growth failure

Top PDF growth failure:

Megestrol Acetate Treatment of Growth Failure in Children Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Megestrol Acetate Treatment of Growth Failure in Children Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Patient characteristics are described in the Table. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention classification system, all patients were either moderately or severely symptomatic and mod- erately or severely immunocompromised. Three pa- tients were receiving enteral caloric supplementation with tube feedings, and two patients were receiving parenteral caloric supplementation with hyperali- mentation when megestrol acetate was started. Na- sogastric tube feedings were instituted in one patient when megestrol acetate was discontinued; this pa- tient had not gained weight during megestrol acetate therapy. All patients received either single or com- bination antiretroviral therapy (zidovudine, di- danosine, or zalcitabine). In one patient, antiretrovi- ral therapy was begun 3 months after starting megestrol acetate; during the first 3 months of megestrol acetate treatment his weight z-score had improved from 2 2.77 to 2 1.62. Antiretroviral regi- mens were changed in four patients while on meges- trol acetate therapy. Growth failure was not a con- sideration in antiretroviral regimen changes, and changes had no significant effect on growth.
Show more

6 Read more

Growth Failure in Infants With Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: Nutrition and Elevated Resting Metabolic Expenditure

Growth Failure in Infants With Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: Nutrition and Elevated Resting Metabolic Expenditure

oxygen consumption in neonates with broncho- pulmonary dysplasia, implying that elevated met- abolic expenditure is the cause of growth failure.. This finding suggests that growth failur[r]

8 Read more

Variation in Anthropometric Status and Growth Failure in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Variation in Anthropometric Status and Growth Failure in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

explained by a clustering of maternal and/or child correlates, and this quantity depended on the definition of population. This analysis of child anthropometric status and failure demonstrates that clear definitions of populations and targets of inference are critical to empirically assess the extent of possibility for interventions to reduce the prevalence of growth failure within populations as well as reduce individual risk for growth failure. Although other population definitions and B pop -associated

11 Read more

Environmental Enteric Dysfunction and Growth Failure/Stunting in Global Child Health

Environmental Enteric Dysfunction and Growth Failure/Stunting in Global Child Health

Approximately 25% of the world’s children aged <5 years have stunted growth, which is associated with increased mortality, cognitive dysfunction, and loss of productivity. Reducing by 40% the number of stunted children is a global target for 2030. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Prenatal and postnatal nutritional deficits and enteric and systemic infections clearly contribute, but recent findings implicate a central role for environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a generalized disturbance of small intestinal structure and function found at a high prevalence in children living under unsanitary conditions. Mechanisms contributing to growth failure in EED include intestinal leakiness and heightened permeability, gut inflammation, dysbiosis and bacterial translocation, systemic inflammation, and nutrient malabsorption. Because EED has multiple causal pathways, approaches to manage it need to be multifaceted. Potential interventions to tackle EED include: (1) reduction of exposure to feces and contact with animals through programs such as improved water, sanitation, and hygiene; (2) breastfeeding and enhanced dietary diversity; (3) probiotics and prebiotics; (4) nutrient supplements, including zinc, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and amino acids; (5) antiinflammatory agents such as 5-aminosalicyclic acid; and (6) antibiotics in the context of acute malnutrition and infection. Better understanding of the underlying causes of EED and development of noninvasive, practical, simple, and affordable point-of-care diagnostic tools remain key gaps. “Omics” technologies (genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) and stable isotope techniques (eg, 13 C breath tests) targeted at children and
Show more

12 Read more

Weight Growth Velocity and Postnatal Growth Failure in Infants 501 to 1500 Grams: 2000–2013

Weight Growth Velocity and Postnatal Growth Failure in Infants 501 to 1500 Grams: 2000–2013

METHODS: We studied 362 833 infants weighing 501 to 1500 g without major birth defects born from 2000 to 2013 and who were hospitalized for 15 to 175 days at 736 North American hospitals in the Vermont Oxford Network. Average growth velocity (GV; g/kg per day) was computed by using a 2-point exponential model on the basis of birth weight and discharge weight. Postnatal growth failure and severe postnatal growth failure were defined as a discharge weight less than the 10th and third percentiles for postmenstrual age, respectively.

11 Read more

Growth Failure as a Prognostic Indicator of Mortality in Pediatric HIV Infection

Growth Failure as a Prognostic Indicator of Mortality in Pediatric HIV Infection

In summary, perinatally acquired HIV infection is associated with early and progressive growth failure. The severity of growth failure is associated with an increased risk of early mortality. These data suggest that poor nutritional status may play a major role in the progression of asymptomatic HIV infection to AIDS. The effect of early aggressive nutritional inter- vention in delaying HIV progression and mortality should be evaluated by controlled intervention stud- ies.

6 Read more

Decreased serum insulin like growth factor I associated with growth failure in newborn lambs with experimental cyanotic heart disease

Decreased serum insulin like growth factor I associated with growth failure in newborn lambs with experimental cyanotic heart disease

To determine whether chronic hypoxemia results in alterations in endocrine function that may contribute to growth failure, we measured growth hormone GH, somatomedins insulin-like growth[r]

6 Read more

Human Growth Hormone Treatment of Children with Growth Failure and Normal Growth Hormone Levels by Immunoassay: Lack of Correlation with Somatomedin Generation

Human Growth Hormone Treatment of Children with Growth Failure and Normal Growth Hormone Levels by Immunoassay: Lack of Correlation with Somatomedin Generation

Growth Hormone Levels by Immunoassay: Lack of Correlation with Somatomedin Human Growth Hormone Treatment of Children with Growth Failure and Normal. http://pediatrics.aappublications.o[r]

6 Read more

RUMINATION AND GROWTH FAILURE IN MALE FRATERNAL TWIN

RUMINATION AND GROWTH FAILURE IN MALE FRATERNAL TWIN

During hospitalization the male gained weight rapidly even though rumination continued for 4 more weeks. Following the male’s hospitalization,[r]

9 Read more

HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE, MENTAL RETARDATION, AND GROWTH FAILURE

HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE, MENTAL RETARDATION, AND GROWTH FAILURE

Group I: Normal head circumference afld mental re-. tardation 82[r]

7 Read more

Enteral Nutrition in Infants With Congenital Heart Disease and Growth Failure

Enteral Nutrition in Infants With Congenital Heart Disease and Growth Failure

These data suggest that infants with congenital cardiac defects complicated by malnutrition manifest increased nutrient require- ments for growth and weight gain.. Continuous, 24-hour, n[r]

8 Read more

Cerebral Palsy and Growth Failure at 6 to 7 Years

Cerebral Palsy and Growth Failure at 6 to 7 Years

determine the independent predictors of suboptimal growth (WT, HT, and HC below the 10th percentile) at 6 to 7 years of age. Factors of principal in- terest (eg, Mod/Sev CP, treatment group, level of HIE) and other covar- iates were added to the logistic regression models in a sequential manner, in a series of 3 time-oriented models. The fi rst model consisted of neonatal covariates (gender, birth weight, cooling, and level of HIE), the second model added information at 18 to 22 months (Mod/Sev CP at 18 to 22 months: public health insurance be- tween discharge and 18 to 22 months, rehospitalization from discharge to 18 to 22 months, and gastrostomy feedings at 18 to 22 months), and the third model replaced the 18- to 22- month variables with 6- to 7-year ver- sions of those variables. Center was entered as a random effect in all of the logistic regression models.
Show more

12 Read more

Growth Failure After Treatment of Pediatric Brain Tumors

Growth Failure After Treatment of Pediatric Brain Tumors

assessment and at the end of the first and second years from completion of brain tumor therapy were calculated, as well as the HV in centimeters per year for both years. The results are ex- pressed as mean 6 SD. One child was excluded from the auxo- logic analysis because of a tumor recurrence. Two children with rapid growth associated with precocious puberty (ie, onset of breast development before age 8 years in girls and onset of testic- ular enlargement before age 9 years in boys), 2 girls with a bone age . 12 years, and 2 boys with a bone age . 14 years were excluded from the auxologic analysis because of limited growth potential. The 34 remaining children, 18 of whom received cranial irradiation, were prepubertal or Tanner stage II at 2 years from completion of therapy. The data at first endocrine assessment of the 23 children who received cranial irradiation were compared with data from a group of 8 children diagnosed before 1988 whose endocrine function was not monitored prospectively.
Show more

8 Read more

ANATOMIC FEATURES OF GROWTH FAILURE IN CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE

ANATOMIC FEATURES OF GROWTH FAILURE IN CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE

Values in the cardiac patients are near control levels at birth but become subnormal in the age group 2 to 24 months. In contrast, most older cardiac patients have an increased mass of c[r]

10 Read more

Cancer Risks in Patients Treated With Growth Hormone in Childhood: The SAGhE European Cohort Study.

Cancer Risks in Patients Treated With Growth Hormone in Childhood: The SAGhE European Cohort Study.

Overall, our study, with much larger numbers of GH- treated patients followed long-term than previously, does not suggest that GH treatment affects the risk of cancer incidence or mortality for the outcomes and durations of follow-up for which our analyses have substantial data. The lack of increased risk with greater cumulative dose or du- ration of treatment, key variables for which data have not been published previously, makes a causal relation less likely. There was also no clear raised risk in patients with isolated growth failure. These factors argue against a major risk of cancer overall within the length of follow-up cur- rently available. Nevertheless, continued vigilance during follow-up is desirable, both because of the lack of data for longer follow-up than in our study and because of the presence of some significant raised risks in the results. The rising cancer mortality with greater daily dose in cancer patients, however, leaves open the possibility of an effect on cancer survival. Also, the raised risks of bone and bladder cancers in patients with initial noncancer diagnoses and the rising risk of HL with longer follow-up in such patients leave possibilities of effects on site-specific cancer causation for which further data are needed.
Show more

12 Read more

Direct Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Pyrazinamide by Use of the Bactec MGIT 960 System

Direct Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Pyrazinamide by Use of the Bactec MGIT 960 System

PZA susceptibility testing was performed on sputum samples from 327 patients: 398 tests were performed by the direct method, and 207 were performed by the indirect method (Table 1). The direct PZA test results were uninterpretable for 163 samples (41.0%), varying from 23% to 66% among the five laboratories. Reasons for uninterpretable PZA direct testing results were growth failure for 67.5%, contamination for 31.9%, and instru- ment failure for 0.6% (for the distribution among laboratories, see Table 1). Of 398 direct PZA tests done, 348 had smear results available (87.4%): 36 were smear negative (10.3%) and were more likely to give an uninterpretable PZA direct testing result (33 un- interpretable results [91.7%]), compared to 312 positive smear specimens (110 uninterpretable results [35.3%]; chi square ⫽ 42.4; P ⬍ 0.001). This was due mainly to insufficient growth: 30 of the 33 uninterpretable results were due to X200 errors (91%). A correlation between smear grading and the proportion of uninter- pretable PZA results was also observed (Spearman correlation ⫽ 0.298; P ⬍ 0.001) (Fig. 1).
Show more

6 Read more

BMI Curves for Preterm Infants

BMI Curves for Preterm Infants

disproportionate (in particular, length growth is slower than weight growth), infants may be large weight for length despite being small weight for age at hospital discharge. The gender-speci fi c BMI-for-age percentile tables and growth curves will help reveal disproportionate growth failure in infants that is not detected by current size-for-age methods. Used in conjunction with weight-, length-, and head-circumference-for- age growth curves, these BMI-for- age tools will provide a more complete assessment of preterm infant size, helping individualize nutritional care to optimize
Show more

12 Read more

Growth, Course, and Prognosis After Surgery for Crohn's Disease in Children and Adolescents

Growth, Course, and Prognosis After Surgery for Crohn's Disease in Children and Adolescents

Preoperative growth failure in prepubertal patient with Crohn’s disease; postoperative catch-up growth. occurred before recurrence[r]

11 Read more

Improving Outcomes for At-Risk Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Students with a Digital Learning Resource

Improving Outcomes for At-Risk Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Students with a Digital Learning Resource

learning activities completed, the stronger the learning growth on both the STAR Literacy composite and the Classworks Reading scores, controlling for age, performance at T1, and DPK enrollment. The expected increase in scores as a result of learning activities completed are higher when those learning activities came from the full ABCmouse curriculum than when they came from the restricted curriculum. With each additional 100 learning activities completed per student between T1 and T2, we can expect a 3- point increase from the Full-access Group and a 2-point increase from the Restricted-access Group on Classworks Reading, over and above the effects of T1 score and DPK status. These are sizable gains, given that the ranges of T1-T2 gain scores on Classworks Reading were -70 to 120 from the Full-access Group and -70 to 100 from the Restricted-access Group.
Show more

31 Read more

Modelling damage growth and failure in elastic materials with random defect distributions

Modelling damage growth and failure in elastic materials with random defect distributions

Failure in materials under cyclic loading occurs by the growth and propagation of cracks. If they are sufficiently numerous, the cracks can be considered to be continuously distributed in the material. In this paper, a mathematical model is proposed to predict failure in materials with defects in the form of randomly distributed pores. The model includes anisotropic damage accumulation, the effects of crack closure and the coupling of elasticity with damage. Defects are modelled as pre-existing isotropic damage. A numerical implementation of the model is used to predict failure in specimens with both high and low defect densities, under a cyclical load. Comparison of the predicted failure time with the experimental values shows that the approach captures the variability found in the failure of the specimens. Therefore the model provides a computational scheme that can be used to predict the variability in the failure of load-bearing structures operating under cyclical loads.
Show more

17 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...