If greendesign related to environmental protection is the human’s attention to nature, then the humanized design is the concern about people themselves. “People-oriented” design concept encourages designers to move the focus from product to product users-people, designing a more humanized products, which is the ultimate goal of fashionable designers. Although the digital age facilitates abundant social material, in this information explosion society, the network and the virtual community did not make the relationship between people more close, but strengthened the lifestyle of loneliness and privatization. The design thus carries more responsibility for the human spirit and spiritual comfort. For ex- ample, this is a digital product that may be applied to your home in the future. Flora is a digital conceptual vase designed by Japanese designer Yoshiki Mat- suyama, allowing people to share flowers and greetings in a virtual way across geographical restrictions. Flowers placed in this vase can be copied through the Flora system into a virtual image sent to other places. Users can use 3D scanning cameras and projectors to design greetings and virtual flowers, so that help people’s virtual living and communication more humanized in the future (Figure 6).
Reachability: Reachability measures the length of tool that would be required to machine the surfaces of a model. Figure 2a provides an example of a surface with poor reachability, as a long tool is required to reach the bottom of the inner cavity. The reachability algorithm determines the shortest tool length that would be able to reach the surface, on a per facet basis. The colors are mapped to the model based on the depth, as shown in Figure 2b. Blue and green represents surfaces that can be reached with a short tool, while yellow and red indicates a longer tool is required. As an example, the yellow pocket in Figure 2b identifies an area requiring a tool length of over six inches. Surfaces that require a long tool during machining generally require slower feed rates and may cause dimensional non- conformance due to tool deflection. The required depth of each facet is aggregated into a normalized metric ranging from zero to one. The depth of each facet is weighted according to the surface area of the facet, and averaged across the entire model. A simple rectangular prism would have all of its surface area reachable with a short tool length, and would have a perfect reachability score of one. Parts with deep pockets would require longer tools and therefore have a lower score.
434 on the earth and the impact of application improvement situations on the product as for productivity. There are endeavors that underline the working framework to control the energy utilization of applications. General software solutions found in [39, 40] incorporate virtualization, shutting applications which are no more being used, effective calculations by composing a minimal outline of codes and information structures, diminishment of parallelism overhead by creating proficient burden adjusting calculations, fine grained green figuring, and making vitality assignment calculations for steering information. Naumann et al.  concocted a conceptual reference model named GREENSOFT model for sustainable software. Their four section model backings software engineers, managers, and clients in making, keeping up, and utilizing software in a green way. The four sections cover a life cycle model, measurements, system models, and suggestions and devices for various partners. Shenoy  talked about that the adjustments in the current SDLC and proposes proper strides which can prompt lower carbon discharges, power and paper use, therefore helping Organizations to move towards greener and sustainable software development. Mahaux  contend that requirements engineering is basic to the entire software life cycle principally in the application stage where clients are conveyed the framework and anticipate that it will adjust to their prerequisites. They guarantee that proper requirement engineering can help software last more along these lines diminishing the power utilization. Capra et al. (2010) concentrate on building up a measure of resource efficiency for software applications and outline how application advancement situations can have a hindering impact because of the extra lines of code they include. Gupta  present a structure for making a smart force profile that execute three techniques at the moment of login into the system. These techniques consistently measure the energy utilization of running software in a given timeframe and can be consolidated in operating systems. Oliveira et al.  exhibited a methodology taking into account periodic measurement of GPIs and QoS and reception of Service Oriented design is utilized to streamline vitality productivity at the Software-as-Service layer. Endeavors on incorporating sustainability in Service-Oriented software are observed in [45, 9]. Sissa  and Agarwal  tried to characterize general good practices in green software, for example, gathering prerequisites through electronic means and sending
The main purpose of the study is to determine effect of green packaging on firm performance in manufacturing in Nairobi County, Kenya. The study was informed by institutional theory and the resource-based theory. The study adopted the explanatory research design. A census of 133 firm managers working for 47 firms in Nairobi County. Data was gathered from respondents using questionnaires as data collection instruments. Cronbach alpha was used to measure the internal reliability of the structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics which included means and standard deviations, also multiple regression models were used to analyze data in order to determine the hypotheses for the study. Data was presented using tables. The results indicated that green packaging is key determinants of business performance in the manufacturing in Kenya. Thus firm managers should package their products in recyclable materials.
In technical systems it is energy, material and/or signals that are converted. These con- versions can be described as a flow through the system, where one is the main flow and the oth- ers, if any, are supporting flows. For the design of a technical system, a clear attitude between the input and the output must be defined in the form of the function of the system. This func- tion is an abstract formulation of the task. The overall function can often be divided into sub- functions, and function structures can be estab- lished. With a further sub-division of the sub- functions, basic functions also called gener- ally valid can then be recognised. These func- tions, according to the definition by Rodenacker and Krumhauer (see for instance ) are change, vary, connect, channel and store. They repre- Opis zahtevnika
The above metrics are defined for the technical or algo- rithm level software evaluation. Technical or algorithm level evaluation determines the quality of a product. RED evaluation primarily focuses on organizational needs and to ensure if the needs are fulfilled via the software solu- tion. Therefore, technical or algorithm level evaluation was not a major concern in the web-based RED software evaluation. Further, industry feedback about the web- based RED software application will be taken into con- sideration; performing a quality evaluation will be mean- ingful at that time. Since SQM and QFD primarily focus on quality, therefore, they were not chosen for the web-based RED software evaluation. GQM is one of the most widely used methods of its class; it focuses on proc- ess in addition to quality. After consideration, though, none of these methods were used directly. The software evaluation did, however, recognize the benefits of the GQM methodology and its multi-level evaluation frame- work. The objective of the web-based RED software evaluation in this paper is not to perform technical or al- gorithm level evaluation but to provide a way to decide and define “what to measure” and “how to measure” the software solution in order to conclude that the organiza- tional needs are met. Therefore, the multi-level frame- work was adopted, which provides measures that differ- entiate conceptual elements from implementation-specific elements that GQM does not provide . These ele- ments are considered as further refinements to the GQM methodology. Here, the conceptual measure helps to identify the type of data to be collected (what to measure) and the implementation-specific measure helps to identify the collection method (how to measure). The data collec- tion results conclude whether or not the goals of the solu- tion are met.
Internal Factors In addition to packaging, packaging color, nutritional messages, and external influences, consumer decisions are also affected by personal factors. A consumer’s interest in health and nutrition can impact his food choices because if he is very concerned about his health, he may spend more time comparing the Nutrition Facts on packages to find one that fits his desired eating habits. On the other hand, if a consumer doesn't know much about nutrition or doesn't care very much, he will probably not look at the Nutrition Facts very closely. Furthermore, whether a consumer is in a hurry can also impact what kinds of products he buys. To discover the connections between consumer involvement, time pressure, and purchasing, Pinya Silayoi and Mark Speece conducted a study using focus groups in Thailand. Similar to the U.S., Thailand has a competitive packaged food market, strong brand loyalty, and a large number of supermarkets, so their findings are likely analogous to what would be found in the United States (Silayoi and Speece 609). The researchers learned that when consumers were pressed for time, they tended to rely more on visual package elements such as color, graphics, and pictures instead of informational elements to make their decisions (616). By contrast, when people have more time, they depend on informational items such as the product description, ingredients, and nutrition facts, and less on graphical elements (623). However, the majority of study participants indicated that the nutritional information was confusing and should be simplified so that they could more easily tell if a product was healthy or not (620). People also purchase products based on larger social or ethical beliefs. With the rise of the sustainability movement, more consumers are looking for foods that were grown or packaged in a sustainable manner to show their support for environmental conservation. Purchasing organic or locally grown foods follows this sentiment. Sometimes organic or natural foods will feature a written story on the package about where the food was grown, how the company was founded, or what kinds of superior ingredients were used to make the product. “The story speaks of quality, social and environmental responsibility, and wholesomeness,” and makes people feel good about their purchases, says Libby Mills, a Registered Dietitian with the American Dietetic Association and a consumer advocate.
Models of the design process reflect this lack of agreement in definition, portraying synthesis either as a distinct phase within an essentially linear design process, or as a recurring part of the problem-solving process. Regarding the former, Wynn & Clarkson (2005) describe a number of abstract, problem- oriented models, in which emphasis is placed on abstraction and analysis of the problem before the subsequent generation and evaluation of solutions. One such model describes the design process as three linear stages of analysis, synthesis and evaluation, where ‘synthesis’ is synonymous with the generation of solutions (Jones, 1963). This is similar to the four stage model by Cross (1994) which does not use the term 'synthesis', but includes a generation stage in which the designer produces solutions. Archer (1965) proposes a systematic, procedural approach to design, which is more specific than the previous models. Six main phases of design are defined, where synthesis is the “preparation of outline design proposals” (Evbuomwan et al., 1996, p. 307) which follows analysis and precedes development. In a comparison of engineering design process models, (Howard et al., 2008) equates the ‘synthesis’ (Archer, 1984) and ‘generation’ (Cross, 2008) stages of the design process with ‘concept generation’. Synthesis then, when viewed as part of a linear process, is a stage of design concerned with the generation of solutions or production of proposals which has some sequential relationship with analysis, evaluation and/or development.
Tie plate is one of the automotive parts that are placed in CamPro engine for proton cars. Tie plate is a product resulting from the stamping process. The function of tie plate is to divide the piston holes found in a car engine before casting process. Means the tie plate will be part of the engine block after casting process is done. Because the engine is an important and requires high accuracy, so the quality of flatness of tie plate is very important and emphasized during the manufacturing process.
Green supply chain management integrates the environmental thinking into supply chain management, including productdesign, material resourcing and selection, manufacturing process, delivery of final product to the consumer as well as end of life management of the product after its useful life. In order to achieve the GSCM, manufacturing organizations must follow the basic principles established by ISO 14000, and particularly, by state-of-the-art ISO 14001(9). In doing so, it is imperative that organizations develop procedures that concentrate on operations analysis, continuous improvement, measurement and objectives (10). However, to more systematically come up with guideline for effective GSCM implementation, it is based on following definition of GSCM: Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) = GreenProductDesign + Green Material Management + Green Manufacturing Process + Green Distribution and Marketing.(2)
With respect to the dimension of greenproduct value, greenproduct value was found to have significant and positive impact on green purchase intention. Meanwhile, as the beta value indicated β = 0.333, p < 0.01, which explained that this dimension of greenproduct was rated as the second highest in contributing to green purchase intention after eco-label. This result showed that the perceived greenproduct values or benefits of the greenproduct had strong influence on overall green purchase intention. With that result, the fifth hypothesis of this study was supported. Previously, there was strong evidence that indicated that the greenproduct value did play an important role in determining an individual‟s green purchase intention, such as Chen and Chang (2012) study in the context of information communication technological products in Taiwan; and Litvine and Wustenhagen (2011) study in the context of green electricity in Switzerland. The existing research finding further confirmed those research findings. However, the current research finding did not support the earlier researches carried out by D‟Souza et al. (2006) and Bhaskaran et al. (2006), which reported that there was no significant relationship found between the consumers‟ perception of green products and purchase intention. In general, both studies of Australian consumers did not perceive those products produced under environmentally sustainable standards as offering any distinct benefits to them and customers distrusted the statements made by these companies. In addition, these products were more expensive than other conventional products, and the overall implementation costs of such environmental standards were expensive. In this study, greenproduct value was considered to be the second important predictor of green purchase intention after eco-label. Therefore, managers should take note that their product environmental functions and performances must at least be at par or surpass customer perceived value of green products. In order to retain customer satisfaction, managers should pay attention on producing high quality products, improving product features, and preferably, making the product to be convenient and affordable to most consumers.
This indicates researchers have been putting more effort into standards, definitions, framework creation and reviews (which can be justified by the early stage of stability and maturity of the subjects). Other analysis was made according to CE principles (4) as demonstrated in Figure 3. The highest level of participation on the reduction principle suggests a major focus on changing consumer behaviour with the use of new technologies rather than investing in clean energy sources or extending product lifespans. On the other hand, the reclassification principle, despite its importance, still lacks technology efforts.
When designers start to design a product, deriving a useful cost estimate at the early design stage is challenging. This is because the available data is limited and designers need to deal with variation, especially for new products where product specifications are often expressed as a range of values. Despite this difficulty, cost estimation should be carried out as early as possible since, up to 80% of a product’s cost is said to have been committed in the early design stages. One of the challenges faced is how one can optimise performance and cost. The research presented in this paper offers a solution to this challenge. The solution is used to reduce variation in the product specification in order to improve the quality of the cost estimate in the early design stages. The step-by-step process enables designers to undertake an informed optimisation between performance and cost to aid in the selection of the final concept. To achieve this, the research presented in this paper proposes the use of Taguchi’s orthogonal array approach to reduce variation in the product specification. Within this paper, a critique of the literature and industrial context is offered, demonstrating the need for such an approach. From this critique, the research question ‘How can we improve the quality of the average cost during the early design stages using the limited information available? It defined and novel process is described. Finally, a pilot and industrial case study are used to demonstrate how the process would be used. The outcome illustrates how designers can use this process to estimate the lowest possible average cost with the lowest variance.
Industrial design literature investigations provided a foundation for this project and specific methods were used to identify and utilize key information from the Gallagher product and energizer range and Gallagher’s competition. Other strategic research areas included; context of energizer use, common energizer issues, market gaps/opportunities, ergonomic principles, safety aspects, manufacturing guidelines and relevant state of the art technologies. The core research methods used to support the investigation and consider industrial design and business requirements were; market analysis, ethnography, surveys, informal expert interviews and focus group meetings with Gallagher departmental managers. Structured concept generation, test rigs, mock-ups, models, iterated design development and CAD renderings ensued.
From this paradigm, scholars and researchers focus more on products and processes to achieve sustainable development and to protect natural resources. However, products and processes become obsolete quickly and to sustain the process, new technologies need to be introduced frequently. Some production processes are effective but others are not and can have affect sustainability processes long-term. To overcome these environmental matters, green management has offered some solutions through management systems and benchmarks such as ISO 14000 and ISO 9000 [16, 18, 21].
Today, ensuring the sustainable development of any country is subjected to the conservation and efficient use of limited and irreplaceable resources in that country; various measures are done to deal with this issue by governments including applying green laws and principles, such as the use of environmentally friendly raw materials and industrial centers of production, reducing the use of fossil energy and oil resources, recovering paper and reuse of waste. Extending government regulation to obtain environmental standards and the growing consumers’ demand for green products in supply chain, which contains all activities related to the flow of goods, from raw material stage to the delivery of goods to final consumers using information flow throughout chain, causes the emergence of a new concept of green supply chain management. Adopting investment strategy in improving the environmental performance of the supply chain, will result in many advantages and benefits such as saving energy, reducing emissions, eliminating or reducing the waste, creating value for customers and, ultimately, increasing productivity for the manufacturing and services companies (Imani & Ahmadi, 2009). This article will investigate the effect of queuing theory on reducing waiting time and optimizing energy consumption in green supply chain.
analysis. However, the current study is not intended to identify the viability of the parameters. Variables such as thickness, bumper beam curvature, rib strength, and cross-section profile are some of the most important parameters which can improve the energy absorption of the bumper beam and sustain the desired deflection of the bumper system as defined in the productdesign specifications (PDSs). The optimal thickness of a bumper beam can construct a balance between the weight and strength of the structure in order to provide further effective energy absorption . The nominal thickness of the bumper beam is 4 mm. However, it is not completely constant in all beam parts. Surplus thickness of the polymer products has some manufacturing constraints. As an illustration, it increases the cooling time and makes warps in the flat surfaces and sink marks on the surface of the ribs’ interface, which is not suitable in visible products
India's oldest industrial house, TATA is stepping up efforts to reduce its carbon footprint across the value chain — from manufacturing processes to distribution networks to eco-friendly consumer products. Tata Steel aims to reduce carbon dioxide emissions at its Jamshedpur plant from the current 1.8 tonne to 1.7 tonne per tonne of liquid steel made by 2012. Tata Motors is setting up an eco-friendly showroom using natural building material for its flooring and energy- efficient lights. The Taj chain, is in the process of creating eco rooms which will have energy- efficient mini bars, organic bed linen and napkins made from recycled paper. But there won't be any carpets since chemicals are used to clean those. And when it comes to illumination, the rooms will have CFLs or LEDs. About 5% of the total rooms at a Taj hotel would sport a chic eco-room design. Taj Green Cove in Kovalam, which uses the waste generated at the hotel to meet its cooking requirements. Another eco-friendly consumer product that is in the works is Indica EV, an electric car that will run on polymer lithium ion batteries. Tata Motors plans to introduce the Indica EV in select European markets this year.
Field officers (FOs) will market the new products during their daily visits to the entrepreneur‟s business location through printed brochures and in their personal sales interactions. The FOs sell the loan products by explaining benefits to the client and getting the client excited to sign up. This approach is proactive and complementary to the traditional way of marketing that many MFIs in Ghana operate where loan applicants rather make first contact with the institution. The PO also follows up on the field with the FO, further explaining the products to the client, and signing up the client at his/her business location. The client pre-selects a product of his/her choice from the five (5) categories of products proposed during sign up.The PO at this stage collect preliminary information about client and their business including location information (a description and or GPS coordinates).
Character education is taught in schools so that students in all their attitudes and behavior reflect the value of noble character and civilized in everyday life. The facts in primary schools shows that the learning which occurs in the classroom did not show character education but more indicative of instruction. The indications are : (1) design of syllabus and lesson plan that created by teacher disposed to be centered on the teacher rather than the student, (2) teaching and learning activities that occur often not in contextual with student life, (3) methods that applied tends to singles lecture, (4) often seemed deviate behavioral attitudes from the students such as in speech, dishonest, lacking respect for teachers and fellow students, not responsible for the tasks set by the teacher, (5) and even concerned schools until now have not implemented the maximal learning about character education through learning social sciences in school. Thus it need to be examined through the research of material development of character education through learning social Sciences at St Arnold SDK Penfui, District Maulafa, Municipality of Kupang. The aim of research to produce teaching materials character education through learning Social Sciences. Results conceptual development according to the assessment / design expert feedback, expert content and teacher based of validity analysis showed the resulting product development stated very feasible to be used as teaching materials that integrated character education through learning social sciences in elementary school. From 5 students of the subject field test result mean value of 3.61 considered suitable for implementation in the fifth grade students. From 28 students subject field test result mean value of 3.72 considered appropriate to be implemented to students in class V.