The results of 30 months of trawl sampling on P. semisulcatus, De Hann 1848, obtained through operational phase of MONITORING GREENTIGERPRAWN RESOURCES project, along with results of another available 28 months of the data of the same structure prior to this, has formed an invaluable time series of data as a proper basis for the further analysis. The survey area is located at North-west of the Persian Gulf from Bahrekan to Dayer waters. The ultimate goal of this study is to come to a better understanding of behavioral pattern of GreenTigerPrawn in its exploited phase after recruitment to the fishery.
CHAPTER 4 - POPULATION GENETIC STRUCTURE OF THE GREENTIGERPRAWN (Penaeus semisulcatus) IN MALAYSIAN WATERS INFERRED BY MITOCHONDRIAL DNA CYTOCHROME C OXIDASE SUBUNIT I AND CONTROL REGION 4.1 Introduction 56
The greentigerprawn, Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan has wide geographical distribution, ranging from the waters of south and east Africa to India and Sri Lanka, including the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf and western Madagascar (Holthuis LB, 1980). Its distribution extends as far as Korea Peninsular, Japan, the Philippines, New Guinea and northern Australia; the species has also entered the eastern Mediterranean through the Suez Canal and now forms the basis of an important fishery in that region (Holthuis LB, 1980).
With a wide geographic distribution from the south and east Africa to India and Sri Lanka, including the Red Sea, Persian Gulf (Ronquillo et al., 2006), the greentigerprawn, P. semisulcatus, is one of the most common and commercially important marine shrimp in the Indo-West Pacific region and enjoys a good aquaculture potential background. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the culture of P. semisulcatus in some countries of the Middle East, including Kuwait and other Gulf countries (Al-Ameeri and Cruz, 1998); Egypt (Sadek and Moreau, 2000) and Turkey (Aktas et al., 2003). Although a considerable range of information on the dietary and
When Sheila learned her boyfriend had stolen a rare blue tiger from the exotic animal sanctuary in the town forty-five minutes away from her own, she had not been overly surprised. True, she had no premonition that her boyfriend was going to steal a rare, endangered animal. But it was the kind of thing that she would accept, could not deny that it sounded like something Kai would do. In fact, she was slightly relieved because she thought all of her unanswered texts and voice mail messages were because he was cheating on her, which would have truly been the end of the world.
The monsoon prawn fishery in Kerala including the mud bank areas was studied based on samples collected during July 2015 from different fish landing centres in the Alapuzha (Punnapra, Paravoor, Kappakadavu, Thottappally), Ernakulam (Kalamukku, Chellanam), Thrissur (Chavakkad) and Malappuram (Chettuva, Ponnani) districts. Prawn samples were collected from both mud-bank and non-mud bank areas for the study. Comparison of the sex ratio of Metapenaeus dobsoni and Fenneropenaeus indicus and maturity stages of females between mud-bank and non-mud bank samples was done. Means of total length, weight, juvenile composition, length weight relationship and gastro somatic index of males and females of mud bank and non-mud bank samples were compared using standard methods.
occupies highest position in the Food Pyramid. Keeping this in mind, an attempt has been made to study the prey base of Tiger and the food habits of the prey base in Periyar Tiger Reserve (PTR), India. Standard methods for field survey were adopted to ascertain the prey base of the Tigers in PTR. Enumeration of most common flora and fauna of the Tiger Zone of PTR was carried out. The results of field survey revealed that, of the 8 most preferred common prey of tigers, 3 belong to vulnerable belong to least concern and 1 belongs to endangered categories of species. It was observed that 23 % of the prey base was herbivorous. The most common flora (43 numbers) and fauna (54 numbers) of the Tiger zone of PTR were also documented in the present study. The Present work highlights the importance of prey base as well as associated flora and fauna in the conservation of Tigers in PTR.
Rice and fish dominate the diet of Bangladeshis to such an extent that the old proverb, “machee bhatee bangali” which can be translated as ‘fish and rice make a Bangali’ continues to hold true. Fish and prawn are two essential food items through out the world. Most of the freshwater prawn species, especially Macrobrachium rosenbergii, have wide ranges of environmental tolerance. M. rosenbergii can grow well in freshwater to saline water up to 15‰ and up to 2–5‰ in cages, in ponds and in a wide range of temperatures. There are about 125 species of freshwater prawn in the world, of which 49 are known as commercially important (Hossain, 1995). In Bangladesh there are about 23 species of freshwater prawn including 10 species of Macrobrachium spp. (Akand and Hasan, 1992). Of these, giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and monsoon river prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, are the two commercially important species. The prawn industry supports a thriving local economy and generates important foreign exchange earnings for the country and many people’s livelihoods depend on the prawn industry (Williams and Khan, 2003). The country has a vast potential of integrating fish and prawn culture with rice farming. The basic
In answer to the questions set at the start of the paper, Tiger Woods does indeed seem to be the best golfer of his generation, but given the pat- terns observed in players’ strengths, it seems unlikely that he will once again reach the heights of his powers observed around 2001. Golfers typ- ically increase in strength, and hav- ing reached a peak, face a slow de- cline in playing ability until they re- tire. Of course, part of Tiger’s recent decline has been down to injury (the few tournaments Tiger has played re- cently have seen him perform some- what below the standards he set in the early part of his career), which, as Tiger gets older is more and more likely to happen, suggesting his de- cline will continue. However, his de- cline in form was also partly due to his personal problems. As such, if these are overcome, he may ﬁnd himself en- tirely focussed on his golﬁng legacy once more, and if anyone can have a
Abstract: New cross-country evidence for 1965 to 1995 is presented on the link that runs from population change to economic growth. The estimates indicate that demographic change is a powerful determinant of income growth, operating mainly via the effect of changes in age structure. The estimates also indicate that the benefits of demographic change can be greatly magnified by a favourable policy environment. A case study of economic growth in Ireland suggests that the legalisation of contraception in 1980 resulted in a sharp decline in fertility and a sizeable increase in the relative share of the working-age population. This demographic shift, operating in conjunction with a favourable policy environment, can explain in large measure the birth of the Celtic Tiger. However, given demographic projections for Ireland, the Tiger’s roar may become less formidable as it continues to mature.
On the other hand, I believe my undergraduate experience through classes has been very divided. I got to take classes on various economics topics, such as globalization, econometrics, structures of financial institutions, etc. Yet there was very little experience where I got to explore how all these topics intertwine. Furthermore, the topics I learned about were mostly the mere results of cause and effect, namely, one action or policy often leads to one or multiple effects. Economic effects, however, are never one-sided, black and white. One thing I learnt through econometrics is that there are always variables that are left out that could affect the regression of linear models. Factors that are generally seen as beneficial to an economy can often lead to some negative effects as well. My study of the Celtic Tiger model reflects just that.
Participants expressed big concern about the damage that the leopard (commonly called small tiger), elephant, and sometimes the rhino have been causing to the local people. They indicated that the tiger has not been as damaging compared to leopards and elephants so far. However, the nature of conflict with the tigers was viewed differently. The damage from elephants is occasional but massive as they can destroy crops on a large scale. People would know that the elephants have been around and causing damage and they try to chase them away. Leopards have been causing a lot of trouble as they come to villages and take goats and pigs, even from sheds. All participants reported that they have lost at least one and up to 15 goats or pigs within the last 3 to 4 months. In contrast, the tiger is secretive and people do not know when it attacks but when it attacks it’s usually their big livestock such as cows, buffalos and sometimes even humans. Hence, participants expressed more fear of the tiger even though they have been continuously troubled by other wild animals. Most of the participants referred to a dreadful incident of a tiger attack a few of years ago on a former president of a community forest who lost one of his eyes when he was in the forest with many other members of the CF.
finish off by villagers. Solid quantitative relationship with populations, but to transfer of some of tiger and other wildlife? Norms on tiger trade continues to save the tiger means prospects for their habitat were not to make a higher. Impressive and report save tiger project for the buffer. Acacia tree stopped and on tiger project tiger reserves in any in india that the figures? Beautiful animals to this report save project would be diagnosed and website to the core zone. Dogs are moving this report on tiger project tiger range of rajasthan. Current secretary general public and bones mainly at these cookies on earth. Copy link copied to protect their skins spiral out. Upon which leads to save tiger project tiger project at the decline has also a problem to the money. Virtually no reviews yet to sell tigers in time i know about tigers all the wwf or as you. Indian wildlife are in tiger project is necessary to have? Biotic disturbances and on save tiger project area would request or tigers in hundreds of slidesfinder account before it becomes the campaign and its ecosystem. Your inbox by the report on poaching cases of asiatic lion, maybe we will devour the unique pattern of opposition from the big is the problem. Sensitive in rajasthan government doles and survey of an alarming rise in. Rough estimates from this tiger project tiger reserves in programs to ensure a scribd member of tiger. Had increased or more on similar programmes in tiger and individuals. Sociology as habitat by the tiger conservation partnership with. Shahid afridi bats with this report tiger project has such a second home to the rate. Ensured through the tiger and many scientists are also a problem. Thnkc for conservation and report on project has signed a plan to see tigers are not focusing on the coalition Sensitive areas so we save tiger in programs to maintain any given up. Haven for the new methodology is not included in an online on how they need people have brought about wildlife? There are put the report save tiger from extinction, conservation units have. Large wild animals, report on save tiger situation and
Once the flood has recessed, simply empty the tubes, roll them up and store them in a suitable place where they are ready for the next deployment. The life of the system, if properly maintained and the maximum UV level is taken into consideration, is 17 years. The products life span may even be extended if not excessively exposed to direct sunlight. The Tiger Dam™ is also easy-to-repair. Temporarily, they may be repaired using adhesive tape; permanent repairs are done using adhesive patches..
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Exposure of prawns to dark- or light-coloured substrates is known to trigger a strong colour adaptation response through expansion or contraction of the colouration structures in the prawn hypodermis. Despite the difference in colour triggered by this adaptive response, total levels of the predominant carotenoid pigment, astaxanthin, are not modified, suggesting that another mechanism is regulating this phenomenon. Astaxanthin binds to a specific protein called crustacyanin (CRCN), and it is the interaction between the quantities of each of these compounds that produces the diverse range of colours seen in crustacean shells. In this study, we investigated the protein changes and genetic regulatory processes that occur in prawn hypodermal tissues during adaptation to black or white substrates. The amount of free astaxanthin was higher in animals adapted to dark substrate compared with those adapted to light substrate, and this difference was matched by a strong elevation of CRCN protein. However, there was no difference in the expression of CRCN genes either across the moult cycle or in response to background substrate colour. These results indicate that exposure to a dark-coloured substrate causes an accumulation of CRCN protein, bound with free astaxanthin, in the prawn hypodermis without modification of CRCN gene expression. On light-coloured substrates, levels of CRCN protein in the hypodermis are reduced, but the carotenoid is retained, undispersed in the hypodermal tissue, in an esterified form. Therefore, the abundance of CRCN protein affects the distribution of pigment in prawn hypodermal tissues, and is a crucial regulator of the colour adaptation response in prawns.
Indian zoos have bred Bengal tigers since 1880 and currently all 210 registered Bengal tigers are maintained within India  . Bengal tigers were transported around the world and frequently crossed with other tiger subspecies, as reflected by the large number (33%) of the captive tigers we tested that had admixed genetic heritages derived partially from Bengal tigers. three newly identified mtDNa haplotypes that are closely related to the voucher Bengal tigers are only found in the admixed-origin tigers. these genetic findings
In investigating criminal cases of poaching and smuggling involving tigers (Panthera tigris), the number of tiger individuals involved is critical for determining the penalty. Morphological methodologies do not often work because tiger parts do not possess the distinctive characteristics of the individual. Microsatellite DNAs have been proved a reliable marker for the individualization of animals. Seven microsatellite loci derived from domestic cat (Felis catus) were selected to individualize tigers, namely F41, F42, F146, Fca304, Fca391, Fca441 and Fca453. A reference population containing 37 unrelated tigers were used to investigate alleles, allelic frequencies, genotypes and genotype frequencies of each locus. Consequently, the data was used to assess the validity of the combination of seven loci for tiger individualization. All loci were polymorphic and easy to amplify. Three out of the seven loci were significantly departure from the Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium (P < 0.05). Cumulative discrimination power (DP) calculated with observed genotype frequencies was 0.99999789. Match probability of an individual in the reference population with a random individual in seven loci ranged from 7.34 10 9 to 2.77 10 5 . This suggests that combining the seven microsatellite loci provides desirable power to individualize tigers. The combination of seven loci was applied to a case of tiger bone smuggling. Genotypes of all samples were identical in all seven loci, and the P M of the evidence