ground-based telescopes

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The cost of developing and maintain the monitoring and control software of large ground-based telescopes

The cost of developing and maintain the monitoring and control software of large ground-based telescopes

The total estimated pre-construction and construction is 37 FTE for the whole ASKAP TOS software. The total ASKAP project budget is AU$188M as of June 2014. The average labor cost for a software developer at CSIRO is approximately AU$200k (wages + overheads). The additional computing hardware and operating expenses is approximately AU$ 600k. Therefore the approximate cost of the ASKAP TOS development as a percentage of the total budget of approximately 4.3 %. This value is consistent with other recent large ground-based telescopes projects as described later in this paper. 2.4 Estimation of Productivity (Jan 2008 – present)
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Unveiling Cosmic Dawn: the synergetic role of space and ground-based telescopes

Unveiling Cosmic Dawn: the synergetic role of space and ground-based telescopes

Science recommendation: While the wide-field imaging surveys will find very large numbers of galaxies at redshifts above 7, massive spectroscopic follow-up campaigns are required and should be prioritized. The potentially important load on ground-based facilities – obviously subject to peer reviews by time allocation committees – should be shared between European and US facilities. On the European side, ESO / international facilities (VLT, ALMA) and shared national facilities (e.g. LBT, NOEMA) will be sought. On the US side, access to facilities such as Keck, Gemini and Subaru telescopes in the infrared, and LMT and ALMA in mm-wave will be essential. At later stages the European ELT, TMT and GMT are also expected to play crucial roles through their capabilities with first-light instruments. We urge the US agencies to participate in international efforts to make sure sufficient observing resources are available from US national telescopes and private telescopes based in the US.
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Doing Astronomy with Small Telescopes

Doing Astronomy with Small Telescopes

We are playing a lead role for growth of astronomy and its quality teaching and research in Mani- pur, a State located at northeast India (longitude = 93˚58'E; latitude = 24˚44'N; altitude = 782 m). We have innovatively designed and constructed three cost effective observatories, each costing a few hundred USD. These observatories are completely different in design and are perfectly usable for doing serious work on astronomical observation and measurements, using small ground-based telescopes. One Celestron CGE1400 telescope is housed with equatorial mounting in one of three constructed observatories and the same observatory has been inducted, since January 2012, as one of the members of the “Orion Project”, which is an international project headquartered at Phoenix, Arizona, USA, dedicated for photometric and spectroscopic observations of five bright variable stars of the Orion constellation. We have been producing high precision BVRI photome- tric data that match well with those produced by other observatories enrolled in the Orion project. Our photometric data were presented and discussed in the 33rd Annual Conference of the Society for Astronomical Sciences: Symposium on Telescope Science, held at Ontario, California, USA dur- ing June 12 - 14, 2014. Further, we could successfully demonstrate them to the entire population of the State and play live shows of the observation of three spectacular astronomical events namely, solar eclipse of 15th January 2010, lunar eclipse of 10th December 2011 and Transit of Venus of June 6, 2012. We have conducted a number of seminars and workshops for training and research in astronomy. In the present paper, we would like describe our self-built observatories, our observational facilities, the BVRI photometric data that we acquired for the Orion project, and other activities undertaken for growth of astronomy activities in the State of Manipur, India.
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Speckle Imaging with the SOAR and the Very Large Telescopes

Speckle Imaging with the SOAR and the Very Large Telescopes

Astronomical speckle imaging is a well established technique for obtaining diffraction limited images of binary and multiple stars, low contrast solar features and nearby extended objects such as comets and solar system planets, with large ground-based telescopes. We have developed a speckle masking code to reconstruct images of such objects from the corresponding specklegrams. This code uses speckle interferometry for estimating the Fourier amplitudes and bispectrum for estimating the Fourier phases. In this paper, we discuss a few technical issues such as: What is the photometric and astrometric accuracy that can be achieved with this code? What is the closest separation between the components of a binary star that can be clearly resolved with sufficient signal to noise ratio with this code? What is the maximum dynamic range? What kind of calibration schemes can be used in the absence of a bright calibrator close to the object of interest? We address these questions based on computer simulations. We present a few sample reconstructions from the real data obtained from the SOAR telescope. We also present the details of a technical feasibility study carried out with NACO-cube mode at the VLT.
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A Climatology of Disdrometer Measurements of Rainfall in Finland over Five Years with Implications for Global Radar Observations

A Climatology of Disdrometer Measurements of Rainfall in Finland over Five Years with Implications for Global Radar Observations

The qualitative implication of these findings for GPM ground validation is that the performance of the ground- based radar network can be expected to exceed that of the satellite in most cases, thus providing a tool to evaluate the satellite retrieval algorithms also at high latitudes [for a general overview of the subject, see Chandrasekar et al. (2008)]. Put more precisely, the ground-based observa- tions are able to provide a reference measurement for all cases in which GPM is able to detect a signal, especially since the smaller radar bin size of the ground radars per- mits the use of spatial averaging. Furthermore, although polarimetric DSD parameter retrieval may be difficult for light rain with small drops, at those conditions raindrops tend to exhibit Rayleigh scattering at the GPM frequen- cies, allowing the reflectivity values of ground-based and space-based measurements to be compared directly.
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Use of geologic and water yield data from groundwater-based community water systems as a guide for groundwater planning and management

Use of geologic and water yield data from groundwater-based community water systems as a guide for groundwater planning and management

In planning water supply distribution systems based upon ground water, the extent to which ground water is available must be recognized.. Plate 6 summarizes the potential ground.[r]

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Pulsar Searching and Timing with the Arecibo and Effelsberg Radio Telescopes

Pulsar Searching and Timing with the Arecibo and Effelsberg Radio Telescopes

In addition to searching for periodic signals, most modern pulsar surveys also searched for astro- physical radio transient signals from either rotating radio transients (RRATs; Keane et al., 2011) and/or fast radio bursts (FRBs; Thornton et al., 2013). Objects known as RRATs rst came to be when McLaughlin et al. (2006) found 11 transients in archival Parkes Multibeam Survey data. Further studies reveled that some RRATs are nulling pulsars that show sudden cessation of pulsed emission, and other RRATs are pulsars whose emission is below their luminosity cuto (Keane et al., 2011). The searching for RRATs led to the discovery of FRBs. FRBs are a high energy astrophysical phenomenon of unknown origin, that are transient radio pulse lasting a few milliseconds. FRBs are astrophysical sources that come from extragalactic distances and the majority of them are single events, except for the repeater FRB 121102 (Spitler et al., 2016) and most recently FRB 180814 (The CHIME/FRB Collaboration et al., 2019). The number of FRB discoveries has increased by searching in pulsar survey archival data and the addition of new radio telescopes with large eld of views, such as Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathnder (ASKAP), the upgraded Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (UTMOST), and Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment telescope (CHIME).
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ASTM F-894 HIGH-DENSITY SPIROLITE POLYETHYLENE PIPE PRODUCT DATA. Spirolite Chevron Chemical Co., LLC Rev. 11/98 Bulletin No.

ASTM F-894 HIGH-DENSITY SPIROLITE POLYETHYLENE PIPE PRODUCT DATA. Spirolite Chevron Chemical Co., LLC Rev. 11/98 Bulletin No.

pipe normally requires a minimum depth of cover of one pipe diameter or three feet whichever is greater. Where this con- dition can not be met, please consult PLEXCO.) The earth load for calculating crush resistance was found using the arch- ing coefficients given in Figure 10. The prism load was used for buckling and deflection calculations. Deflection was cal- culated using 75% of the E’ value given at the top of the re- spective column, a deflection lag factor of 1.5, and a deflec- tion limit of 5 percent. Buckling was calculated using the E’ value listed and a long-term pipe modulus value of 28,250 psi. Buckling resistance was considered only for pipe sub- jected to ground water, as buckling is normally not a control- ling factor for dry ground installations in the range of depths given in the tables. A safety factor of two was applied to the crush and buckling values.
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Contrail study with ground-based cameras

Contrail study with ground-based cameras

Abstract. Photogrammetric methods and analysis results for contrails observed with wide-angle cameras are described. Four cameras of two different types (view angle < 90 ◦ or whole-sky imager) at the ground at various positions are used to track contrails and to derive their altitude, width, and hor- izontal speed. Camera models for both types are described to derive the observation angles for given image coordinates and their inverse. The models are calibrated with sightings of the Sun, the Moon and a few bright stars. The methods are applied and tested in a case study. Four persistent con- trails crossing each other, together with a short-lived one, are observed with the cameras. Vertical and horizontal po- sitions of the contrails are determined from the camera im- ages to an accuracy of better than 230 m and horizontal speed to 0.2 m s −1 . With this information, the aircraft causing the contrails are identified by comparison to traffic waypoint data. The observations are compared with synthetic camera pictures of contrails simulated with the contrail prediction model CoCiP, a Lagrangian model using air traffic move- ment data and numerical weather prediction (NWP) data as input. The results provide tests for the NWP and contrail models. The cameras show spreading and thickening con- trails, suggesting ice-supersaturation in the ambient air. The ice-supersaturated layer is found thicker and more humid in this case than predicted by the NWP model used. The simu- lated and observed contrail positions agree up to differences caused by uncertain wind data. The contrail widths, which depend on wake vortex spreading, ambient shear and turbu- lence, were partly wider than simulated.
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Resistance coefficients on ground-based winching of timber

Resistance coefficients on ground-based winching of timber

Based on technical characteristics and dimen- sions of the winch, a conclusion may be reached of the suitability of the installed forest winch Igland 6002 Pronto TL on the tractor assembly FORMET. Along with the described work technology with par- allel skid trails laid out at a distance of 37.5 m be- tween them, the cable length does not have to exceed 40 m, although a longer cable can be wound in the winch drum. When the cable of 10 mm in diameter and 40 m long is completely wound, the highest tractive force is 46.67 kN (Horvat & [u{njar 2004). For further estimate of the possibilities of the in- stalled winch, the highest cable inclination angle of 45° will be assumed. With the height of the point of force on the winch pulley of 1 m, the angle of 45° is achieved at 1 m distance of the log from the tractor assembly. For determining the weight of the log that can be dragged, the highest winching coefficient was inserted, recorded when the log had to overcome a stump.
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A MULTIBAND PLANAR INVERTED–F ANTENNA WITH SLOTTED GROUND

A MULTIBAND PLANAR INVERTED–F ANTENNA WITH SLOTTED GROUND

In wireless communication the development of multiple wireless standards and portable communication, devices lead to fast growth. The key to the operation of these devices is the antenna and hence there is a great demand of developing miniaturized antennas that can be easily resemble within the space available inside the portable devices. Such antenna should be small and compatible with these devices. The Planar Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA) has been increasing integrated into the mobile phone world due its smaller size, low profile and Omni- directional pattern. This antenna design consists of a rectangular planar element that is located above a ground plane, a shorting plate, and a feeding point.[1,2] The shorting Pin is added to have good impedance match with the top conducting pale and it is less than λ/4. [12]
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The EC Project EUROPLANET. Success and Experience. Helmut O. Rucker and Maxim Khodachenko

The EC Project EUROPLANET. Success and Experience. Helmut O. Rucker and Maxim Khodachenko

Discipline Working Groups Discipline Working Groups Ground-based Observation Coordination Ground-based Observation Coordination Outreach Strategy Outreach Strategy Personnel E[r]

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Telescopes on the past: robots as models of extinct animals

Telescopes on the past: robots as models of extinct animals

Long’s book may also be insightful for this class of read- ers in that it illustrates the recursive nature of scientific research. Scientists conduct experiments to test a theory. Then, they must test the theories on which the experi- mental results rest (which in Long’s case included his ini- tial view of what constitutes an efficient feeding behavior) in order to interpret them correctly. To test these back- ground theories, they often need to run additional exper- iments—this was the case in Long’s study, given that his revised view of the function of body wobbling resulted from a separate and successive class of experiments test- ing the Tadro3s’ behavior. Such additional experiments, in turn, rest on other background theories. In practice, one must halt this recursive process at some point, oth- erwise no result would be ever produced. In principle, however, as illustrated by Long’s discussion, science is a never-ending enterprise. Perhaps a future evolutionary bioroboticist will find reasons to reject the background assumptions on which Long’s results rest, at some level
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Lightweight Deformable Mirrors for Future Space Telescopes

Lightweight Deformable Mirrors for Future Space Telescopes

Electrostrictives and piezoceramics were ultimately not used in the final design, although they do provide large actuation stresses with good strain linearity, and low hysteresis in the case of some electrostrictives. Their fragility, high temperature processing, and cost made it more desirable to use piezopolymers instead. The issues related to fragility have been alleviated in the currently available MFC actuators based on piezoceramic fibers bonded with epoxy and prestressed in a polymer package [45]; however, these are discrete devices that may lead to print-through problems, and would also be difficult to integrate into a mirror concept that requires a large number of independent actuators. Thin coatings of ceramic actuator material do have potential for certain mirror applications, and are currently being developed by others [7]. However, the thickness of these coatings is currently constrained to a level of several micrometers or less.
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NEVOD as a test facility for future neutrino telescopes

NEVOD as a test facility for future neutrino telescopes

The basic characteristics of water – a large angle of Cherenkov light emission and good transparency for light propagation – make it possible to construct neutrino telescopes (NT) of very large dimensions with a relatively small number of photomultipliers (PMTs) which are housed in optical modules (OMs). One of the important tasks for NTs is the separation of single VHE muons (> 100 TeV), muon bundles and cascades.

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Estimating the costs of extremely large telescopes

Estimating the costs of extremely large telescopes

The Keck telescopes provide a recent example of how radical design innovations can "break the cost curve." A comparison with the Mayall 4-m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) illustrates the point dramatically. The Mayall telescope was completed in 1973 at a cost of $10.65 million. By comparison, Keck I, completed in 1992, cost approximately $100M. The ratio in diameter between the two telescopes is 2.5; raised to the 2.7 power, this predicts that a 10-m telescope would cost 12 times as much. Factoring in inflation, the cost of the Mayall would be about $33.7 million in 1992 dollars. Multiplied times 12, this becomes $400 million. Therefore, compared to the Mayall, Keck I beat the cost curve by about a factor of four, a remarkable feat considering that the Keck telescopes are sited on Mauna Kea, a higher and more remote site than Kitt Peak.
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Volcano remote sensing with ground-based spectroscopy

Volcano remote sensing with ground-based spectroscopy

data with geophysical datasets (seismic, geodetic, thermal and acoustic). Such inter-parametric analyses were hindered by the poor degassing data previously available, yet are a key to increasing our volcanological understanding, given growing evidence for the interconnectedness of these phenomena (e.g. Watson et al. 2000). Second, these technological improvements will allow the first detailed flux-data-based testing and parameterization of numerical volcanic conduit models (e.g. Melnik & Sparks 1999). The gas data will thus progress from being primarily a useful means of cataloguing volcanic behaviour in retrospect to playing a more vital role in forecasting eruptions, thereby attaining a status more commensurate with the great importance of degassing in driving volcanic activity.
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Determination of the Lunar Ground Characteristics Using Bistatic Radar

Determination of the Lunar Ground Characteristics Using Bistatic Radar

The soil explorations are fulfilled now by NASA’s Mini-RF monostatic radar installed on the Lunar Recon- naissance Orbiter (LRO), which used also the Arecibo transmitter (emitting 200 kW at wavelength 13 cm) for bistatic studying of the lunar regolith [2]. Experiences of bistatic sounding the Moon realised by means of the first lunar missions, have shown, that frequency selection of signals accepted on the Earth allows us to separate the reference and reflected signals and to define the reflection coefficient and dielectric properties of surface rocks [3] [4]. The main regularities of the radio waves scattering by a rough lunar surface have been studied in papers [5]-[15], where it is shown, that this method allows estimating density of the surface rocks and statistical characteristics of the relief irregularities. The layered structure of the ground was not considered for the inter- pretation of experiment results. In reviews [16] [17] there are presented the results of the first stage of develop- ing the method for bistatic sounding of the heavenly bodies.
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Development of Teaching Materials for Teachers about Small Astronomical Telescopes

Development of Teaching Materials for Teachers about Small Astronomical Telescopes

The observations of the moon or sun using small astronomical telescopes are recommended in science textbooks of elementary and junior high schools after the revisions of the Courses of Study in 2008. Therefore, I have held the training of in-service teachers in astronomical telescopes eleven times from 2009 to 2017 (Table 1). Some of them were requested by teachers of elementary and junior high school teachers and the board of education. Both elementary and junior high school teachers attended the training each year except for 2017.

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The Antares And Km3Net Neutrino Telescopes: Status And Outlook For Acoustic Studies

The Antares And Km3Net Neutrino Telescopes: Status And Outlook For Acoustic Studies

Such reconstruction performances also rely on the detector accuracy in the measurement of the hits arrival time ( ∼ ns) and position ( ∼ 10 cm). Time calibration is performed by means of an in- situ array of laser and LED beacons. The position of the OMs is continuously monitored thanks to a high-frequency long-baseline acoustic network comprising fixed emittors deployed on the seabed, and hydrophones distributed along the detector lines, whose position is determined by triangulation based on travel time measurement of acoustic waves. A tiltmeter and a compass enclosed in the local electronics module of each floor are used for the reconstruction of the exact orientation of the floor. Complementary oceanographic measurements are performed on a dedicated instrumented line, in particular to retrieve the sound velocity and to measure the sea current (O(few cm/s)).
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