the study questions. In the case of this study that was conducted, there has one additional knowledge element which is “innovation” and then fifty-six competencies element is tested using Cronbach Alpha. The coefficient alpha reading shows knowledge has the highest reading because knowledge sub-element is most important for property manager as knowledge-base in conducting specific task or job that needed by the property managers to ensure greenoffice building management can be functioned as intended. The second highest in reliability reading is skill due to skill sub-element stated is crucial for property manager practically used the knowledge and perform a certain physical and mental task according to nature of work handled. Then, it followed by ability where property managers need to used personal talent and proficiency as stated in the ability sub-elements for executing successful property management task.Lastly, the other characteristic is the lowest coefficient alpha reading. Although the other characteristic is the lowest, all the sub-element is still crucial needed because it may become added value or success factor in green building management performance. In general, during the study, it was discovered that the use of instrument form to identify the behavior and reaction of the respondents towards the competencies element is effective and sensitive. It helps the researcher to make an improvement on the instrument to become reasonable and reliable to use for actual data collection on leisure study. Furthermore, instrument validity link with the study context which in the instrument is used. Hence, in the competency study aspect, it believes this study may contribute to the community of the researcher to create a tool that possesses validity and reliability for future evidence in property manager competencies. Finally, the future direction of this study is an instrumented distribution for data collection at actual field study.
Table 3 presents analogous results based upon the sample of 199 greenoffice buildings sold in the 2004–2007 period and the control sample of 1,614 nongreen buildings sold within a quarter mile of those green buildings. These models explain a smaller fraction of the variation in the dependent variable, the logarithm of selling price per square foot, but the qualitative results are similar. For each of the specifications reported, the variable reflecting certification of a green building is highly significant. The transaction premiums for green buildings are, ceteris paribus, 15.8 to 16.8 percent higher than for nonrated buildings. When the certification is reported sepa- rately for the Energy Star and the LEED systems, there is no evidence that the latter certification is associated with higher selling prices. There is some evidence that selling prices per square foot are higher when buildings are larger, and when they are of higher quality (as measured by class rating ). It appears that buildings with fewer stories sell for higher prices per square foot. Buildings sold in 2004 were lower in price by 17–20 percent compared to buildings sold in 2007.
Investigation on the acoustical performance of greenoffice buildings in Malaysia, as well as the occupants’ satisfaction; and compare with that of conventional office buildings in Malaysia was performed. In this study, the comparison between measurements of three green buildings and two conventional buildings have been compared and revealed that the background noise and reverbera- tion time in green buildings in certain rooms resulting over the acceptable criteria given. Even though, preliminary results of the occupants’ satisfaction showed both buildings gave similar tendencies in overall subjects, but it is indicated the effectiveness of green building strategies are not give significant acoustical improvements and need to take careful consideration both in strate- gies and assessment aspects.
Construction of Green Buildings by incorporating various sustainable design parameters may be a tedious process, but integrating Building Information Modeling (BIM) in the design can make the procedure much simpler. In this study, the building performance of a GreenOffice Building is assessed in terms of sustainability using BIM. Similarly, performance analysis is carried out for a conventional building to explore the ecological advantages of erecting a Green Building. The analysis gave about 15% energy savings, 22.3% water usage savings and 21% carbon reductions in the Green Building compared to the Conventional Building. Also, an alternative for the Green Building Design is evaluated which showed 4.7% Energy Cost Savings and about 38.6% Reduction in CO 2 emissions compared to the original design. So,with this method, different alternatives for the design are easily generated
Falkenbach, Lindholm, & Schleich (2010) are of the opinion that investment in greenoffice buildings generates an increase in market value, rent and some savings in operating costs. However, investors view greenoffice buildings as high cost risk and the limited research conducted on the investment return from such sustainable buildings have left them unconvinced. Among the factors that negatively affect the in sustainable green design and construction in learning institutions, (b) a shortage of exposure and experience related to green building construction in the realms of architecture and designing, (c) the high cost when constructing buildings with green features, (d) the difficulty of sourcing for building materials required by developers, (d) the regulatory procedures that inhibit green material production and (e) the fact that there are limited green building examples to emulate (Shafii et al., 2005).
As shown, Option 1 allows for only one soundstage and workshop in addition to the existing facilities developed for Outlander (with the latter considered a phase 1 of the overall development). The soundstage and accompanying workshop and office space would be built following demolition of the existing sheds to the south of the site. The space for facilities companies (facilities village) would be across the road in the Thomson Pettie building – a solution that is not ideal, but remains possible. In Option 2, the scope of the site is expanded with the inclusion of the adjacent plot, allowing the construction of another soundstage, workshop and production offices, together with car parking. As this is more consistent with the agreed studio
a control sample of nearby office buildings. For some 10,000 subject and control buildings, we relate contract rents, effective rents and selling prices to a set of objective hedonic characteristics of buildings, holding constant the locational characters of properties. We find that buildings with a “green rating” command rental rates that are roughly three percent higher per square foot than otherwise identical buildings – controlling for the quality and the specific location of office buildings. Premiums in effective rents, i.e., rents adjusted for building occupancy levels, are even higher – above six percent. Selling prices of green buildings are higher by about 16 percent. Beyond the average price or rental premium, our methodology also permits us to estimate the increment for each “green building” relative to the control buildings in its immediate geographic neighborhood. We find, for example, that the relative premium for “green buildings” is higher, ceteris paribus, in places where the economic premium for location is lower. That is, the percent increase in rent or value for a green building is systematically greater in smaller or lower-cost regions or in less expensive parts of metropolitan areas. For some 500 buildings which have been certified as energy efficient by the Energy Star program, we obtained the engineering estimates of thermal efficiency which were submitted in the certification process. Within this population of certified “green buildings,” we find that variations in effective rent and market value are systematically related to the energy efficiency of buildings. This suggests that the increment to rent or value attributable to its certification as “green” reflects more than an intangible labeling effect. Section 2 provides a brief review of the emerging literature on corporate social responsibility and its relationship to environmentally sustainable buildings. In Section 3 we discuss the sources of ratings for the environmental aspects of buildings, and we describe the data used in our analysis, a unique body of micro data on the economic and hedonic characteristics of office buildings. We also discuss the engineering data made available to us by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Section 4 presents our methodology and empirical results. Section 5 is a brief conclusion.
‘Green’-building design is crucial to the future of a sustainable world. However, in solving impor- tant problems, ‘green’-building design must not cre- ate new problems, such as buildings that the occu- pants do not want to use because of unacceptable acoustical environments. The results of this study confi rm that improving acoustical environments in ‘green’ (and conventional) buildings fundamentally requires good acoustical design—that is, the appli- cation in design of existing knowledge, with input from an acoustical specialist integrated into the de- sign team from the beginning of the design process. This knowledge relates to site selection and building orientation, to the design of the external envelope and penetrations in it, to the building layout and in- ternal partitions, to the design of the HVAC system, to the appropriate dimensioning of spaces, and to the amount and location of sound-absorbing treat- ments. For a satisfactory acoustical environment, the advice of the acoustical specialist must be followed, and the budgetary resources made available for it to be implemented.
Evidence studies in support of Member States’ building regulations on Nearly Zero Energy Buildings suggest, however, that the practical and cost effective potential for high efficiency or renewable energy systems in office buildings varies according to climate zone, building design and energy technology. The proportion of electricity that could be supplied by a roof mounted solar photovoltaic array will be constrained by the building’s roof area. In contrast, a natural gas-fired Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant could supply efficient electricity, heat and cooling to meet a whole building’s needs but would still depend on fossil fuel. In the latter case such a CHP plant may already exist in the local area where the office is to be built, enabling the building to benefit from existing infrastructure. This could therefore be a cost effective solution as savings can be made on boilers and cooling plant that otherwise would have to be purchased.
The sustainable (green) building is a fuzzy concept but it can be defined as a responsibly created and managed construction environment, complying with the guidelines of natural environment protection and the efficient use of natural resources (Kibert 2007). Typical features of a green building include a selection of environmentally friendly technologies in the building construction and design, maximum use of daylight and high indoor air quality; individual climate control of the indoor environment; low energy consumption; water and energy efficiency; and building life-cycle orientation (Gluszak 2015). The adoption of the innovation was particularly visible in the commercial property market (office, retail and hotel sectors). Since Hagestrand’s path-breaking work on the mechanisms of spatial diffusion of innovation (1953), the problem has been discussed theoretically and investigated empirically. Like many others, green and smart building innovation diffusion is a spatial phenomenon. In the recent two decades, one could observe a hierarchical/cascade or contagious dispersion of technological advancements as the green building innovation spread from mature to emerging property markets worldwide. The drivers and barriers of the diffusion of sustainable buildings have been identified in the business and economic literature (Livingstone and Ferm 2017; Darko et al. 2017). Theoretical links between sustainability and property market behaviour were identified by Eichholtz et al. (2009). They argue that there are four possible explanations for the increase in the demand for sustainable office space. The first category encompasses direct economic benefits, including lower operating costs and lower energy consumption. Most prior studies report that green buildings have relatively lower maintenance costs (Pivo and Fisher 2010). Second
We are aware that global warming is an issue that calls for a global response. The rapid change in climate will be too great to allow many eco-systems to suitably adapt, since the change have direct impact on biodiversity, agriculture, forestry, dry land, water resources and human health. Due to unusual weather pattern, rising greenhouse gas, declining air quality etc. society demands that business also take responsibility in safeguarding the planet. Green finance as a part of Green Banking makes great contribution to the transition to resource-efficient and low carbon industries i.e. green industry and green economy in general. Green banking is a component of the global initiative by a group of stakeholders to save environment.
Notice of claim must be given to AMEX Assurance Company, Claims Administrative Office, P.O. Box 19020, Green Bay, WI 54307-9020 within 30 days after the occurrence or commencement of any loss covered by the Policy, or as soon thereafter as is reasonably possible. Notice given by or on behalf of the claimant to the Company at its Administrative Office, or to any authorized agent of the Company, with information sufficient to identify the Covered Person shall be deemed notice to the Company. Proof of Loss
In order not to run short of environmental resources and not to give harm to the environment during production and consumption process, both the companies and individuals must have a green consciousness. Green consciousness refers to environment ethics and consciousness. Green consciousness means that every individual must feel responsible to create a livable environment and to sustain it (Çepel, 2006: 25). The reasons of environmental problems and environmental pollution are the ignorant ideas and attitudes of societies rose from their social and economic activities to achieve an utmost welfare level (Ertürk, 2011: 244).
In order to reduce the building’s energy consumption, Malaysia has launched the development project of Malaysia Green Technology Corporation’s new office building, which is situated in Bandar Baru Bangi. The design of the building is fully based on ZEB concept. The project was completed in the year 2007; however the office building is still unable to fulfill its energy needs after three years operation. The Building Energy Index (BEI) of the building yet to achieve zero. Up until now, researches are still being carried out with the aim to increase the energy efficiency of the building (Choong, 2009).
Another study showed that the application of grape seed extract, pomegranate peel extract, sodium ascorbate, and green tea on enamel surface bleached with 38% hydrogen peroxide neutralized the effect of residual oxygen on the bleached enamel and increased the SBS of resin composite . The concentration of green tea solution was the same as that used in this study but we used 15% carbamide peroxide for groups A1 and A2 as a bleaching agent that was weaker than (38% hydrogen peroxide) office bleaching agent, producing less residual oxygen molecules. We noticed that the effect of the antioxidant on SBS would decrease as the bleaching agent concentration decreased.
The public interest standard is illustrative as applied to two national wildlife refuges: Izembek, where a proposed road would connect an isolated community to the outside world at the cost of harming an important bird habitat; and Malheur, adja- cent to the North Sky wind farm project where a right-of-way across refuge lands would bring wind power to market. If the environmental harms are the same, then should it matter whether or not they are caused by an effort to provide a social benefit instead of an environmental benefit? Or if the environ- mental harms are not the same (which is more likely in this case), is it nonetheless possible that the social benefits can out- weigh them at Izembek? If balancing is to be done, it should place all of the factors on the scale, not just the green benefits and harms.