The first blue green alga Calothrix indica was isolated from Assam, India and is a member of family Rivulariaceae (Montagne 1949). In addition to Calothrix, Gloeotrichia and Dichothrix have also been studied extensively with mainly taxonomic consideration in mind. However, the data on their growth potentials and the pigment accumulation is sparse in the literature. Therefore, it was considered desirable to evaluate and study the comparative growthpotential in terms of dry matter accumulation, specific growth rate, generation time and relative pigment composition (chlorophyll a, carotenoids and phycobiliproteins) in ten morphologically distinct selected blue brreen algal strains of family Rivulariaceae, order Nostocales obtained from different districts of Uttar Pradesh, India.
ABSTRACT. Clinical experience with using an aro- matase inhibitor to suppress estrogen production during puberty for improvement of growthpotential in adoles- cents with short stature is limited. This report documents treatment of such a patient with a combination of growth hormone and letrozole, a third-generation aromatase in- hibitor. Our case demonstrates a favorable outcome on a short-term basis. Pediatrics 2005;115:e245–e248. URL: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/doi/10.1542/peds.2004-1536; bone mineral density, growth hormone, hormonal control, short stature, aromatase inhibitor.
Abstract: This study is aimed to identify and generalize the understanding of the influence of various factors on human capital as a driver of society’s socioeconomic development. Structural and quantitative characteristics of this part of the system of human activities are provided in detail. Based on the systematic approach, the authors propose a conceptual model of human capital and the main factors, which influence it. Factors and growthpotential of human capital in various periods of history have been identified and studied. The authors propose a dialectic model of evolution for the influence of various factors on human capital growth. The influence of humanity’s expanding knowledge on the growth of gross domestic product and the evolution of human capital has been presented. It has been shown that education has a key impact on human capital growth in accordance with the exponential law of years spent on education. Quantitative data on the evolution of the influence of literacy, education and science on human capital growth and prospects of further growth have been provided. In the course of the study, the authors formed a dynamic conceptual model of human capital growth, with the influence of key factors and potential substantiated on a quantitative basis. The novelty of this study is associated with the integral system-based quantitative consideration of labor with human capital as its structural core. The study results can be used for strategic planning and the formation of long-term human capital development programs.
T h e r e is c o n s i d e r a b l e evidences f or increasing the number of eggs and poultry pr oj ec t s in the near east countries during the next 20 years. The average daily intake of animal protein in this region is around 12.2gm/ person, while it reached 47gm in developed countries. The rec omen de d daily requirement d e t e r m i n e d b y the Food and Agriculture Organization of t h e Un it e d National is 2 9 g m . A relatively high population growth rate, increasing income due to the shooting up of oil prices associated with high- i n c o m e elasticity f or animal products are major factors behind the increasing demand for animal protein between now and the end of this century. The rise in demand is far greater than what can be met from possible expansion in cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo production. In addition, the t r a d i t i o n a l poultry industry cannot develop quickly enough to fulfil the increasing demand for animal protein. Therefore, the only way in which the supply of animal protein could be increased to match t h e demand is through an n expansion in intensive commercial poultry production.
Abstract. The aim of the study is to determine the extent and prospects development of market potential of intermediary structures using an example of waterway transport enterprises. Economic liberalization, development of international economic activity, fragmentation and distantness of suppliers and buyers as preconditions for development of intermediary business structures are determined. The main factors hindering the development of intermediary activities are identified, for instance, imperfect regulatory framework, insufficient intermediary’s professionalism, insecurity from intermediaries, low level of responsibility to counterparties, general distrust. Transport companies, in particular, the waterway transport enterprises, are identified as intermediaries that have a significant influence for development of individual economic agents and economic systems. Prospects for the development of sustainable mutually beneficial economic relations or the mutual benefit, the availability of effective information flow, a clear definition of roles, rights and obligations of the involved parties, mutual coordination of behaviour of intermediary structures and clients defined as the main conditions for development of effective interaction of intermediary structures of water transport and clients. In the matter of further studies, attention should be paid to improvement of strengthening mechanism for the responsibility of intermediary structures and clients.
In our study we will use the second method "out-of-sample estimation". Albania, as a country of the Balkans, has similar economic structures to these countries. We will use the parameters of the gravity model for FDI flows from the LSE study (2013), with the time series 1990 - 2011 for the Balkan countries (Albania, North Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Romania and Bulgaria). These parameters show the average FDI development potential in the Balkans. We will compare this average value with the actual situation of FDI inflows in Albania for several years, to have a complete evidence of the performance of FDI growthpotential. The time length of the values of Albania's macroeconomic variables for the gravity model is equal to the time length of the equation parameters for Balkan Region (studied by LSE). This way of estimating is to eliminate the artificial mistake of comparing fact with FDI potential. In support of this fact we will assess the potential of FDI growth for the last several years. The time series of the panel data in the gravity model of FDI in Albania is 2007 – 2014 (with quarterly frequency). Table 2 summarizes the variable, meaning, and source of information. All data are secondary according to national and international official statistics.
Many types of injury result in damage to the skin. The body is typically capable of closing these wounds spon- taneously to restore the original functions of its protective covering as quickly as possible. This process involves various repair mechanisms in the individual layers of skin as well as the growth and differentiation of numerous cells. Understanding these processes provides valuable information for designing wound dressings and cultured skin substitutes. We have developed various wound dressings and cultured skin substitutes. The wound dressing is composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen (Col) spongy sheet containing epidermal growth factor (EGF)  . The cultured dermal substitute (CDS) is composed of HA and Col spongy sheet containing human fi- broblasts  . Fibroblasts in CDS are capable of releasing various types of cytokines and extracellular matrix, which are necessary for wound healing. Clinical results using autologous and allogeneic CDS have been re- ported -.
NGDP targeting is presented by some macroeconomists as a good practice for cen- tral banks. But what should be the target value? I propose a relevant measure: the Non Increasing Unemployment Rate Of Nominal Growth (NIURONG). I use NIURONG to show how difficult would have been for European Central Bank to im- plement a relevant monetary policy for each Euro Area country in front of post-2008 economic downturn.
Ct method was used to perform the analysis. Each bar represents the average of the Ct values. The assays were performed in triplicate and a P value !0.05 was considered significant. Values O0 indicate an increase in gene expression while values !0 indicate a decrease in gene expression. The conditions for subsequent experiments were the same. (B) Relative gene expression of transcription factors in tissue sample, normalized to reference sample (different cancer cell lines). (C) Electrophoresis of qPCR data from tissue sample. The size of the products is mentioned next to each gene. A 100 bp ladder was used as marker. PDGFRA, platelet derived growth factor type A; PDGFRB, platelet-derived growth factor receptor type B, VEGFR3, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3; PBMCs, peripheral blood monocytes.
This quotation perfectly illustrates, how growth (or productivity) is self-evidently connected to living standards and, furthermore, shows how this actor claims that this process is accompanied by societal equality in terms of the participation in these procedures. A look at the corresponding social context of this, highly qualifies the statement, assuming that with “society”, the WEF does not only refer to the Davos elites. Studies deliver evidence that “the number of people whose wealth is equal to that of the poorest half of the world’s population” (Oxfam 2016) has gone down from 388 in 2010 to 62 individuals in 2015. Just to clarify that argument, the struggles caused by the financial crisis, so, the “level of productivity of an economy” (WEF 2014: 7), did have an impact on the living standards of many but obviously not on the few, as stated by Oxfam (2016). To give an example, the number of people at risk of poverty, which was at the level of 114 million individuals affected in 2009, has risen to 118 million in 2010, trend upwards. Another example is child poverty, that has between 2008 and 2012 remained roughly the same in the European average, but risen in those countries most affected by the crisis. Also, Valdis Dombrovski made use of this rhetoric at the occasion of the Brussels Economic Forum in 2017, emphasizing “more inclusive growth for all, especially the weakest in our societies” (BEF 2017: 1). Equally, the “Europe 2020” strategy draws on this connection, directing its economic outlook towards the goal “that everybody can benefit from growth.” (European Commission 2010), to name one more of many examples.
Whether it is the distinctly high levels of HIF factors associated with VHL loss or the maintenance of high levels for sustained periods of time which contributes to Ror2 expression is not certain. However, constitutive stabilization of HIF factors occurs broadly across many types of tumors, such that Ror2 as a tumor associated kinase may be encountered even more frequently. One potential reason hypoxia may fail to upregulate Ror2 expression is that Ror2 transcriptional regulation may be steps removed from HIF induction. Certainly several factors downstream of HIF activation could be considered as intermediate transcriptional regulators of the expression of Ror2, though which of these factors may contribute to regulation of Ror2 expression either developmentally or in the tumor physiology scenario remains to be determined. However, in our analysis of the Ror2 promoter, we found that HIF-2α and ARNT can be localized to a small region of the immediate Ror2 promoter region, which lacks any known hypoxia response element binding sequence. This interaction of the HIF complex at a cryptic Ror2 promoter site is suggestive of a direct mechanism of HIF regulation. However, this finding does not preclude the possibility that one or more additional transcriptional co-factors may be required to coordinate activation in a manner which is dependent on VHL loss or HIF
Newer-generation INCs have also been examined using knemometry. Gradman and colleagues studied fluticasone furoate (FF) over 2 weeks of treatment compared with placebo in 53 children and found the change in lower leg growth to be 0.42 mm/wk in the placebo group versus 0.40 mm/wk in the FF group. 10 There was no statistical difference. Agertoft and Pedersen studied oral inhaled ciclesonide (CIC) at doses of 40, 80, and 160 mg in a similar design in 24 children. 11 Note that this was an asthma medication inhaled into the lung; however, the data still provide useful information about medication safety. In this study, there was a trend toward an effect but no statistical significance. The placebo group grew 0.412 mm/wk, CIC 40 mg grew 0.425 mm/wk, CIC 80 mg grew 0.397 mm/wk, and CIC 160 mg grew 0.370 mm/wk. These short-term growth studies also provide the clinician with reassurance regarding a lack of effect on growth with newer-generation corticosteroids.
tion; 2) wheat/sourgrass type of interference, positive, negative or neutral, is dependent upon growth and devel- opment stages; 3) competitive aspects not documented may be affecting our results; 4) a process of allelomedia- tion—changes to the physical or biological environment caused by wheat which in turn favors sourgrass—may be occurring. There are currently no scientific reports about allelopathic or allelomediated effects of sourgrass on other plant species , but the opposite may be true. This discussion is partially out of the scope of this study, but this behavior was registered and will be further investigated.
Employee creativity is particularly important for HRM practices, and the full development of employee potential is conducive to the development and progress of the organization. Employee creativity is not only related to individu- al characteristics of employees, but also closely related to organizational context. Therefore, in an organization, matching work tasks according to different cha- racteristics of employees can better improve work performance. Through case study analysis of haidilao, the staff has a large influence on the development po- tential of mining. Haidilao by developing staff’s creativity, implements and maintains the innovation of the enterprise competitive advantage, and wins over rivals. Through respect for every employee, let the staff give full play to its own value, continue to awaken the potential employees, share values, fully motivate employees, let employees self development innovation ability and behavior, give employees full authorization, promote employees with higher levels of creativity, at the same time, build good organization environment, and let the employees feel fully perceived organizational support. It improves the intrinsic motivation of individual creativity and work autonomy.
growth performance of cassava and other major crops over time. Ojiako et al. (2007) also noted a lack of ex- penditure support for the growth of roots and tubers in Nigeria. The Comprehensive African Agricultural De- velopment Program (CAADP), founded on a declaration by African Head of States at Maputo in 2003, set the tar- get to devote 10 % of their national budget to the agricul- tural sector by 2008, which very few countries actually achieved (Poulton et al., 2014). However, as mentioned earlier, time-series data covering a long period are likely to be unreliable for the developing countries including data from Nigeria. Therefore, interpretation of the find- ings of this study should take into account such limita- tion although we have used data supplied by FAOSTAT, which is the most widely used source of such data.
Our experience and analysis leads us to a relatively optimistic view of the quality of tropical-forest science in terms of its value for deriving growth-increment and biomass-increment data. However, identifying and test- ing for potential artifacts remains important. Although good-practice forest-measurement techniques are wide- spread, better assessment is still needed of the potential impacts of measurement errors and other possible sources of error in scaling up from plots to landscapes. Improved accuracy of biomass change estimates can be achieved by using more sophisticated allometric re- lationships that relate individual tree diameters to bio- mass, rather than relying on stand-level basal area and biomass relationships. This will require intensive work, with diameter/biomass relationships generated at sev- eral sites. Similarly, additional intensive analysis is warranted of how changes in growth, biomass accu- mulation, and population dynamics are distributed over different size classes and functional groups.
Abstract: Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus) were hand-fed over two chick seasons spanning of 2010 to 2011. Information from the growth curve of chicks hand-fed in 2010 was used to develop a feeding protocol for the 2011 season (Protocol-2011). This protocol addressed the problems of delayed followed by excessive growth experienced by parrots hand fed in 2010. Monk parrots that were hand-fed in 2011 following the new protocol experienced delayed growth after 20 days of age. However, some Monk parrots were fed in excess of Protocol-2011 and did not experience a major delay in growth. The energy requirement equations used to construct Protocol-2011 were low when compared to adult Monk parrot maintenance energy requirements. The data suggest that growing birds do not require approximately twice their adult maintenance energy requirements, as is the case for growing dogs. Additionally, there appear to be fluctuations in energy needs as Monk parrots grow. A major increase in energy needs occurred between days 18 and 23 posthatching, which corresponds to feather development and growth in Monk parrot chicks. Thus, multiple equations estimating energy requirements, rather than just one equation, are likely needed from hatching to fledging in order to ensure adequate energy is provided to chicks. More research on the energy requirements of growing Monk parrots, especially around the time of fledging and weaning, is needed to improve hand-fed methods and potentially the adult health of hand-fed birds.
Quantitative analysis of the effect of MET KD on the apical and basal compartments (Fig. 8) revealed highly significant reductions in length and branch number in both compartments compared with control transfected neurons. This result was observed with and without HGF in the culture medium. However, the reduction in length and branching observed in MET KD-expressing neurons in the presence of exogenous HGF did not reach the same level observed in MET KD- expressing neurons grown without HGF. This is probably due to some residual MET signaling via normal MET receptors that cannot be fully blocked by the co-expressed dominant-negative MET receptor in the presence of an experimental excess of HGF. The overall reduction in the size and complexity of the dendritic arbors of layer 2 pyramidal neurons expressing the kinase dead MET receptor was further confirmed by Sholl analysis (Fig. 9). Taken together, these results further confirm that endogenous HGF plays a key role in regulating the normal growth and morphology of layer 2 cortical pyramidal neuron dendrites, and demonstrate that HGF exerts its effects by a direct action on MET receptors expressed on these neurons.
The present paper follows earlier efforts to estimate Croatia’s potentialgrowth. A wide-ranging study by Mervar and Nestić (1999) featured an early attempt to estimate Croatia’s long-run economic growth prospects using a growth regression. On the basis of 1998 data, this study estimated Croatia’s long-run annual economic growth rate at 2.4 percent, but suggested this could rise to 4 percent if investment were to rise to 30 per- cent of GDP. More optimistically, Mihaljek (2001) estimated long-term growth as a fun- ction of the rate and efficiency of investment, suggesting that annual growth of 5.4 per- cent would be realistic for 2001-2013. Subsequently, in a cross-country study of real con- vergence on EU living standards, Mihaljek (2005) assumed a potential GDP for Croa- tia of 5 percent from 2003-2010, slowing owing to population decline, to 4.75 percent in 2011-2020, and 4.5 percent in 2021-2030. Vrbanc (2006) estimated potential GDP during 1997-2005 using production functions, though this study focused on elasticities of GDP to labor and capital rather than medium-term prospects.
Endophytes have an excellent potential to be used as plant growth promoters .They promote plant growth in various ways by secretion of growth hormones like indole acetic acid, solubilization of insoluble phosphate salts enhancing hyphal growth and micorrhizal colonization, production of siderophores and supplying biologically fixed nitrogen. In addition, endophytic microbes supply essential vitamins to plants. Endophytic rhizobial strains of rice significantly increase root and shoot growth of different crop plants. Inoculation with Azotobacter diazotrophicus wild type strain increases height of N- limited sugar cane plants compared with uninoculated plants. (Bai et al., 2003; Lee et al., 2004;Wakelin et al., 2004).