more resources than the rest of the world (Jagannathan, 2013). Asi a’s use of raw materials reached a world-leading 35 billion tons and can reach a figure of 80 billion tons by 2050. Asia Pacific’s share of global energy demand was about 35% in 2005 and expected to reach 50% by 2028. Several reports pointed to Asia as being the largest source of carbon emissions from automobiles and industries. Thus, there is an urgent need for Asia and the Pacific region to consider using fewer resources to ensure the region’s continued growth and sustainable development (Jagannathan, 2013). Today, one of the world’s challenges is the greening of the economy. As the world’s record of pollution and climate disasters via global warming at its peak, each country is asked to reduce its carbon emission and the Asian Development Bank estimates that the economic impact of climate change in Asia will be 2.5 times more severe than the global average by 2100 if carbon emissions continue at their current level (Maclean et al., 2013).
developer and the client modeling is converted in to soft form and coding is started. Coding generation can be done manual or by using any RAD tool. Construction activity also consider generation of test cases and its application on software for the testing that is required to uncover errors in the code. The model takes aspects into account like Efficiency, Memory Usage, Idleness and Number of Methods which reflects size of application. During the all above framework activities a section Green team remain active for continual reviews and previews for assess the problem identification, designing, coding and develop for find the alternative solutions in order to choose the better “more sustainable” solution.
The Worcester (MA) Telegram & Gazette (4/13, Welsh) noted that "green careers are becoming increasingly attractive to number crunchers. That's because green innovations, driven in the past by environmental activism, are now being fueled by tax incentives, rebates and high-paying salaries." Although many schools are developing specific green- collar programs, experts note that "green careers don't have to be so specialized," since there are "jobs on the 'gray-green' spectrum," such as "electricians and pipe fitters, who can transfer their skills from other industries to new green technologies." Meanwhile, "civil and environmental engineering majors...develop sustainable designs in all aspects of engineering activities, including selection of material and energy resources, building design, construction methods and environmental control technologies."
About 98 years ago, the Wright brothers successfully made the first controlled, powered and sustained human flight. This innovative step has continued to stimulate changes in the aviation industry in the face of many challenges, with the main contemporary problem being climate change related. An investigation into what is be- ing done to limit GHG emissions, while keeping flights safe, comfortable and accessible, reveals that technology, operations, and infrastructure support backed by sound management system put on place may all hold the key to reducing mankind’s carbon footprint . Aircraft cruise differently, depending on factors such as airframe design, weight, range, weather conditions and the airspace they are flying in. ATM can improve this process. High-tech engines, propeller efficiency, advanced aerodynamics, low-drag airframe and the resulting level of fuel saving have prompted many operators to select turboprops and specially ATR above all others. The proven level of low fuel consumption is a primary concern for airlines eager to lower cash operating cost and wishing to be environ- ment friendly. Less fuel consumption generates less gaseous emissions, matching international recommenda- tions and reducing environmental impact. A successful Green Approach starts already at the Top of Descent. The target is to use all potential energy of the aircraft and convert it to kinetic energy which keeps the aircraft fly- ing during the descent. Descent planning is critical to balance energy versus the needed kinetic energy. Using sophisticated arrival management tools helps to ensure shortest possible and correct track distance. In this case the aim is to allow all aircraft to descend uninterrupted from top of descent without using additional thrust, which burns fuel.
In recent years, the environment has become a vital and crucial issue that affects all aspects of human life, leading to the emergence of the green market concept . Therefore, issues related to environmental protection have become one of the first priorities in developing countries. In this regard, the need to produce ecological and environmentally-friendly products has forced companies to focus more on environmental issues in their businesses. The issue of the environment has made consumers to think about the products they are buying. Today, there is a great interest to protect the environment among consumers around the world; and the behavior of consumers is moving towards environmentally-friendly or green products . The emergence of the green market has created a competitive advantage between responsible and non-responsible companies, in a way that has urged them to focus more on producing clean products. It seems that realizing this requires the emergence of entrepreneurs who discover and exploit the opportunities.
Abstract—green logistics was proposed in the early 1990s, since then, the governments, the academia and the business community around the world has paid a lot of attention to it. Green logistics is based on the sustainable development, resource conservation and environment friendly. It can help us to deal with the relationship effectively between the logistics development, environmental protection, and make the economic interests, social interests and environmental interests unity. At present, the development of the green logistics in China is still relatively backward. In order to accelerate the development of the green logistics in China and improve its quality, this paper collected and collated some successful practices and experience of other countries by the methods of the literature analysis and summarizes. Combined with the national conditions of china, this paper proposed some suitable measures and recommendations, and they will have the actual significance to improve the logistics level.
The advances of green technology had contributed to the preparedness of all the stakeholders in the housing industry into perspective. The housing developers in particular, were urged to develop new housing scheme by adopting green technology into their developments. Therefore, these organizations were required to implement changes to their operations due to sophisticated of technology made in this industry. Drawing on theory of organizational change, the organizational characteristics were acknowledged have significant roles in influencing the organization to embrace new ideas, approaches and practices. Hence, this paper is aimed to examine the relationship between the organizational factors in influencing housing developers to develop green homes in Malaysia. Quantitative method has been used in this study. A total of 395 sets of questionnaires have been distributed to the housing developers in eight distinct state branches of Real Estate and Housing Developers Association (REHDA) Malaysia. This study successfully received 249 (63.03%) completed questionnaires. The result of Pearson Correlation revealed that the Organizational Culture, Organizational Climate and Organizational Structure have a positive relationship in persuading Malaysian housing developers to develop green homes development.
pollution and ready to pay additional amount for natural products which will be reduced adverse effect on environment and human health.. Green marketing is a phenomenon which has developed particular important in the modern market and has emerged not only as an important concept in India as well as at global level; and is seen as an important strategy of facilitating sustainable development. In this research paper, main focus has been made over concept, need and importance of green marketing. Data has to be collected from multiple sources of evidence, in addition to books, journals, websites, and news papers. It explores the main issues in adoption of green marketing practices. The paper describes the current Scenario of Indian market explores the challenges and opportunities businesses have with green marketing. Why companies are adopting it and future of green marketing and concludes that green marketing is something that will continuously grow in both practice and demand.
Sustainable development challenges universities around the world to rethink their missions and to reform their courses and life on campus. ICT professionals and students who are future leaders of the nation are progressively exposed to thinking of sustainability . This paper presents evolution of Green ICT and discusses the barriers in implementation of Green ICT at higher education institutions based on survey conducted in India. An extensive literature review pertaining to Green ICT and sustainable development was carried out and 10 barriers were summarized. Using SPSS tool and Wilcoxon Test, the most important barrier for successful implementation of Green ICT at higher education has been discovered . The survey revealed that lack of motivation and rational for adopting green polices among the implementers is truly hurdle in implementation of Green or sustainable ICT. In nutshell, the paper assists the policy maker in designing green strategies and polices based on barriers.
Evolutionary rural green tourism started is developing in Europe recently, with the end of the twentieth century. Components of this phenomenon were: first, ethno-cultural and socio-demographic changes in society, consolidation in it of a healthy lifestyle ideology, understanding of the values of the natural environment and natural products and mass production of artificial and synthetic materials, and as a consequence, the need of urban residents in leisure in the countryside as one of its alternative types; secondly, the rapid development of scientific and technological progress in industry, the dismissal of workers and the need for job creation in rural areas; thirdly, the need to generate additional income for rural families from renting vacant premises and selling quality natural agricultural products; fourth, the need to protect and restore rural landscapes; Fifth, the demand for recreation in rural areas. Thus, a proposal was formed to meet this demand by establis- hing a rural green tourism industry based on securely functioning farms and providing appropriate services (Kuts, Mamonova, Chaplyhin, 2008:38).
-called "fortress frame". A modified vehicle frame structure, of significant crosssection, would be used to store the gas inside it at low pressure. Additionally, the frame would provide greater crash protection to the occupants. Although the design is likely to be as "safe" as conventional CNG vehicles, product liability issues, especially in the US, make the future development of this concept uncertain. Research is in progress to use adsorbent materials in a tank to store natural gas which reduces the required pressure (from 200 bar for CNG currently, to around 30 bar) and thereby avoids the need for high-pressure compressors and provides more design flexibility for the tank. Many types of adsorbent materials have been considered, including activated carbon, zeolites, clays and phosphates. With activated carbon at pressures of 300-400 psi (2-2,75 MPa or 20-27 bar), the percentage of natural gas adsorbed can be 10 to 15% of the weight of carbon. However, it has not yet been possible to find an adsorbent material which provides the same storage capacity of usable gas at the same cost, weight and volume as with high-pressure cylinders. Although LNG storage has been used in demonstration fleets, few NGVs are operating on LNG at present. Advances are being made in local bulk LNG storage and, when vehicles are able to refuel their cryogenic storage tanks from such LNG depots at a cost that is competitive with CNG, more extensive used will be made of this form of storage. Until such time most vehicles using natural gas will store it in compressed form.
the citizens of India to make their country a clean and green one. Subsequently, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is started to make India a clean India by the endeavor of all the citizens living inside India. The Prime Minister, Narendra Modi opens the door for everybody to participate in the Abhiyan anytime. After that many steps are taken to familiarize and motivate other common people who are the real heroes of the clean India. The great initiatives are also taken from the students from schools, colleges, universities, and other educational institutions, Youths of the country involving in the daily routine job and other business activities,for the development of the mission. All the activities done by famous personalities, students and youths of the country has supported and encouraged common public to do get involved in the campaign very actively. It is the duty of us as an Indian citizen to just need to pick up the broom in our hand and clean all the dirty places in our environment to make them spotless and painstaking.
Styria’s ‘Green Tech Valley’ has been developed in the Austrian province and is one of Europe’s leading green economy locations with over 200 companies. Graz, the second largest city in Austria, is the administrative centre for the province of Styria and has won various European and international awards for its eco-city initiatives (Rohracher and Späth, 2014). The region had a history of experimentation with renewable energy technologies in the 1980s, especially in solar thermal and biomass technologies. In the case of the former, this was a product of bottom-up, self-build experiments, whereas biomass developments were more a product of established organisations, especially those related to agriculture and involving the Styrian chamber of agriculture (Schreuer et al., 2010). It has also been argued that the local population was mobilised in the 1980s to protest about air quality and pollution from ‘dirty’ industries such as steel and paper manufacturing plants, which led to a bottom-up sustainability agenda and the formation of ‘niche thinking’ (van Heyningen and Brent, 2012). The specific Green Tech Valley initiative has its origins in a project in 1998 and was formally established in 2005. It claims to be the “world’s highest concentration in the areas of bioenergy, solar energy, waste and resource management and green buildings” and “the global hotspot for advanced energy and environmental technologies and proven growth through innovation” (Eco World, 2016: 6). This accords with a view that sees similar eco-clusters, defined as “regional innovative networks with a focus on environmental friendly and sustainable technologies” (Pohl, 2015: 31), as a key source of green growth at the regional scale. Indeed, promotional material for Green Tech Valley claims that more than 1000 jobs have been created each year since 2005, with sales growth of 131% compared to 73% sales growth in green tech companies globally (for the period 2006-14). Eco World Styria is the specialised networking and support organisation for the Green Tech Valley and is a provincial and city (Graz) government-supported
First introduced by Pearce et. al (1993) and extended more formally by Hamilton (1997) genuine saving is defined as that level of saving in the economy over and above the sum of all the (more broadly measured) capital deprecations in the economy. Intuitively, genuine saving is therefore investment in produced assets and human capital, less the value of depletion of natural resources and the value of accumulation of pollutant. If a nation’s genuine saving is positive, then there is an addition to its capital base, and likewise if it is negative there is reduction in its capital stock. Persistent negative genuine saving means development is not on a sustainable path, i.e. well-being could be declining. However, since our concern is “per capita” well-being, genuine saving could only tell us whether or not total well-being, and not per capita well-being is declining. Hamilton (2000), then proposed change in wealth per capita from which to account for population growth. From the definition in table 1, genuine saving is simply the net-change of broadly defined capital stock or ∆K/∆t, where K = K M + K N + K H + K S , whereas change in wealth per capita is simply ∆(K/P)/∆t, where P is Population. Thus these two indicators consistent with the condition of non-declining capital stock, a condition to achieve a path of non- declining welfare, our definition of sustainable development. The ability of genuine savings and change in wealth per capita to indicate whether or not an economy is on sustainable path, has been formally shown, for example, by Hamilton (1999).