Gulf War syndrome

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Dichotomous factor analysis of symptoms reported by UK and US veterans of the 1991 Gulf War

Dichotomous factor analysis of symptoms reported by UK and US veterans of the 1991 Gulf War

of symptoms (factors) in deployed military personnel from both countries. Similar illness occurred in troops who did not participate in the Gulf War (albeit at lower rates and with different specific characteristics), so we believe that this pattern of symptoms is not unique to Gulf War service nor does it represent a unique illness or "Gulf War syndrome." In fact, similar illnesses to those affecting Gulf War veterans have been noted among veter- ans of US Civil War [27] and British Boer War [28]. Simi- lar illnesses can also be expected to occur in association with current deployments in Afghanistan and Iraq. A bet- ter understanding of predisposing, precipitating, and per- petuating factors must be obtained to provide appropriate care for veterans and to devise prevention strategies. A central question remains: how to resolve whether such ill- nesses reflect a common pathophysiologic process. Competing Interests
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Index (Volume 69)

Index (Volume 69)

See also Coalition forces; Gulf War Syndrome; Iraq; Kuwait; U.N.. Security Council Resolutions..[r]

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Persistence of symptoms in veterans of the first Gulf War : 5 year follow up

Persistence of symptoms in veterans of the first Gulf War : 5 year follow up

of physical function (Medical Outcome Study Short-Form 36), Hotopf et al. (2004) reported that greater initial severity of fatigue predicted greater severity for all three outcomes over a 5-year follow-up. This is somewhat contrary to our findings that more symptomatic indi- viduals actually showed greater declines in symptomatology. This difference may be explained by their use of scales for specific conditions rather than unaggregated symp- tom data, as we used. They also found that the attribution factor “Belief in Gulf War Syndrome” was associated with worsening, which is consistent with our previous findings at time 1 (Boyd et al. 2003).
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The Complexity of Alliance Formation: Variations in State Responses in the Middle East to the First Gulf War

The Complexity of Alliance Formation: Variations in State Responses in the Middle East to the First Gulf War

As already briefly has been touched upon, Jordan and Yemen chose to remain neutral in the conflict, instead of joining the U.N. coalition. Both states were in a difficult position at the advent of the First Gulf War. Only a few months before the conflict, the long-divided northern and southern parts of Yemen had been united, with ministers from the Marxist south now serving in the government beside the more pragmatic and nationalist men from the north. The southerners, with their seafaring tradition and alliance with Moscow, were more inclined to side with Iraq in the dispute. They also feared the presence of American troops in the Arabian Peninsula. The northerners, closer to Saudi Arabia and more aware of the damage that kingdom could inflict, took a more cautious line. The result was that the government in Sanaa allowed Iraqi planes to continue to fly into the Yemen, sent some food and other goods to Baghdad, and resisted pressure to align itself with Saudi Arabia, without going against the U.N. resolutions. 94
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The Trailer project

The Trailer project

The to three things: the Desert Storm Gulf War, the The drawers all room" bedroom done in the covered hall," colors and repeated patterns were reminiscent of the work country, and the no[r]

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The prevalence of burnout syndrome among resident physicians in Syria

The prevalence of burnout syndrome among resident physicians in Syria

study reported no significant difference in high EE or low PA rates between military orthopedic residents and their civilian peers. However, military residents had a significantly lower rate of high DP than civilian residents [30]. Another research studied the prevalence of burnout syndrome among military physicians in brazil, and this research concluded that there was a considerable high level of burnout which were most noticeable at the do- main of depersonalization [31]. Therefore, special pro- grams should be developed to prevent burnout and to help residents and physicians to avoid burnout effects.
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Kurdish Identity Constructions In Iraq Since The First Gulf War (1991)

Kurdish Identity Constructions In Iraq Since The First Gulf War (1991)

The First Gulf War (1990-1991) and the US-led Invasion of Iraq in 2003 significantly altered the political and social lives of the Kurds living in the north of the Republic of Iraq. For decades, the Ba’ath party of Iraq had persecuted the Kurdish population of Iraq as they enforced a form of Arab nationalism on the country. Two self-defined Kurdish nationalist parties, the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK), in Northern Iraq took advantage of the war in Iraq in 1991 to gain limited autonomy for the region under their authority. The 2003 invasion and overthrow of Saddam Hussein’s Ba’ath regime then provided the opportunity for these parties to officially consolidate their regional autonomy, enshrined in the 2005 Iraqi Constitution which established Iraq as a federal democracy. They have jointly dominated the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) ever since and have subsequently taken advantage of their new-found autonomy to construct, develop and reinforce Kurdish national identifications in support of their political ambitions.
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Environmental Issues in International Armed Conflict: The Experience of the 1991 Gulf War

Environmental Issues in International Armed Conflict: The Experience of the 1991 Gulf War

traditional application to enemy persons and properties to the natural environment are no more than logical, given the novel and awful circumstances that have suggested them.,[r]

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Protecting Journalists in Foreign War Zones

Protecting Journalists in Foreign War Zones

Currently, the situation is less limited for reporters. Journalists world- wide have sought distance from their respective country’s governmental restrictions with the International Federation of Journalists’ press card. More than 130 countries supposedly recognize the card based on the universal tenet of journalism as a means of seeking the truth to inform the public (“IFJ Press Card,” n.d.). But despite open and receptive boundaries, recent definitions of war have created a less distinct battlefield fought less by nation-states and more by insurgency groups and nontraditional forces. These groups often specifically target journalists, labeling them as “unwanted witnesses” to the atrocities in war zones (Sivakumaran, 2012). An anonymous New York Times report on the peace talks of Yugoslavia, held in Sarajevo, says that snipers in some countries are paid roughly $500 US dollars for the successful assassination of a journalist (“Conflict in the Balkans,” 1992). With the now greater access to battlefield reporting, journalists face height- ened fatality rates.
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Iraqi archaeology under threat

Iraqi archaeology under threat

For the last couple of decades, Iraq is known as a country of war, danger, fear, hunger and terror. Three wars have occupied this period, bringing along terrible consequences. The chaos and poverty of the country, in combination with an destabilised authority, has made people to start large-scale looting of archaeological sites in the desert of Southern Iraq, as an alternative way of income. the antiquities they dig up from the ground are sold to smugglers, which again sell them on to collectors, museums and institutions all over the world through the illegal trade market. Unfortunately, the looting and selling of these ancient objects does not happen occasionally, but it happens on a gigantic scale and gets worse and worse. Entire villages, clans and tribes are involved in the trade and profit from it. Furthermore, powerful elites mingle in the trade, which is why it is completely intertwined with the country’s political situation. Starting in 1990 with the first Gulf war, the problem has never had such a magnitude as with the start of the Second Gulf War in 2003, and it is still increasing today. Not only is this process destructive for the archaeological objects, monuments, and science, it also further destabilizes the country as looting groups are armed, merciless, dangerous and powerful. Furthermore, especially during the 2003 war but also before, sites have been damaged by military forces and bombs, and museums have been robbed. This bachelor thesis explains what kind of archaeology destruction has occurred in the past of Iraq, how looting has developed and why, why it is so hard to stop and most importantly, how we can counteract it.
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State Practice Following World War II, 1945-1990

State Practice Following World War II, 1945-1990

The precedents in the Gulf and South Atlantic suggest that the establishment on the high seas during hostilities of war zones of reasonable size (having regard to the scale of the co[r]

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In silico Analysis of the Binding Affinities of Antigenic Epitopes of Vaccines Administered to Gulf War Veterans to Specific HLA Class II Alleles Protective for Gulf War Illness

In silico Analysis of the Binding Affinities of Antigenic Epitopes of Vaccines Administered to Gulf War Veterans to Specific HLA Class II Alleles Protective for Gulf War Illness

square the fact that only one-third of U.S. Gulf War veterans developed GWI when all were administered routine vaccines in preparation (and during) deployment. HLA composition appears to be a determining factor in the vaccine-GWI association. The present study documents varying affinity between 6 alleles that have been shown to protect against GWI and antigens from vaccines administered to Gulf War veterans. Protective effects of these six alleles appear to be linked to the successful elimination of potentially harmful persistent antigens contained in those vaccines.
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Strategy to raise Indonesian public awareness in qatar in mitigation of gulf war disaster

Strategy to raise Indonesian public awareness in qatar in mitigation of gulf war disaster

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia has a main strategy to protect Indonesian citizens abroad. The three strategies are Prevention, Early Detection, and Immediate Response. The commitment of the governments of Indonesia and Qatar in protecting each of its citizens has indeed become an obligation and should be done. From some of the studies above mentioned that the role of the community or community is very important in disaster risk reduction efforts. Then, what about the role of Indonesian citizens in Qatar in their contribution to disaster mitigation, in this case the gulf war disaster. Is the Indonesian citizen in Qatar aware of their role and responsibilities in disaster mitigation?
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Developing an approach to warfighting at the operational level : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in Defence and Strategic Studies at Massey University

Developing an approach to warfighting at the operational level : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in Defence and Strategic Studies at Massey University

Slim's success in the Burma Campaign and Schwarzkopfs in the Gulf War demonstrates the requirement for clear strategic guidance, coupled with the ability of an operational level commande[r]

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Effects of War on the Ecological Condition of the Persian Gulf (Iranian Parts)

Effects of War on the Ecological Condition of the Persian Gulf (Iranian Parts)

Most of the chromatograms showed unresolved complex mixture (UCM) signal, which presents a strong evidence of crude oil contamination due to the Persian Gulf war. The reconstructed ion chromatograms (RIC) for ion m/z 191 for the Kuwait crude oil and sample AG134 corresponding to year 1991 from Jana core 7 revealed that the coral in Saudi Arabian coastal areas were contaminated with a crude oil, based on the presence of the full range of hopanes (Poulsen, et al., 2006).

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Brain Function in Gulf War Illness (GWI) and Associated Mental Health Comorbidities

Brain Function in Gulf War Illness (GWI) and Associated Mental Health Comorbidities

anomalies increased, as did the probability of diagnosable mental health problems. Given the correspondence between mental health problems and both structural and functional neural anomalies, it follows that as the brain is increasingly affected by GWI, mental health symptoms may arise. As overall GWI severity increases, it is likely that multiple systems are affected in parallel. For instance, fatigue, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal symptoms may reach a certain threshold resulting in physician- diagnosed conditions such as chronic fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome, and fibromyalgia, respectively. Indeed, these diagnoses (and several others) are much more common in veterans with GWI, regardless of deployment status, relative to those without GWI 2,36 .
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Using gene expression signatures to identify novel treatment strategies in gulf war illness

Using gene expression signatures to identify novel treatment strategies in gulf war illness

As part of a larger ongoing study a subset of GWI male subjects (n = 17) and healthy but sedentary Gulf War era veterans (n = 22) were recruited from the Miami Veterans Administration Medical Centers, clinics and the local vet- eran community between April 2006 and May 2008. All subjects were comparable in age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity. Subjects were male and ranged in age be- tween 30 and 55. Inclusion criteria was derived from Fukuda et al. [10], and consisted in identifying veterans de- ployed to the theater of operations between August 8, 1990 and July 31, 1991, with one or more symptoms present after 6 months from at least 2 of the following: fatigue; mood and cognitive complaints; and musculoskeletal com- plaints. Subjects were in good health prior to 1990, and had no current exclusionary diagnoses [11]. Medications that could have impacted immune function were excluded. Use of the Fukuda definition in GWI is supported by Collins et al. [12]. Additional details may be found in Broderick et al. [13].
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Posttraumatic Substance Use Disorders (PTSUD): Perceived Causal Relations between Trauma-Related Symptoms and Substance Use Disorders

Posttraumatic Substance Use Disorders (PTSUD): Perceived Causal Relations between Trauma-Related Symptoms and Substance Use Disorders

instruments. Using Mechanical Turk to study clinical populations.. Predicting alcohol and drug abuse in Persian Gulf War veterans: What role do PTSD symptoms play? Addictive Behaviors[r]

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Birth defects in Iraq and the plausibility of environmental exposure: A review

Birth defects in Iraq and the plausibility of environmental exposure: A review

An increased prevalence of birth defects was allegedly reported in Iraq in the post 1991 Gulf War period, which was largely attributed to exposure to depleted uranium used in the war. This has encouraged further research on this particular topic. This paper reviews the published literature and provided evidence concerning birth defects in Iraq to elucidate possible environmental exposure. In addition to published research, this review used some direct observation of birth defects data from Al-Ramadi Maternity and Paediatric Hospital in Al-Anbar Governorate in Iraq from1 st July 2000 through 30 th June 2002. In addition to depleted uranium other war-related environmental factors have been studied and linked directly or indirectly with the increasing prevalence of birth defects. However, the reviewed studies and the available research evidence do not provide a clear increase in birth defects and a clear indication of a possible environmental exposure including depleted uranium although the country has been facing several environmental challenges since 1980.
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The United States and the United Nations in the Persian Gulf War: New Order or Disorder

The United States and the United Nations in the Persian Gulf War: New Order or Disorder

The collective self-defense theory was weak because Article 51 does not give the Security Council the right to take military action. Article 51, rather, contemplates action by[r]

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