Abstract—A wide half-powerbeamwidth antenna based on magnetic coupling in near-ﬁeld (NF) regions and circular polarization (CP) in far-ﬁeld (FF) is proposed for RFID multiservice applications in UHF band. The prototype consists of a cross-strip and an L-shaped strip on the top layer, fed by an F-shaped network on the bottom layer. CP electromagnetic wave is radiated by the cross-strip, and the antenna also simultaneously brings opposite directed currents (ODC) to generate strong magnetic ﬁeld in near-ﬁeld region. Half-powerbeamwidth is 100 ◦ in xoz -plane and 102 ◦ in yoz -plane, which can be used to scan for large regions. An 88 × 88 × 1 . 6 mm 3 antenna has been fabricated on an FR-4 substrate to ﬁt RFID applications. Measured tests on read range by observing feedback received signal strength indication (RSSI) values are carried out, exhibiting 100% read rate for near-ﬁeld tags within 25 mm and exciting read distance for far-ﬁeld tags up to 1 m for large reading region of 170 × 170 mm 2 .
Abstract—In this paper, a novel high-gain repeater antenna integrating a dual-feed network is proposed to receive and transmit RF signals separately by two ports. The proposed array antenna has four linearly polarized microstrip antenna elements, two feed networks, and one planar magic-T. The distance between the elements of the array antenna is matched to obtain the minimum sidelobe level and maximum half-powerbeamwidth for transmitting and receiving purpose. The planar magic- T is eﬀectively used to meet two diﬀerent bi-directional radiation patterns with a simple structure. Performances of the array antenna are experimentally conﬁrmed, and the gain of the antenna for each port is better than 10.3 dBi. The measured 10-dB impedance bandwidth of the antenna is wider than 580 MHz (10%).
the size of 30*30 µm 2 . The proposed terahertz antenna has been designed and simulated using CST Microwave Studio 2016. The proposed terahertz antenna has been analyzed in terms of return loss, impedance bandwidth, gain, directivity, HalfPowerBeamwidth (HPBW) and Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR). It has been observed that the proposed antenna has a gain of 5.649 dB, directivity of 5.476 dBi with return loss -41.53 dB at 3.87 THz resonant frequency with minimal losses. The antenna radiates with resonant frequency of 3.87 THz having impedance bandwidth of 99.8 GHz. The antenna has VSWR equal to 1.01. The proposed antenna design has HPBW of 87.6 degree. The microstrip feed line technique has been used for proper impedance matching (50 Ohm) with SMA connector.
Abstract—A wideband circularly polarized antenna with wide halfpowerbeamwidth (HPBW) and 3 dB axial-ratio beamwidth (ARBW) is proposed in this paper. The circularly polarized (CP) radiation is realized by feeding two crossed printed dipoles through a wideband feeding network with broadband 90 ◦ phase shift. By adding a thick substrate layer and a notched-corner metal cavity around the antenna, the impedance bandwidth (VSWR < 2) is greatly enhanced. The HPBW of the proposed antenna is greater than 110 ◦ while the ARBW is greater than 130 ◦ in the operating band, simultaneously. The overall dimension of the antenna is only 70 × 70 × 36 mm 3 . The measured results show that
The quarter wavelength monopole on a sufficiently large planar ground is the most common type of conventional monopole antennas; its ideal model does not have any side lobe, but the main lobe directs to the horizon (perpendicularly to the zenith axis). The three-quarter monopole otherwise does have side lobe, while its main lobe directs some certain angle relative to the horizon, and the halfpowerbeamwidth (HPBW) tends to be adequate for the elevation angle range (15–36 ◦ ) in this terrestrial test
Abstract—In this paper, a compact wideband circularly polarized (CP) crossed-dipole antenna with wide half-powerbeamwidth (HPBW) and broad 3 dB axial ratio beamwidth (ARBW) is proposed. The antenna is composed of crossed bowtie dipoles, four pentagonal parasitic elements and eight vertical metallic plates. A double vacant-quarter printed ring with orthogonal bowtie dipoles is designed for CP radiation and broadband characteristics of impedance and 3 dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidths. Parasitic elements and vertical metallic plates are utilized to increase bandwidth and broaden beamwidth further. The total size of the proposed antenna is 0.4λ × 0.4λ × 0.16λ. Simulated results are in good agreement with the measured ones which demonstrate an impedance bandwidth 88.4% and a 3 dB AR bandwidth 73.1% The HPBW of more than 120 ◦ is 70.0%. The 3 dB ARBWs of more than 120 ◦ in E-plane and H-plane are 63.1% and 37.5%, respectively. With both the excellent CP performance and compact size, the proposed antenna is attractive for modern wireless communications.
Abstract—A novel circularly polarised antenna with wide 3 dB axial-ratio beamwidth (ARBW) and halfpowerbeamwidth (HPBW) is proposed in this letter. By using two pairs of tilted dipoles, the ARBW of the antenna is signiﬁcantly enhanced to about 160 ◦ and 162 ◦ in the XZ- and Y Z -planes, respectively. Meanwhile, its HPBW is also broadened to above 116 ◦ in the dual planes. A prototype is manufactured and measured to validate the method. The measured results show that | S 11 | < − 10 dB
Abstract. Coherent processing of radio-echo sounding data of polar ice sheets is known to provide an indication of bedrock properties and detection of internal layers. We in- vestigate the benefits of coherent processing of a large az- imuth beamwidth to retrieve and characterize the orienta- tion and angular backscattering properties of the surface and subsurface features. MCRDS data acquired over two distinct test areas in Greenland are used to demonstrate the specu- lar backscattering properties of the ice surface and of the in- ternal layers, as well as the much wider angular response of the bedrock. The coupling of internal layers’ orientation with the bed topography is shown to increase with depth. Spec- tral filtering can be used to increase the SNR of the internal layers and mitigate the surface multiple. The variance of the bed backscattering can be used to characterize the bed return specularity. The use of the SAR-focused RES data ensures the correct azimuth positioning of the internal layers for the subsequent slope estimation.
that mitigate heat dissipation by introducing a novel multi power rail voltage regulator that operates from1.8V and 3.3V rails. The addition of second power rail allows power savings up to 25%,while offering a wider range of operation at the cost of reducing the total deliverable power per rail due to limitations in the available area. The proposed design mergestwo fast load regulators into one by using configurable power supplies,the bulk biasing technique and shared transistors. The proposed architecture was fabricated in a 0.12µm CMOS technology and occupies a small area of 0.0075mm 2
The simplest half regarding this new technology Gi-Fi is its value effectiveness and power consumption, it solely consumes two watts of power for its operation with antenna (1mm) enclosed and therefore the development of Gi-Fi chip prices some $10 (Rs. 380) to manufacture. In theory this technology would transfers GB’s of our favorite high definition movies in seconds. The Gi-Fi uses the short-range wireless technology would doubtless be a challenger or quite probably a replacement for Wi-Fi, and things like Bluetooth would possibly wish to seem out furthermore. The transfer speeds combined with the perpetually exaggerated storage capacities of little hand-held devices might very take media down some new avenues furthermore. The Age newspaper uses Associate in Nursing example of transferring a high-definition picture from a stall at a store to your itinerant in seconds. ―It’s not up to Pine Tree State to announce it. It’s up to the corporate that has fashioned, however there's Associate in Nursing activity happening to protract a corporation from Nicta which will take that technology to plug, Dr.Skellem same. The Gi-Fi chip might become one amongst Australia’s most profitable technology. The Nicta gigabit wireless chip is a 100 times quicker than current Wi-Fi chips and may be designed for a tenth of their value. The team behind it picked up a gong at the international Innovic’s Next Big factor Award for Innovation Excellence last July ―There’ll be a sort of party between all the protagonists for all the various approaches and one can find yourself being a winner. We’ll be in there proposing our solutions. The Australian contacted the CSIRO for discuss whether or not Nicta would want its co- operation to develop the chip or use its patents, however neither of the CSIRO’s lead Wi-Fi spokesmen, Tom Mc ginness and Nigel Poole, were offered. A CSIRO spokesperson same the organization had not been told Nicta was designing a Gi-Fi start-up.
Abstract: In this paper, we study the convergence of 40 main bilateral real exchange rates (RERs) constructed by actual price levels to be consistent with absolute purchasing power parity (PPP), rather than by price indexes as used in popular studies. The time series ADF and KPSS unit root tests reveal that 39 RERs are stationary in their periods of about 60 years or less. The half-lives span from 1 to 40 years and are mostly outside of the consensus range of 3–5 years. Some cases suggest that the half-life may be not an appropriate method for measuring the convergence of absolute PPP. In contrast, some statistic indexes (e.g., root mean squared error) can be applied for this use and may have more power than the half-life.
In India power tariffs are highly underpriced and subsidized, especially for the rural sector and in some notified industrial areas. While considering cost benefits of RETs such direct subsidy on cost of power and indirect subsidy by way of subsidy on freight and coal are never calculated and hence conventional power costs are always more attractive and affordable than RETs. Power tariffs need to be rationalized and subsidies (except where they directly benefit the very poor) need to be abolished completely which would make RETs viable. Another sore point is funding and financing of installation of RETs. Most banks and institutions have cumbersome procedures which discourage probable investors. These are capital intensive equipment’s and procedures should be simplified with a single window application submission and disbursal with very low rates of interests to encourage investment. Even IREDA, set up specifically to fund RETs has a set of cumbersome procedures, like any other institution .
Research on microstrip antenna for radio altimeter has been conducted using array method [2,3,4,5], I-slot , slotted rook shape , T-slot , pentagon method , E- shape , dipole with sierpinski carpet fractal technique , star chain fractal cpw method , rectangular patch with double l-probe fed , conformal patch  and verre de champagne fractal cpw method . There are two research [2,3] where both of antennas have gain above 10 dB, but not with the beamwidth. In this paper, a 2x2 array microstrip antenna is proposed where the space between patch is coordinated so that the beamwidth of 50.2° × 60° from simulation can be attained with the desired VSWR and bandwidth on the frequency of 4.3 GHz.
7. Hong, W., B. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Lai, H. Tang, X. X. Yin, Y. D. Dong, Y. Zhang, and K. Wu, “Half mode substrate integrated waveguide: A new guided wave structure for microwave and millimeter wave application,” Proc. Joint 31st Int. Conf. Infr. Millim. Waves and 14th Int Conf. Terahertz Electron., 219–219, 2006.
The second harmonic beam later was enhanced using two types of polarizer which is quarter wave plate and half wave plate. The conversion efficiency was found increase. The quarter wave plate capable to convert almost 91.7 % with threshold power of 0.012 W. Further enhancement of second harmonic generation was done using half wave plate. The SHG beam was realized higher than the other two conditions. Half wave plate can convert the SHG almost 95.0 % with threshold power of 0.0063 W.
G eneration of electric power from renewable energy sources are growing trends in recent years. At the same time, a sudden increase in the power rating of wind turbines, photovoltaic power plants and other renewable equipment has been observed . The Power electronics devices are utmost important to produce a great variety of products in recent years. Multilevel Inverters has gaining more attention in recent years. It has numerous advantages compared to conventional DC-AC inverters. A few advantages of multilevel inverters are, they can generate voltage at many levels with extremely very low distortion therefore reduced dv/dt stress, reduced harmonics and lower the electromagnetic compatibility problems, and also it can be operated with lower switching frequency. Multilevel Inverter produces reduced harmonics and stepped output waveform with high quality. The quality of the waveform is improved by the Pulse Width Modulation techniques. Proper selection of the Modulation techniques is very important in Multilevel
The programmable DSP HR for the ASIC model  is implemented in 1 µm CMOS technology with specified Supply voltage and Power consumption values. The wavelet transform technique is utilized in the chip implementation  which detects the peaks values by Dynamic Trans-linear circuit approach . It has 5 Parallel scales and the reported power consumption is 55nW with the supply voltage of 2V which implemented in custom Bipolar IC design process. The design which is presented in another proposed model is developed and implemented in 0.13 µm technology with a supply voltage of 1.2V which includes the same transformation of wavelet and includes a wavelet transformation ratio threshold along with filter banks for wavelets  with the power consumption of 114 nW and 37.9 nW in alert and normal modes. The other demonstrated models comprise of filter banks and multi-scale multipliers is implemented in 0.18 µm technology with simulated power consumption of 644.9 nW when all the filters are active and 318.4 nW in normal operation . When first half of the filters are active 90% of the power consumption is caused by deep submicron technology which has leakage issues. As a final point of cessation, among the many presented models in literature review, a very rare number of models have a supply voltage of below 1V.